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GbUCATIOR 



A Monthly Magazine 



DKVOTBD TO 



THE SCIENCE, ART, PHILOSOPHY, AND 
LITERATURE OF EDUCATION, 

WILLIAM A. MOWRr 

EDITOR 



VOLUME IX. 

September, 1888 — June, 1889 



BOSTON 
EASTERN EDUCATIONAL BUREAU 

50 BROMFIELD STREET 
1889 



UBRMRY OF THB 

lElAUD SI Hi, imERBnt, 

^^y 17 woe 



CONTENTS. 



Volume IX. — 1888 -'89. 



PAOK 



About English. Mary A. Ripley 537 

Adams as a Schoolmaster, John. Elizabeth Porter Gould . 503 
Advantages of State Examinations, The. Supt. W. P. Beck- 

with .......... 693 

Agassiz, The Student Life of. F. Treudley .... 595 

Algebra Inductively, A Consistent plan for the Teaching of. 

George William Evans 384 

Algebra Teaching, Historical Basis for Certain Methods in. 

George William Evans 334 

Algebra to Beginners, Teaching. John F. Casey . . 172, 247 

Amherst College, Preparation for Citizenship at. Anson D. 

Morse, A. M. 236 

Among the Books 67, 141, 207, 284, 360, 428, 49S, 562, 635, 709 
*' Ancipiti." Prof. W. S. Scarborough, LL. D. . . 263 
Arbutus, On the Accent and Meaning of. Prof. W. S. Scar- 
borough, LL. D. 396 

Arithmetic, Economy of Memory in the Study of Simon N. 

Patten, Ph. D ' . . • 6, 79 

Art, On the Teaching of the History of. Prof. Hiram M. 

Stanley .......... 407 

Author and Library Work in Schools. Supt. L. R. Halsey . 390 
Barrell, James S., A. M. Helps and Hindrances in Teaching 

Morals in the Public Schools ...... 530 

Bates, Joshua, and his Times. Granville B. Putnam . . 22 
Beckwith, Supt. W. P. The Advantages of State Examina- 
tions .......... 693 

Bibliography of Current Periodical Literature upon Education. 

64, 137, 204, 280, 356, 425, 495, 559, 632, 706 

Biography, The Study of History Through. William Wallace 346 

Bradbury, W. F.- Homogeneous Equations .... 554 

Bradford, William. Rev. F. H. Kasson, A. M. . . . 644 

Bradley, John E., Ph. D. The Teacher's Preparation . . 253 

Brown, George P. Educational Value of Manual Training . 664 
Bush, George Gary, Ph. D. The Educational Outlook in 

Florida 312 



iv COXTEXTS, 

PAGE. 

Capen, Samuel B. The Teaching of Morals in the Public 

Schools, — What and How? . . . . . • 524 
Casey, John F. Teaching Algebra to Beginners . 172, 247 

Child-Life on a New England Farm. Helen M. Winslow . 466 
Child Speech, and the Law of Mispronunciation. Edmund 

Noble . 44, 117, 18S 

Citizenship, Preparation for : — 

— At Amherst College. Anson D. Morse, A. M. . . 236 

— At Smith College. Prof. J. B. Clark .... 403 

— At Williams College. Arthur Latham Perry . . 513 
Civil Rights Guaranteed by the State Constitutions. Francis 

Newton Thorpe, Ph. D 601,687 

Clark, C. Goodwin 550 

Clark, Prof. J. B. Preparation for Citizenship at Amherst 

College 403 

Classical Languages, The Teaching of the . i, 89, 182, 263, 396 
College Course, The Study of English in the. Horace Howard 

Furness, Ph. D., LL. D., L. H. D. . . . . 441 

College Expenses. Hon. William C. Todd . . . . 14 

College Growth in Ohio. John Eaton, LL. D. . . . 433 
College of William and Mary, The. A Recent Grafting on an 

Old Shoot. Prof. Hugh S. Bird, A. M 5S6 

Commissioner of Education, Report of the, for 1886- '87 130, 485 

Consistent Plan for the Teaching of Algebra Inductively, A. 

George William Evans ....... 384 

Cook, Prof. Webster. Evolution and Education . . 367, 456 

Crehore, C. F., M. D. School Records of Physical Conditions 399 

— Some Practical Suggestions Regarding Schoolhouses . 
Davenport, Eugene. The Origin of English . 
Deaf, The Horace Mann School for the. Elsa L. Hobart 
Discipline. Poem. Julia H. May .... 
Discipline the Price of Freedom. Charles E. Lowrey, Ph. D 
Does it Pay? Poem. Elizabeth Porter Gould 
Dunton, Larkin, LL. D. Methods of Teaching Morals . 
Eaton, John, LL. D. College Growth in Ohio 
Economy of Memory in the Study of Arithmetic. Simon N 

Patten, Ph. D 

Editorial . . 53, 123, 195, 269, 340, 411, 475, 541, 

Educated, How they were. Frank H. Kasson, A. M. 
Education, Evolution and. Prof. Webster Cook 
Education, Excessive Helps in. William T. Harris, LL.D. 
Educational Outlook in Florida, The. Geo. Gary Bush, Ph. D 



6S3 
608 
322 
410 
103 
194 
521 

433 

61 79 
616, 695 

86 

3671 456 
215 

312 



COXTEXTS. y 

PAOK. 

Educational Value of Manual Training. George P. Brown . 664. 
Emerson, O. F. Onward, Christian Soldiers. Poem . . 187 

English, About. Mary A. Ripley ..... 537 

English Language and Literature, The Teaching of the . 73, 178, 

229' 326, 390, 441, 537, 608 
English Literature, Methods of Study in. H. E. Shepherd, 

LL. D 73, 178 

English Literature, The Study of. Mrs. Laura Sanderson 

Hines, A. M. . . 229 

English, The Origin of. Eugene Davenport . . . . 608 
Equations, Homogeneous. W. F. Bradbury .... 554 
Equations, Homogeneous. G. W. Evans .... 701 
Essay on English in Secondary Schools, Fifty Dollar Prize for 

the Best ......*... 421 

Evans, George William. The Historical Basis for Certain 

Methods in Algebra Teaching ...... 334 

— A Consistent Plan for the Teaching of Algebra Inductively, 384 

— Homogeneous Equations ....... 7^^ 

Evolution and Education. Prof. Webster Cook . 367, 456 

Examinations, The Advantages of State. Supt. W. P. Beck- 

with .......... 693. 

Excessive Helps in Education. W. T. Harris, LL. D. . . 215 
Examinations, Written, — Their Abuse and their Use. Agnes 

M. Lathe 45^ 

Fairchild, James H., D. D. How the Fathers Builded in Ohio 152 
Ferguson, W. B. The Recitation . . . . . . 220 

Fernald, Frederik A. School Rank as Evidence of Mental 

Capacity .......... 622 

Fifty Dollar Prize for the Best Essay on English in Secondary 

Schools .......... 421 

First Year in Latin, The. Adeline A. Knight . . . 89, 182 
Flavel, Thomas. Notes from New Zealand .... 57, 63a 

Florida, The Educational Outlook in. Geo. Gary Bush, Ph. D. 312 
yfJ^oreign Notes . . . 61,201,276,352,422,491,555,627 

Freedom, Discipline the Price of. Charles E. Lowrey, Ph. D. 103 
Furness, Horace Howard, Ph. D., LL. D., L. H. D. The 

Study of English in the College Course . . . . 441 
•Gardner, Ida M. Outline Notes on the Renaissance and the 

Reformation 35 » '^9 

Glacier Stream, The. Poem, Emma Shaw . . . 122 

Gould, Elizabeth Porter. Does it Pay .»* Poem . . 194 

— John Adams as a Schoolmaster ...... 503. 



vl 



COXTEXTS. 



PAGE. 



— The Massachusetts Society for Promoting Good Citizenship 
Greenwood, J. M. Normal Institutes .... 
Halsey, Supt. L. R. Author and Library Work in Schools 
Harris, W. T., LL. D. Philosophy in Colleges and Universities 

— Excessive Helps in Education ..... 

— The Psychology of Manual Training . . . . 571 
Helps and Hindrances in Teaching Morals in the Public Schools. 

James S. Barrell, A. M. . 
Hines, Mrs. Laura Sanderson, A. M. The Study of English 

Literature ........ 

Hints upon the Science and Art of Teaching, Some. John M. 

Richardson ........ 

Historical Basis for Certain Methods in Algebra Teaching, The. 

George William Evans .... . . 

History of Art, On the Teaching of the. Prof. Hiram M. 

Stanlev ......... 

History, The Teacher's Independent Study of. W. A. Mowry 

Hobart, Elsa L. The Horace Mann School for the Deaf 

Holland, Primary and Secondary Schools of. L. A. Stager 

Homogeneous Equations. W. F. Bradbury . 

Homogeneous Equations. Geo. W. Evans 

Horace Mann School for the Deaf, The. Elsa L. Hobart 

How the Fathers Builded in Ohio. James H. Fairchild,D. D. 

How thev were Educated. Frank H. Kasson, A. M. . 

Humphreys, E. R., LL. D. The Teaching of Latin 

In Memoriam. Mrs. J. M. Lord ..... 

Independent Study of History, The Teacher's. W. A. Mowry, 
Influence of Manual Training uix)n the Pupils, The 
Institutes, Normal. J. M. Greenwood .... 

John Adams as a Schoolmaster. Elizabeth Porter Gould 
Johnson, G. T. Not Always Thus. Poem . 
Johonnot, James ........ 

Joshua Bates and his Times. Granville B. Putnam 
Kasson, Rev. Frank H., A. M. How they were Educated 

— William Bradford ....... 

Knight, Adeline A. The First Year in Latin . . 89, 

Lathe, Agnes M. Written Examinations — their Abuse and 

their Use ........ 



Latin, The First Year in. Adeline A. Knight 
Latin, The Teaching of. E. R. Humphreys, LL. D. . 
Lectures for Young People, Old South .... 
*' Libraries as Related to the Educational Work of the State" 



S9, 



552 

305 

390 

97 

215 
656 

530 
229 

375 

334 

407 
134 

160 

554 
701 

322 

152 

86 



700 



134 
698 

305 

503 

474 

34 
22 

86 

644 

182 

453 
182 

I 

273 
274 



CONTEXTS. vll 

PAGE* 

Library Work in Schools, Author and. Supt. L. R. Halsey . 390 
Locy, William A. On Teaching Zoology to College Classes . 673 
Longfellow, and What he Taught Us, A Year with. May 

Mackintosh ......... 326 

Lowrey, Charles E., Ph. D. Discipline the Price of Freedom 103 
Macdonald, R. Cyrene. The Relative Mental Capacity of 

the Sexes ......... 446 

Mackintosh, May. A Year with Longfellow and What he 

Taught Us ........ . 326 

Magazines Received . . 72, 2*14, 294, 366, 432, 501, 569, 641 
Manual Training, Educational Value of. George P. Brown . 664 
Manual Training, The Psychology of. W. T. Harris, LL. D. 571, 656 
Manual Training upon the Pupils, The Influence of . . 698 
Marble, A P. N. E. Association 1889, Nashville, Tenn. 349, 489, 625 
Massachusetts Society for Promoting Good Citizenship, The. 

Elizabeth Porter Gould . 552 

Mathematics, The Teaching of . .6, 79, 172, 247, 334, 384 
May, Julia H. The Silent Prayer. Poem .... 43 

— Discipline. Poem ........ 410 

Mental Capacity, School Rank as Evidence of. Frederik A. 

Fernald .......... 622 

Meritorious Discoveries and Inventions, Rewards for . . 419 
Methods of Study in English Literature. H. E. Shepherd, 

LL. D. 735 178 

Methods of Teaching Morals. Larkin Dunton, LL. D. . . 521 

Miscellany 57, 126,349,490 

Mispronunciation, Child Speech and the Law of. Edmund 

Noble 44, 117, 188 

Morals in the Public Schools : — 

— Methods of Teaching Morals. Larkin Dunton, LL. D. . 521 

— The Teaching of Morals in the Public Schools, — What and 

How? Samuel B. Capen . . . . . 524 

— Helps and Hindrances in Teaching Morals in the Public 

Schools. James S. Barrell, A. M 530 

Morgan, General T. J. Training the Sensibilities . 295 
Morse, Anson D., A. M. Preparation for Citizenship at Am- 
herst College ......... 236 

Mowry, W. A. The Teacher's Independent Study of History 134 

— The Promotion of Patriotism 197 

Museum at Washington, The National. A Tolman Smith . 277 

Nashville Campaign, N. E. A., 1889, The. A. P. Marble . 625 
National Educational Association 1889. A. P. Marble . 349, 489 



viii COyTENTS. 

PAGE. 

National Museum at Washington, The. A. Tolman Smith 277 
New England Farm, Child-Life on a. Helen M. Winslow . 466 
New Zealand, Notes from. Thomas Flavel .... 57, 630 
Noble, Edmund. Child Speech, and the Law of Mispronun- 
ciation 44, 117, 18S 

Normal Institutes. J. M. Greenwood 305 

Not Always Thus. Poem. G. T. Johnson .... 474 

Notes from New Zealand. Thomas Flavel .... 57, 630 

Notes on the Report of Commissioner of Education for 1886 -'87, 485 

Ohio, College Growth in. John Eaton, LL. D. . . . 433 

Ohio, How the Fathers Builded in. James H. Fairchild, D. D. 152 

Old South Lectures for Young People 273 

On Teaching Zoology to College Classes. William A. Locy. 673 
On the Accent and Meaning of Arbutus. Prof. W. S. Scar- 
borough, LL. D. 396 

On the Teaching of the History of Art. Prof. Hiram M. 

Stanley .......... 407 

Onward, Christian Soldiers. Poem, O. F. Emerson . . 1S7 

Origin of English, The. Eugene Davenport .... 60S 

Outline Notes on the Renaissance and the Reformation. Ida 

M. Gardner 35, 109 

Pamphlets Received .... 294, 359, 432, 570, 642 

Patriotism, The Promotion of. William A. Mo wry . . 197 
Patten, Simon N. Ph. D. Economy of Memory in the Study 

of Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . 6, 79 

Payne, William H., LL. D. W. H. M 483 

Perry, Arthur Latham. Preparation for Citizenship at Will- 
iams College ... 513 

Philosophy in Colleges and Universities. W. T. Harris, 

LL.D 96 

Physical Conditions, School Records of. C. F. Crehore, M. D. 399 
Practical Suggestions Regarding Schoolhouses, Some. C. F. 

Crehore, M. D 683 

Prayer, The Silent. Poem, Julia H. May .... 43 
Preparation for Citizenship : — 

— At Amherst College. Anson D. Morse, A. M. . . 236 

— At Smith College. Prof. J. B. Clark .... 403 
-^ At Williams College. Arthur Latham Perry. . . . 513 
Preparation, The Teacher's. John E. Bradley, Ph. D. . . 253 
Primary and Secondary Schools of Holland. L. A. Stager . 160 
Promotion of Patriotism, The. W. A. Mo wry . . . 197 
Promotion of Pupils, The. E. E. White, LL. D. . . . 415 



CONTENTS. ix 

PAGE. 

Psychology of Manual Training, The. W. T. Harris, LL.D. 571, 656 

Pupils Read, What do the 615 

Putnam, Granville B. Joshua Bates and his Times . . 22 

Quick, R. H. Renascence Tendencies . . . , . 583 
Recent Grafting on an Old Shoot, A. The College of William 

and Mar>'. Prof. Hugh S. Bird, A. M 586 

Recitation, The. W. B. Ferguson . . . . . 220 
Relative Mental Capacity of the Sexes, The. R. Cyrene Mac- 

donald .......... 4^6 

Renaissance and the Reformation, Outline Notes on the. Ida 

M. Gardner ........ 35, 109 

Renascence Tendencies. R. H. Quick ..... 583 

Report of Commissioner of Education for 1886 -'87. Notes on 485 

Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education for 1886 -'87 130 

Rewards for Meritorious Discoveries and Inventions . . 419 

Ripley, Mary A. About English ...... 537 

Scarborough, Prof. W. S., LL. D. " Ancipiti." . . 263 

— On the Accent and Meaning of Arbutus .... 396 

School Records of Physical Conditions. C. F. Crehore, M.D. 399 
Schoolhouses, Some Practical Suggestions Regarding. C. F. 

Crehore, M. D. ....... . 683 

Schoolmaster, John Adams as a. Elizabeth Porter Gould . 503 
School Rank as Evidence of Mental Capacity. Frederik A. 

Femald .......... 622 

School Reports Received ....... 502 

Science, The Teaching of ...... . 673 

Science in the Schools ........ 547 

Sensibilities, Training the. Gen. Thomas J. Morgan . . 295 
Sexes, The Relative Mental Capacity of the. R. Cyrene Mac- 

donald .......... 446 

Shaw, Emma. The Glacier Stream. Poem, . . . 122 
Shepherd, H. E. LL. D. Methods of Study in English Litera- 
ture 73» 178 

Silent Prayer, The. Poem Julia H. May .... 43 

Smith, A. Tolman. The National Museum at Washington . 277 

Smith College, Preparation for Citizenship at. J. B. Clark . 403 
Some Hints upon the Science and Art of Teaching. John M. 

Richardson 375 

Some Practical Suggestions Regarding Schoolhouses. C. F. 

Crehore, M. D 683 

Stager, L. A., Primary and Secondary Schools of Holland . 160 
Stanley, Prof. Hiram M. On the Teaching of the History of 

Art 407 



X coNTEyrs. 

PAGE. 

State Examinations, The Advantages of. Supt. W. P. Beck- 

with .......... 693 

Student Life of Agassiz, The. F. Treudley .... 595 

Study of English in the College Course, The. Horace How- 
ard Furness, Ph. D., LL. D., L. H. D. . . . . 441 

Study of English Literature, The. Mrs. Laura Sanderson 

Hines, A. M. ......... 229 

Study of History through Biography, The. William Wallace 346 

Teacher's Independent Study of History, The. W. A. Mowry 134 

Teacher's Preparation, The. John E. Bradley, Ph. D. . 253 
Teaching Algebra to Beginners. John F. Casey . . 172, 247 

Teaching of Latin, The. E. R. Humphreys, LL. D. . . i 
Teaching of Mathematics, The. . . 6, 79, 172, 247, 334, 384 
Teaching of Morals in the Public Schools, — What and How ? 

The. Samuel B. Capen . . . . . . . 524 

Teaching of Science, The . . . . . . . 673 

Teaching of the Classical Languages, The . i, 89, 182, 263, 396 

Teaching of the English Language and Literature, The. 73, 178, 229, 

326, 390,441, 537, 608 
Teaching, Some Hints upon the Science and Art of. John M. 

Richardson . 375 

Thorpe, Francis Newton, Ph. D. Civil Rights Guaranteed by 

the State Constitutions ...... 601 , SS*/ 

Todd, Hon. William C. College Expenses .... 14 

Training the Sensibilities. Gen. Thomas J. Morgan . . 295 

Treudley, F. The Student Life of Agassiz .... 595 

Wallace, William. The Study of History through Biography, 346 

What do the Pupils Read ? 615 

White, E. E., LL. D. The Promotion of Pupils . . . 415 

William H. Payne, LL. D. W. H. M 483 

William's College, Preparation for Citizenship at. Arthur 

Latham Perry . . . . . . . . . 513 

Winslow, Helen M. Child-Life on a New England Farm . 466 
Written Examinations — Their Abuse and their Use. Agnes 

M. Lathe 452 

Year with Longfellow, and What he Taught us, A. May 

Mackintosh ......... 326 

Zoology to College Classes, On Teaching. William A. Locy 673 



QDUeTATIOR 



DEVOTED TO THE SCIENCE, ART, PHILOSOPHY, AND 

LITERATURE OF EDUCATION. 



Vol. IX. SEPTEMBER, 1888. No. i. 

THE TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES.^ 

I. 

THE TEACHIXG OF LATIN.^ 
BY E. R. HUMPHREYS, LL. D., BOSTON. 

THE excitement which prevailed so widely in the educational 
world a few years ago in discussing the relative merits and 
claims of the ''old" theory of basing the higher education of 
schools and colleges mainly upon the Greek and Latin languages, 
and the '' new " utilitarian proposal of substituting for these the 
readier and more "' practical " Ixisis of first, — natural and applied 
science, second, — a longer and fuller training in pure, or theoreti- 
cal science, and, third, — more thorough instruction in the English 
Language and Literature, subsided some time ago, and has now 
practically ceased. Peace has been concluded between the bellig- 
erents upon what most thoughtfid educators will admit to be 
rational and fair terms of compromise, out of which will ultimately 
Ix? developed, it is hoped, a sound and healthy system of secondary 
education, in which all that was wise and good in the old, shall 
be loyally preserved, the obsolete or useless eliminated, and the 
altered needs of the present generation met and supplied in 
accordance with sound philosophic and pedagogic princix)les, strict 

^ Copyright, 1888, Eastern Educational Bureau. 

« Thk Teaching op Latin by M. M. Fisher, Professor of Latin in the University of Mis- 
soari. 



2 ED UCA TION. [September, 

care being taken to distinguish justly and firmly between real 
needs, and imaginary cravings or fancies, from which the cause of 
Education, no less than that of Freedom, has oft^jn suffered serious 
injuries. 

In the higher School and College system of England three 
quarters of a century ago, and in the colleges and academies 
organized in this country on the same plan and model, undue 
prominence was certainly given, for reasons, however, deemed of 
great weight then, to the t^jaching of Greek and Latin ; and our 
own language and literature, except in elementary training, were 
proportionately slighted. During the last thirty or forty yeai^s the 
efforts of the modern reformer have l)een so intently and zeal- 
ously directed to the overthrow of the old Classical foundation, 
that, as is now generally felt, injustice in that direction was to a 
considerable ext^jnt aggravated by the failure to supply adecjuately 
a widely and intensely felt want in another. To go to the extreme 
of excluding the (Jreek and Latin languages entirely, or even 
largely, from the foundation of our scholastic training would, it is 
now fully acknowledged, be a violation of the soundest and wisest 
principles of philosophic and enlightened education. On the 
other hand, while, during this period of transition and discussion, 
measures have been slowly adopted in college courses to remedy 
or rectify to some extent the injustice thus done to the most impor- 
tant part of Education — our own language and literature — the 
amoiuit has been small compared with the difficulty and injury 
experienced by two generations of students, and still largely felt 
by a third. Very much remains still to be accomplished before the 
scale of higher education shall be justly graduated. This will only 
be done when that which was for a long period " last " shall have 
been advanced to its right and lawful place of " first " in the edu- 
cation of all the youth of New and Old England. The English 
language is today second to none in world-wide diffusion and 
practical utility, and its literature, the common property of 
America and England, taken as a whole, will compare, at least, 
very favorably with that of any modern nation. This is a heri- 
tage tliat should be gratefully prized and carefully guarded and 
cherished even on patriotic grounds alone ; while the highest and 
soundest scholars and teachers are now generally agreed upon its 
being the most natural, just, and solid base of all our intellectual 
training, even on purely educational principles. While here and 



1888.] CLASSICAL LAXGUAQES. 3 

there may still l)e found some ardent champion of one or the other 
of the special, antagonistic schools, striving to rekindle the embers 
of their former fires, the great majority of thoughtful, cultivated 
people, vividly remembering the great labor by which they liad 
individually to supplement for themselves this deficiency in their 
college training, have come to the conclusion that a judicious, 
sound, progressive course of instruction, graduated on a steadily 
ascending scale, from the elementary teaching of the Grammar 
School, up to the very close of the college courae, ought to form the 
strong and solid Ixise of our whole educational system. ^Moreover 
that both in the "' Art^ " and the scientific '' Schools " of Colleges, 
and in Technological and Professional Schools, the course of 
" English Language and Literature '' studies should, within cer- 
tain reasonable limits, be " prescribed," not optional ; and should, 
as has now for several years been the case in the English Uni- 
vei*sities, offer rewards and Honors at the final examination, on a 
par at least with classics, mathematics, and modern languages, to 
superior proficiency. 

This we hold to be the safest and surest means at once of effect- 
ing the rightful and natural graduation and connection between 
the schools and colleges of America, and of remedying the diffi- 
culties and deficiencies from which school and college are now , 
constantly and painfully suffering. Impressed, as we know many 
able presidents and professors of colleges, and other educators 
of proved judgment and ability to be, with the need and justice of 
thus developing, raising, and completing this English base and solid 
framework of National Education, we feel convinced a few more 
years will see it accomplished. This once firmly established, many 
of the experimental steps already taken, perhaps in some cases 
with unwise haste, will either be retraced or modified and adjusted 
in such a way as to enforce upon all college graduates the acquire- 
ment of a certain amount of advanced and systematically devel- 
oped linguistic, scientific, and philosophic knowledge, harmonized 
and solidified by prescribed courses in each, and varied and liberal- 
ized by optiayial courses. 

All the circumstances and needs of the present age inculcate the 
advantage of due attention to the natural and applied sciences, 
and these must have as their base a sound, elementary training in 
pure science, arithmetic, algebra, and geometr}^ Nor will any 
sound educator dispute the wisdom of demanding from every col- 



4 EDUCATIOX. [September, 

lege graduate a practical and available knowledge of two modern 
languages in addition to English. Whether this can l^e always 
secured under the system pursued at most American Colleges, can 
be l)est and most impartially decided by the tstiHifnta^ on whose 
voluntary diligence in study so much reliance Ls generously placed. 
But, however these and many other imporUint points may be 
decided, it is a settled fact that Latin and Greek shall still form 
important fundamental parts of the Higher Education. The 
writer does not hesitate to express his hope and l)elief that even 
Harvard Univei'sity, after testing its new experiment in permit- 
ting, after entrance, so extensive an option of other subjects in the 
coui-ses of actual college studies as renders it possible for its 
undergraduates to terminate the study of Latin and Greek at 
their entrance examination, — which in equivalent to having lost all 
knowledge of them at the time of graduation — will see cause to 
reconsider that part of its reformed curriculum, and to decide that 
a fair amount at least of classical scholai*ship shall be possessed 
by every graduate in ^-Arts. " That a strong conviction of the 
value of the two chissical languages was felt even by the majority 
whose vote carried the adoption of the new system at Harvard 
University is proved by their only permitting either Greek or Latin 
to be omitted from the entmnce electives on the condition of sul>- 
stituting therefor a very heavy amount of advanced mathematics. 
If the ancient languages are assigned so high a value at entrance, 
it is hard to see why they should so greatly and suddenly depreciate 
as not to l)e securely retained to some extent in the undergraduate 
courses. There is at all eventi* good reason to believe that in the 
majority of American, as well as of European Colleges, Latin cand 
Greek will continue to l)e important parts of the four years' cur- 
riculum. 

flverything, therefore, which tends to facilitate and improve the 
methods of acquiring a knowledge of the languages and literature 
of Greece and of Rome, deserves to he welcomed as a valuable aid 
by teachers and learners ; and nothing is l)etter calculated to do 
tliis than a plain, unadorned account of the plan pursued with 
remarkable success by an accomplished and sound scholar in a long 
series of years with large chisses of pu[)ils. Such, in regard to 
Latin, is precisely the nature of this brochure by Professor ^I. ^L 
FLsher, the title of which is prefixed U) this paper, and which 
originally appeared in this magazine. Professor Fisher's w^U- 



1888.] CLASSICAL LANGUAGES. 6 

known reputation as a Latin scholar and teacher is as familiar to 
New England as to liis own University. His work on the '' Three 
Pronunciations of Latin " attracted much attention at its tu'st 
appearance some ten or twelve yeai-s ago, and the sale of the third 
edition, published by Appletons of New York and Boston in 1885, 
has been such as to prove its undiminished interest. Candor 
obliges the writer to state that, while not himself in favor of the 
English pronunciation of the voiveh in which he had been trained, 
and which, so far from being a part of the " old " English pronun- 
ciation of Latin, dates back no farther than the latter part of the 
sixteenth century — he was strongly impressed with the force of 
Professor Fisher s arguments introducing the so<*alled '- Roman " 
system, as now established in the University of Harvard. En- 
gaged as he was, and is, as a tutor for that Univei*sity he felt it to 
be his duty, after putting forth a stiitement of hLs reasons for dis- 
sent, to submit in his teacliing to the authority of the University. 
But every year convinces him more and more that his anticipation 
of a very evil effect upon our Mother Tongue and its literature 
was too well founded. As a critical time has come, wlien duty 
demands a fuller statement and discussion of this subject than 
would be appropriate to this pa[)er, he will content himself with 
emphasizing a part of a letter received by him in 1876, from tliat 
eminent scholar and schoolmaster, who recentlv retired from liis 
successful mastership of Rugby, and is now the respected Presi- 
dent of the College of Preceptors of England, Dr. T. Jex-Blake. 
** ' Reformed Latin pronunciation ' is mere waste of time, and, if 
done on a fictitious, professor-made plan, absurd. The only rea- 
sonable reform would be to take the existing Italian pronunciation, 
where you have a living^ natural guide. Leave pronunciation as 
it is, would be my advice, and spend your time in clearer teaching 
of the idioms and syntax of the flexible, terse old language, and in 
a higher treatment of its literary wealth." (This letter is cited in 
Fisher's Three Pronunciations of Latin, page 126.) 

As notice has just appeared of a soon-forthcoming edition of 
Professor Fisher's present work, " The Teaching of Latin," it 
becomes unnecessary to enter here into a detailed account of its 
purport and contents. They are practical, judicious, combining 
the natural and lively method of conversation, so advantageously 
used by the Latin teachei*s of old England in the last century and 
before, with the solidity and accuiacy essential to sound scholar- 



6 EDUCATION. [September, 

ship. The writer does not fear any charge of presumption or 
egotism, after teaching Latin and Greek so long in Boston, when 
he states that by a most remarkable coincidence, most of Professor 
Fisher's methods have been mutaiis mutandis^ — with varieties of 
application, — similar to those pursued by himself for nearly thirty 
years. 



THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS.^ 

I. 

THE ECONOMY OF MEMORY IN THE STUDY OF ARITHMETIC. 

BY SIMON N. PATTEN, PH.D., 

Professor in the University of Pennsylvania, 

IF we examine the method of teaching primaiy numbers now in 
use, it will be perceived that great progress has been made 
towards making the perception of the relations of numbers easy to 
children. The use of objects and the presentation of the smaller 
numbers first have removed many of the old difficulties of teach- 
ing arithmetic. Little or no progress, however, has been made 
towards a presentation of the subject so that the memorj" may be 
relieved of the enormous burden which is required by even the 
best of the present methods of teaching. In fact the possibility 
of such a relief is seldom considered. When the teacher has 
acquired a method of j)resenting the subject easy for the child to 
comprehend, she considers that she has done all that is possible to 
relieve the child. She then proceeds by drills and frequent repe- 
titions to fasten in the child's mind the ideas which have been 
presented. 

It is the result of teaching in tliis way that so many disconnected 
facts are presented as to burden the memory and render the study 
of arithmetic tedious to most children. Fii-st^ the relations of two 
are learned, then of three, and so on. As the numbers increase in 
size the numl^er of their relations also rapidlv increase. Bv the 
time the child has learned the first ten numbers, he has such a 
multitude of relations to remember that he becomes confused and 
progress is delayed and often stopped. A child liaving blocks 

^ Copyright, 1888, Eastern Educational Bureau. 



1888.] MATHEMATICS, 7 

before him may be able to pick out all the parts into which the 
number ten can be divided, and yet when he is required to think 
independently, he gets the many relations of ten confused with 
one another, with those of nine and of the other smaller numbers 
w^liich have been crowded into his mind by his teacher. A small 
number of objects can be more easily perceived and their relations 
determined than a larger number. From tliis, however, we can- 
not justly infer that the relations of a small number can l)e more 
easily recollected than those of a larger number. The mind must 
have the different things to be rememl)ered so arranged that one 
thought will bring up another similar to it according to the well- 
known laws of association. 

We will not have to search far to find why the present methods 
of studying numbers cause such a multitude of disconnected facts 
to be remembered by the pupil. It arises from the system of nota- 
tion now in use. The unit of our system is ten and the amount 
of memorizing needed by us arises from the use of so large a 
number as the unit of our system. The larger the unit of the 
system in use the greater is the amount of memorizing needed for 
a ready use of the system. This may seem strange to any one who 
has not thought of this point, but by a brief presentation it can be 
made clear. The addition of numbers above the unit of any sys- 
tem is but a repetition of the processes used in combining the 
numbers below the unit and they contain nothing new. Suppose 
we desire to add 32 to 26. We first add the units 2 and 6, and 
then the tens 3 and 2 and get the result, 58. Now what facts have 
we in memory to readily perform this operation ? Only that 6 and 
2 are 8, and 3 and 2 are 5. That is merely those combinations 
w^hich are less than the unit of our system, 10. Any other exam- 
ple in addition will show the same fact. If we wish to add 280 to 
327, 4976 to 7280, or any other two or more numbers, it can be 
readily performed if we have well in mind all the combinations of 
the numbers below the unit of our decimal system. 

Suppose that use be made of a higher number than ten, say 
sixteen, for a unit of a system. Then all the combinations of 
numbers below sixteen must be learned with that thoroughness 
with which we now learn the combinations of numbers below ten. 
To know the sum of 12 and 14, or 13 and 15, would be as necessary 
to any one using tliis system as it now is to know the sum of and 
8 or 7 and 9. On the other hand, if a smaller number than ten be 



8 ED UCA TION. [September, 

used as the unit of our svstem, sav six, then combinations of num- 
hem hirger than six need not be learned. Their sum could Ije 
inferred. Seven and nine could be added in the same way that 
we now add 12 and 13. Seven would become 1 six -|- 1, nine 
would l)e 1 six -|- 3, and their sum would be 2 sixes -|- 4. 

If a yet smaller unit Ixi used, say four, the numlxir of combina- 
tions which must Ix; memorized would Ixj still further reduced. 
For example, 6 would l)ecome 1 four -\- 2, and 9 would be 2 fours 
+ 1, and their sum would be 3 fours -[- 3, a result that could Ije 
readily obtained by any child who was familiar with all the com- 
binations of the number's smaller than four. The smallest unit 
possible is two, and by its use the amount of necessary memorizing 
would be reduced to a minimum. If this syst<;m were in vogue 
instead of the cumbrous decimal system the terrors of arithmetic 
would disapi>ear. Two and it« combinations would \)e all that 
would ]>e needed by the child, and as all higher numlwi-s would be 
represented in t^rms of two, their combinations could l>e inferred 
without memorizing, just as the numl)ers. greater than ten can l>e 
when the decimal system is in use. Were we in a position to 
choose a system of notation it is not prol>able that any thoughtful 
person would favor so large a unit as ten, and a binary system, being 
the simplest of all, has had many advocates, among whom was the 
illustrious Leibnitz, Xewtcm's only equal in mathematics. While 
it is not possible at the })resent time to introduce into general use 
any other system than the decimal one, there is no good reason 
why children should not be taught to think in a more simple sys- 
tem of notation l>efore they have reached that maturity wliich is 
necessaiy to think by tens. To the child, ten is as difficult to 
comprehend as is a thousand to a fully developed mind, and the 
same stei)s should be taken to teach a child ten that men use to 
comprehend a thousand. No man thinks of a thousand as that 
numl)er of disconnected units, but as ten hundreds, and each hun- 
dred is thought of as ten tens. We think of a thousand then in 
terms of tens, and if we would be successful in makhig a child 
comprehend ten, it can l)e done only by teaching the child to think 
by twos. By this, however, I mean something different from what 
is understood by it in the methods of presenting numlx^rs now in 
use. We miLst not only use two as a measure of other numlxjrs, 
but they must Ije thought of in terms of two and not as a mere 
collection of units. Three should be thought of as 1 two -\- 1 and 



1888.] » MATHEMATICS. 9 

not as three unite; four as 2 twos, and five as 2 twos + 1. A 
child who comprehends what 1 two is can also comprehend what 
2 twos are, or what two and one or 2 twos and 1 are. There are 
no more elemente required to think of five as 2 twos -|- 1 than 
there are to think of two alone, since five is thought of in terms of 
two and one and both of these are required to think of two. 
When the child can think of these numbers readily in terms of 
two, then the next higher numl)ers can be comprehended with their 
aid. Six becomes three twos, seven is 3 twos -\- 1, eight is 4 twos, 
while nine is 4 twos + 1^ ^^^ ten is 5 twos. If the fii*st ten num- 
bers are thought of in this way, all their combinations become as 
easy to work out without memorizing as is now the case with 
numbers larger than ten, the unit of our system of notation. 
Without knowing the sum of 3 -|- 5, it can be worked out ; 3 = 1 
two + 1 and 5 = 2 twos + 1, 1 two and 2 twos are 3 twos and 1 
-|- 1 are two, 3 twos and 2 are 4 twos, and 4 twos are 8. Take 4 
-|- 5 as another example : 4 = 2 twos, 5 = 2 twos and 1, 2 twos 
and 2 twos -|- 1 are 4 twos -|- 1, and 4 twos + 1 are 9. If then, a 
child knows how to express the n umbel's up to ten in a system of 
twos, it can solve any problem which involves no numl)er greater 
than ten without that burden on ite memory which the present 
methods of teaching numbers necessitates. 

We hear it often said a child should be taught to reason ; but so 
long as the subject is merely talked about in a general way and no 
analysis is made of what really constitutes reasoning, no real im- 
provement will be made. Reasoning is a process of substituting 
one equal for another. If A is equal to B, and B to C, we can 
substitute A the equal of B in the proposition B is equal to C, 
and then we can affirm that A is equal to C. Again, as two twos 
are four and three and one are four, we can in the first equation 
suljstitute three plus one for four and conclude that two twos are 
equal to three plus one. The study of numbers furnishes an 
abundance of examples where the doctrine of substitution may l)e 
taught the child, if the subject be so presented that in the differ- 
ent groups of objecte the idea of equality can be clearly perceived 
by the child. The ease with which the equality of different groups 
of objecte can be inferred depends upon the plan of arrangement. 
If we arrange the oljjecte by twos or fours, we can perceive their 
equality more readily than if there l>e no arrangement and they 
be thought of only as simple unite. So too, the manner of giving 



10 EDUCATIOS. [September, 

names to the different numbers is of the greatest importance. The 
name given to a number of object** in a group may be either an 
absolute name or a relative name. Four is an absolute name for 
a given number of objects ; two twos is a relative name for the 
same group. Tlie first twelve numbers have absolute names, the 
others (thirteen, etc.) have relative names ; that is, their names 
indicate their relation to ten. To sav that there are two twos in 
a given place tells more than to say there are four objects there. 
Four tells merely the number, two twos tells both the number of 
objects and also their arrangement. 

If a child were taught numbers by some system using relative 
names he could think out the different combinations and thus be 
freed from the drudgery which memorizing involves. Nor is a 
system of counting, using absolute names, natural to a child. Its 
use is forced on him by the example of his elders. Any child will 
say that he hiis two apples and one more before he will use the 
t^rm three. If childi-en were allowed to develop naturally they 
woidd use two as a measure of larger objects and thus make use 
of relative instead of absolute names for numbers. 

The use of a system of relative names require that some num- 
ber Ix; used as a unit for measiuing other numbers and that they 
be so named as to express the result of the measurement. If two 
be used as the unit of measurement, to call five two twos and one 
would correspond to the current expression of twenty-one by 
which we name a group of twenty-<me objects by the number of 
tens it contains. The use of the terms twenty, thirty, thirteen 
instead of the full form two tens, three tens, one ten and three, 
etc., somewhat conceals the fact that these t^rms are only relative 
names ; yet a moment's thought will reveal their origin and the 
analogy of these t^rms to that of two twos and one as a name of a 
group of five units. The use of two as a unit of measurement 
would allow the greatest use of relative terms and with it as a unit 
we would count as follows : one, two, one two and one, two twos^ 
two twos and one, three twos, three twos and one, four twos, eto. 
No system can be devoid of absolute terms even for numbei's 
higher than the unit of measurement. For ten t^ns we sul>stitut^ 
the al^olute name himdred, and ten hundreik likewise receives the 
name thousand. We always think of hundred and thoiLsand in 
terms of ten and so also should we, when iLsing two as a unit of 
measurement, tliink of tliree, four and other absolute names in 



1888.] MATHEMATICS. 11 

terms of two and not use them until the relative name is so famil- 
iar that the absolute name will immediately suggest the relative 
name. If the term five does not suggest two twos and one and 
the term four two twos, that their difference is one and their sum 
is nine cannot be thought out by the child. If he knows these 
facts it will not be from any use of reasoning, but because he has 
been drilled by his teacher until his memory calls up nine in con- 
nection with four plus five and one when he thinks of their differ- 
ence. By teaching a child te use the relative t^rms before he uses 
the absolute ones, this drill is avoided. In this way each term 
suggests its relation te every other term and thus affords a clue 
by which the solution of any problem may be thought out. 

With absolute numerical names we cannot reason directly ; with 
relative names we can reason. The names of six and eight give 
us no clue of what their sum or difference is, while from twenty 
and thirty we can readily infer that their sum is fifty (five tens), 
and their difference is ten. If we know the sum or difference of 
two numbers which have absolute names, it is due solely te the 
use of memory, and the great amount of memorizing needed by 
the present methods of teaching numbers arises from the use of 
absolute names for the first twelve numbers. 

If this method be compared with the Griibe method they will 
be seen to differ in two important ways. Griibe has each number 
thought of as so many units first, and then it is measured by each 
smaller number. Each number is thought of as a whole first, and 
then as composed of parts. I would have each number thought 
of in terms of the smaller numbers. Eight and ten should be first 
known to the child as 4 twos and 5 twos, and only after the child 
becomes thoroughly familiar with a number in terms of two should 
it be represented te the child as so many units and its name 
taught. 

At first sight it may seem difficult te teach a child how to meas- 
ure a number containing more units than he can count, but this 
difficulty will disappear when the method of procedure becomes 
apparent. Suppose a child can count te four and can measui'e by 
two. If seven objects are given him by arranging them by twos 
he can see that he has tliree twos and one. If nine objects are 
given him he can discover that he has four twos and one. All the 
numbers under ten can be arranged in twos and then he can com- 
prehend how many objects he has, even if he cannot count them. 



12 ED UCA TIOX. [September, 

Suppose further, that an unknown numl)er of objects, for example 
buttons, be phiced at his right hand. Tell him to take three twos 
and one of the buttons and place them at his left hand. Can he 
not both perform and undei^stand this operation even if he cannot 
count the buttons at his right hand ? Now tell him to take four 
twos of the buttons from his right and place them on his left. 
Then have him take tlu-ee twos from his left and place them on 
his right and ask how many are remaining on his left. All of 
these operations and many more of the same kind can readily be 
performed by any child who can count four and measure by two, 
even though all the numbers are larger than he can count. It is 
not necessary for intelligent work that the gross sum of the num- 
bere handled should 1^ known if each operation is within the limit 
of the cliild's knowledge and no question is asked which involves 
a greater number than the child can measure. There is a great 
advantage in using larger numbers than the child can count. In 
this case the child must use its intelligence in so arranging the 
numbei's that he can measure them, while if he can count he is apt 
to resort to counting as a means of solving the problem and thus 
drag along without really undei'standing the im[)ort of measuring, 
the most important part of all arithmetical operations. 

The order in which the different combinations should be tuught 
should not be determined solely by the size of the numbers, the 
smallest first and then each of the others in their numerical order. 
The simplicity of the relation between one number and another in 
a combination is of even more importance than is the size of the 
numbers. The relation of four or six to twelve is more simple 
than is the relation of either of these numbers to eleven. Yards 
stand in a less simple relation to rods than do inches to feet, or 
quarts to gallons. Although twelve is larger than five and a half, 
yet it requires a much greater maturity of mind to change yards 
into rods than it does to change inches into feet. The relation of 
two to four is more simple than that of two to three, and for tliis 
reason, after a child has l>een taught to think by twos, a scale of 
fours is more simple than a scale of threes. Two twos make a 
four, one and a half twos make a three. The fraction can l)e 
avoided by teacliing four first and postponing the study of three 
until a later period, except in terms of two and four, as one two 
and one, and one four less one. Three and seven are really the 
most difficult of the digits to comprehend fully and their study 



1888.] MATHEMATICS. 13 

should be delayed until the more easy numl)er8 are taught. 
The second way in which the Griilx? method differs • from the 
one here presented is in the manner in wliich each numl)er is 
measured. Griibe measures each number directly with each 
smaller number and no one measure is taken in terms of which all 
comparisons of the various numlxji's are to be expressed. That 
this method of procedure is confusing can be eiisily illiLstmted. 
To measure one numlDer by another is the same as to express the 
first number in a system of notation of which the second numlxir 
is the unit. To measure ten by nine is to express ten in a system 
of which nine is the unit ; to measure it by eight is to express it 
in a system of eights and the same is true of each smaller number. 
To make a child measure ten directly by each smaller number and 
to remember the result of each measurement is in reality com- 
pelling it to use all the systems of notation from two Xk) ten. To 
see how difficult this must be for a child, we have only to test 
ourselves by the same process on numl)ers but a little larger than 
ten. Suppose we take ninety, wliich certainly ought to be as easy 
for a mature mind to comprehend as ten is for a child. How 
many of us can measure 90 directly by 13, 17, 23, or any other 
chosen number with ease, and who would think it a great accom- 
plishment to burden the memory with so many disconnected facts ? 
However good a memory any one may have, somewhere its limits 
will l>e reached and higher numbers must be thought of in terms 
of the lower by means of some system of notation. What must 
be finally done should be done at the very sturt and all unneces- 
sary burdening of the memory should l)e avoided and this most 
useful faculty be reserved for other and Ixjtter purposes. We 
know enough of ninety when we can think of it readily as nine 
tens, and a child knows ten sufficiently for all its present uses when 
it can think of it readily as five twos. 



We too often forget that the raison d \*fre of the school master 
is the instruction, not of the minority who will and can teach 
themselves, but of the majority who can but will not. Our 
teaching force should regulate the movements rather of the 
ordinary planets than of the comets of the system. 

Joseph Payne. 



14 EDUCATIOy. [September, 



COLLEGE EXPENSES, 

BY HON. WM. C. TODD, ATKINSON, N. H. 

HOW to obtain a collegiate education is now a serious question 
with many poor young men, conscious of ability, and anx- 
ious to cultivate it. In notliing lias the great increase in expenses 
within the last fifty years been more marked than in the cost of a 
college course. A catalogue of Dartmouth College in 1840 gives 
the following table of expenses for the college year : — 

Tuition, $27 00 

Ordinary incidentals, 3 24 
Library, according to use, 

Boom rent, average, 8 50 

Board, from $1 to $2, average for 38 weeks, 57 00 

Wood, lights, washing, 9 00 

Lectures on Anatomy, 1 00 

Total, $105 74 

In the Dartmouth catalogue for 1885, the expenses are estimated 

as follows : — 

Tuition, 

Library and reading-room tax, 

Room-rent, 

Board, from $3 to $4.50, 37 weeks. 

Fuel and lights, 

ToUl, $232 00 to $312 00 

In 1840, the expenses at Amherst College were estimated as 

follows : — 

Tuition, 

Room-rent, 

Recitation rooms and ordinary incidentals, 

Board, from $1.25 to $2.00, for 40 weeks, 

Fuel and lights. 

Washing, 

Total, $118 00 to $152 00 

The following is the present estimate : — 

General term bill, including tuition, library, gymnasium, 

and all other ordinary incidentals, $100 00 $100 00 

Room-rent in College, 18 00 to 45 00 



$90 00 


$90 00 


6 00 


6 00 


10 00 


to 25 00 


111 00 


to 166 00 


15 00 


to 25 00 



$38 00 




$38 00 


9 00 




9 00 


6 00 




6 00 


50 00 


to 


80 00 


9 00 


to 


11 00 


6 00 


to 


8 00 



1888.] COLLEGE EXPENSES. 15 

Room-rent In private houses, $40 00 to $60 00 

Board from $3 to 85, for 38 weeks, 114 00 to 190 00 

Total, with rooms in College, 244 00 to 353 00 

Total, with rooms in private houses, 266 00 to 368 00 

At Williams College the expenses were thus estimated in 1840 : 

Tuition 810 per term, $30 00 $30 00 

Room-rent, library and incidentals, 9 00 9 00 

Board, from $1.12^ to $2.12i& per week, 48 75 to 83 00 

Washing, 5 00 to 10 00 

Fuel, 5 00 to 10 00 



Total, $95 75 to $142 00 

The expenses are now thus estimated : — 

• 

Tuition, $30 per term, $90 00 $90 00 

Library charge, 4 00 4 00 

Gymnasium, 3 00 3 00 

Room-rent, $5 to $10 per term, 15 00 to 30 00 

Care of recitation-rooms, repairs, etc., 15 00 15 00 

Treasurer's bill, $127 00 to $142 00 

GENERAL EXPENSES. 

Board, from $2.50 to $5, for 38 weeks, $95 00 to $190 00 

Washing, 15 00 to 20 00 

Fuel and lights, 8 00 to 12 00 



Total expenses, $245 00 to $364 00 

Dartmouth, Amherst, and Williams Colleges are all similarly- 
situated in country villages. Yale and Harvard, the two leading 
colleges of New England, are located in or near great cities, where 
the expenses are naturally larger, and are patronized, as a rule, by 
the wealthier classes, more inclined, and better able, to spend 
money. In 1840, the expenses at Yale were estimated as follows : 

Instruction, three terms, 
Room-rent, average. 
Repairs and contingencies. 
General damages. 
Expenses of recitation-rooms. 

Treasurer's bill, 

OTHER EXPENSES. 

Board in commons, 40 weeks. 

Fuel and lights. 

Use of books and stationery. 

Use of furniture, bed, and bedding. 

Washing, 

Taxes in the classes, 

ToUl, $140 00 to $210 00 







$33 00 






12 00 






2 40 






3 60 






3 00 




$54 00 


$60 00 


to 


$90 00 


6 00 


to 


15 00 


5 00 


to 


15 00 


5 00 


to 


15 00 


5 00 


to 


15 00 


5 00 


to 


6 00 



16 ED UCA TlOy. LSeptember, 

A late catalogue gives the expenses as follows : — 

Treasurer's bill, according to location of room, 8160 00 to $220 00 

Board, 37 weeks, 110 00 to 260 00 

Fuel, lights, and washing, 30 00 to 60 00 

Use of textbooks and furniture, 30 00 to 60 00 

8330 00 to 8600 00 

According to an educational journal, the actual expenses of a 
class that recently graduated, as nearly as could l^e ascertained by 
careful inquiry, were for eacli student, on an average, for the four 
successive years, *933, -^959, *952, 5^981 ; a total of *3,824 for the 
coui*se, or more than fifty per cent, above the highest college esti- 
mate. 

The Harvard University catalogue of 1841-2 estimates the 
expenses as follows: — 

Instruction, library and lecture-rooms, 875 00 

Rent and care of room, 15 00 

Board, 40 weeks, 82.25 per week, 90 00 

Textbooks, 12 00 

Special repairs, about 3 00 

8105 00 
These are the necessary expenses included in college bills. 

Other expenses vary with the student. Washing, from '^3 to $5 a 

term. Wood, '$7.50 a cord ; coal, $8. 

Tlie expenses at Harvard are thus stated in the catalogue for 

1884-5. 

The following table exhibits four scales of annual expenditure, the expenses 
of the long vacation not being included : — 







Econom- 


Moder- 


Very- 




Least. 


ical. 


ate. 


Liberal. 


Tuition, 


8150 00 


8150 00 


8150 00 


8150 00 


Books and stationery. 


28 00 


35 00 


45 00 


61 00 


Clothing, 


70 00 


120 00 


150 00 


300 00 


Room, 


22 00 


30 00 


100 00 


175 00 


Furniture (annual average). 


10 00 


15 00 


25 00 


50 00 


Board, 


133 00 


152 00 


152 00 


304 00 


Fuel and lights. 


11 00 


15 00 


30 00 


45 00 


Washing, 


15 00 


20 00 


40 00 


50 00 


Societies and sports (annual average). 






35 00 


50 00 


Servant, 








25 00 


Sundries, 


45 00 


55 00 


85 00 


150 00 



Total, 8484 00 8502 00 8812 00 81,360 00 

President Eliot discussed in a recent report the present cost 
of an education at Harvard, after liaving addressed letters of in- 



1888.] COLLEGE EXPENSES. 17 

quiiy to parents and guardians. He found the smallest sum for 
the nine montlis of college year to be -WTl, in the ease of the son 
of a poor meclmnic, who supported himself in the three montlis 
of vacation by working at his trade. The largest sum reported 
was the case of a rich man's son, who spent 55«2500 in the same 
time. Few spent less than .$500 or more than ?i«loOO. No allow- 
ance was made for secret societies or sports. To bring the ex- 
penses witliin 'f500, he said, '' requires an extreme economy at 
every point, and that faculty of making a little go a great way, 
which not many possess." 

The causes that have produced this great increase in college 
expenses, as shown in the above tables, are well undei*stood. The 
changes of centuries of old life have been compressed into the 
existence of this generation. The discovery of California gold and 
its results, the immense material development of the age, with the 
introduction of new luxuries, the late war, etc., etc., have had an 
inflj^ence that need not be dwelt upon. 

College life was very simple forty-five yeara ago, as all old grad- 
uates can testify. Of one of the first named colleges, the writer 
can speak from personal knowledge. There were many more 
students and fewer professors than now. The professors heard 
two and three recitations daily and were in excellent health, and 
several retired professors lived near the college, advanced in years 
but fresh and youthful in body and spirit, leaving the impression 
that a college professorship was the sure path to a green old age. 

Whatever might be the wealth of the student, custom dictated 
no extravagancies. Not half a dozen rooms in the college had car- 
pets, and the ordinary furniture consisted simply of a bed, table, 
and a few chairs, all costing from $10 to i20. These, as well as 
the textbooks, were usually bought second-hand, descending 
through generations of students, each year falling a little in price, 
till, their service ended, they were consigned to the flames. Every 
student took care of Ins own room, built his own fire, brought his 
own water from the college pump, and swept and dusted his own 
room once a day, or once a month, as his tastes and habits of neat- 
ness prompted. His laundress came once a week for his bundle 
of soiled linen, her charge being twenty-five cents, without count- 
ing the pieces. Students had boats in which they rowed on the 
river flowing near, and foot-ball and base-ball were earnestly 
played, but they were attended with no expense, and no rivalries 



18 EDUCATlOy. [September, 

and jealousies. Secret societies (it is not the place here to discuss 
whether they are a curse or blessing to college life), which now 
directly and indirectly tax the funds of the student so heayfly, had 
not been organized. 

Many of the students had limited means and were obliged to 
calculate closely their college expenses- Tliey were largely from 
the country, farmers' sons, determined to have an education, at 
whatever sacrifice, and having only their ovni strong arms and 
brave hearts to depend upon. It was the custom for these to teach 
a district school in winter and in that way to earn a large part of 
the sum required for their college expenses, and as the district 
schools of New England were then always taught in winter by 
males, there was no difficulty in securing a situation with good pay. 
So necessaiy was this to the student, that the college vacations 
were made longest in winter, and if sometimes the student's school 
encroached on term time, he could study harder on his return to 
make up for his al)sence. The poor student, too, thought it no 
disgrace in haying time to liire himself to a farmer, for mo^ving 
macliines, etc., etc., had not tlien l>een invented to take the place 
of hand lal)or on the farm in its busiest season. And so many, very 
many, worked their way through college unaided, and came out 
stronger and better for the struggle — stronger, because they had 
met and conquered difficulties — better, because their poverty had 
kept them from the temptation and dissipation so dangerous to 
college life. 

It appears from the tables that in every college the lowest esti- 
mated expenses now are more than double those of 1840. Unfor- 
tunately, however, it is not alone the increase in the ordinary 
college bilLs that l)ears so hea\dly now on the poor student. Col- 
lege life has lost its old simplicity, and luxurious habits and many 
expensive associations of students for various purposes have been 
introduced. The rooms of many American students are more ex- 
pensively furnished than those of Oxford students, as the Ameri- 
can father, with his newly acquired wealth, can afford to spend 
more than the father of many a young lord tracing his pedigree 
back to the time of William the Conqueror. Boating clubs, base- 
ball clubs, and clubs and secret societies for many objects, with 
their regular and irregular assessments and entertainments, make 
large drafts on the purse, and though all are optional, it is hard for 
the student of limited means to resist the popular current and keep 



1888.] COLLEGE EXPENSES. ' 19 

aloof. If ever *' pride and poverty go together/' it is in the breast 
of a poor young student, struggling for an education, and feeling 
keenly the assumptions of his rich fellow students and the respect 
paid to the wealth of his inferiors in all but worldly position. 
How much is spent in these ways, unknown to students years ago, 
it is not easy to estimate, as it varies with the college and circum- 
stances. President Eliot estimates it for Harvard at from $35 to 
$50, as the annual average. The ambition and rivalry of diflferent 
societies have caused the erection of many costly edifices for their 
meetings, their members not content with a hired hall. Of course, 
most of the contributions for such purposes are voluntarj% but it is 
hard for a student to confess his poverty by withholding his gift. 
The writer well remembere the arrogance with which a wealthy 
member of his class attempted to humiliate a poor student who 
objected to a measure from its expense by offering to pay his pro- 
portion. 

As an illustration of the great increase in college expenses, it 
may be stated that a young man recently applied for aid to a gen- 
tleman, and named as the lowest sum for which he could pay a 
year's college bills an amount greater than the gentleman had 
expended in his whole course. 

While the expenses have so much increased, the means of earn- 
ing open to a student have been diminished. Winter ternLs of 
district schools, the old unfailing resource, are all taught by ladies ; 
the farmer finds machinery cheaper than men in the haying sea- 
son ; and the poor student seeks in vain for temporary work to 
add to his limited means. 

It will be observed, that while the increase has been large in 
expenses for board and other charges, to a large extent indepen- 
dent of college control, the regular college bills have increased in 
a still higher ratio. For example, while the price of board at 
Dartmouth has doubled, the price of tuition has trebled. And the 
tendency is nowhere to a reduction. A recent circular to the 
Alumni of an old New England college appealing for funds says, 
that the college expenses cannot be reduced, but must be increased. 
Yet this college and the other leading New England colleges have 
received hundreds of thousands of dollars in the unexampled lib- 
erality of the last few years. The educational l)enefactions for 
the year ending June 30, 1885, alone were ii9,314,081, of wliich 
more than half was to colleges and universities. In 1873 the total 



20 ED UCA TION, [Sep tern ber, 

was Jifll,226,977. New and expensive buildings are erected, in 
striking contrast to those of mast European universities, which, 
if needed at all, should be of the plainest nature ; new pro- 
fessorships are created, and special courses multiplied, giving 
the student hom<i»opathic doses of many studies on the princi- 
ple that the smaller tlie dose the greater the effect — all, it is 
said, to keep tlie college up to the spirit of the age, and show 
that it is progressive. A college president in a recent appeal for 
funds begged that gifts might not l>e restricted, but left to the dis- 
cretion of the college authorities. From tlie way much given to 
colleges has Ijeen expended in the past, there seems occjision for 
the remark, tliat practical men who earn money are often wiser in 
its application than men whose wisdom is mainly in books. 

The reply to tliose who complain of the growing expense of a 
college education is, that poor young men can be aided by schol- 
arships and funds devoted to that object. Yet nearly all this aid 
is restricted to students preparing for the ministry, or to superior 
scholarship. It scarcely need 1x3 remarked how little can often- 
times Ixj judged of the future success and usefulness of a young 
man from his college career. The highest abilities may be dor- 
mant in college to l>e called forth by the exigencies of after life. 
Certainly, to mention no other example. General (rrant would 
have received no assistance from college funds for proficiency in 
any department. No other country spends so much as we for edu- 
cation, and in none is so much wasted. England has two great 
universities, and at Oxford a student can bring his expenses within 
$500. We have in the United States 365 colleges, so called, with 
4,836 instructor and 65,728 students, an income from productive 
fluids of $3,018,624, and from tuition of *2,105,565. Ohio alone 
has 33 colleges and 327 instructors, with 2,601 students, less than 
half the numljer in some German universities. Put all these Ohio 
students into one college, and with their present funds there could 
be free instruction, abler professors, and l)etter results. 

The object of this article is to call attention to the need of 
reducing the cost of a higher education, that a remedy may be 
applied. Many of oiu- greatest and best men have l)een poor in 
early life, gaining their education by severe struggles. A poor 
young man cannot now pay his college expenses, as he could have 
done forty years ago. The number of college graduates has largely 
fallen off in proportion to our population. In Paris, at the Col- 



1888.] COLLEGE EXPENSES. 21 

lege of France, established by Francis I. in 1530, men of world- 
wide reputation give instruction free to all, in every branch of 
knowledge, and it is easier for a poor young man to get his edu- 
cation in Europe than here. Our common schools are free, but 
our colleges are dear. It should he the aim not so much to 
enlarge the advantages of our colleges as to make the present 
facilities accessible to a larger number. Let rich men in their 
donations provide for free instruction. Harvard has just received 
a million or more, and the President of Yale asks for two millions 
of dollars to enlarge the library, establish new professorships, etc., 
etc., yet no one proposes a reduction of college charges. 

If the general government is to appropriate large sums for edu- 
cation, as is proposed by the Blair bill, why not establish a' great 
national university, worthy of our nation, with the ablest profes- 
sors and free tuition ? Eighty years ago Jefferson said such an in- 
stitution was a necessity, and should at once be created, and such 
was the opinion of Washington, Adams, and Madison. Shall not 
the idea in the minds of these wise men be revived, and Congress 
be turned from the lower objects engrossing it to the creation of a 
university equal to any other of which the world can now boast ? 
No other nation has made such material progress, but it is far 
nobler to seek intellectual and moral advancement, so necessary to 
the perpetuity of our free institutions. 



BOOKS give to all who will faithfully use them, the society 
and the presence of the best and greatest of our race. No 
matter how poor I am ; no matter though the prosperous of my 
own time will not enter my obscure dwelling, if learned men and 
poets will enter and take up their abode under my roof, — if Milton 
will cross my threshold and sing to me of Paradise ; and Shake- 
speare open to me the world of imagination and the workings of 
the human heart ; and Franklin enrich me with his practical wis- 
dom, — I shall not pine for want of intellectual companionship, and 
I may become a cultivated man, though excluded from what is 
called the best society in the place where I live. Nothing can sup- 
ply the place of books. Channing. 



22 ED UCA TIOX. [September, 



JOSHUA BATES AND HIS TIMES. 

BY GRANVILLE B. PUTNAM, FRANKLIN SCHOOL, BOSTON. 

THE centurj^ of the centuries is nearly ended. Its record will 
soon be closed. Its history will soon be written. The unri- 
valled i)rogress of which we hear so much is not an idle boast. 
The world is a witness to it. 

In New England were early planted seeds of influence which in 
their "development must stimulate thought and incite to noble 
deeds. While the soil of imperial states was yet untrodden, wliile 
a host of cities, of which the nation, today, is justly proud, were 
not yet dreamed of, the cliurch and the school were here exerting 
a mighty power over her sons, many of whom were subsequently 
to go forth to found these later commonwealtlLS and l)uild these 
cities. To those who planted these seeds, especially to those who 
filled her pulpits and taught her schools, should willing honor be 
I)aid. Tlie product of her institutiims is seen in every depaitment 
of her own life, and is felt wlierever her sons have made their 
homes. 

Law boasts its Evarts, medicine its Bowditch, the pulpit its 
Brooks, art its Greenough, statesmansliip its Sumner, eloquence 
its Phillips, the speaker's desk its Wintln-op, and the governor's 
chair its Everett, all Boston school-lx)ys, illustrious sons of a 
mother worthy of the honor which their names confer. Hundreds 
more, well known to fame, might be adduced, but these will serve 
to indicate the results of the teacliing and tmining, the conditions 
and circumstances by which her lx)ys were reared. 

For nearly half of this century, so potent in its influence, Joshua 
Bates was faitlifully instructing the minds, and moulding the char- 
actei*s of children living within the present limits of this city. It 
is fitting then, now that his lal)oi*s are ended, that we should recall 
the story of his life, and something of the times in which his work 
was accomplished. 

There was a period during the latter part of the eighteenth and 
the fiiTst of the present centuiy, in which educational interests 
sadly declined throughout the country. During the Revolution 



1888.] JOSHUA BATES, 2? 

the public schools, even in Boston, had been suspended, and the 
effects of this struggle for independence were felt for many years. 
Before its baneful influence was overcome the war of 1812 oc- 
curred, and it, too, had ite attendant evils, serving as an incubus 
upon the schools during the years that followed. Tlie interest of 
the public, so marked at the first, when many of the settlers were 
men of letters who had brought w^ith them their love of learning, 
h^d waned. Teachers were largely incompetent and were poorly- 
paid. Schoolhouses were neglected and were provided with none 
of the equipments now considered essential. One large room, with 
perhaps two hundred pupils, the master at one end and the usher 
at the other, two recitations in progress at the same time, a large 
stove near the door, with pipe extending the length of the room, 
desks sloping towards a central aisle, no globe, nor wall-map, nor 
blackboard ; this is the picture of the schoolroom as presented in 
1830. There was no vocal music, no drawing, no object lesson, no 
geography worthy the name, no vocal training, no i)liysical exer- 
cises, no physiology or hygiene, and no instruction in the elements 
of science. A great part of the time was given to reading and 
writing and to arithmetic, without any attention to principles. 

It w411 thus be seen that the unique educational progress of the 
nineteenth century did not commence until the finst third of it 
was nearly ended. 

It \nll be my purpose to show the origin of some of the impor- 
tant movements inaugurated during the second third, and the part 
which Mr. Bates had in their inception and progress. But be- 
fore doing this, it were well to present a brief account of his 
early life. 

Mr. Bat^s was born in Dedham, Mass., where his father was 
pastor of the Congregational church, on the 17th of March, 1810. 
In 1818 the latter was elected president of the college at Middle- 
burj', Vt., to which town he then removed. That Joshua might 
the better complete his preparation for college, he was sent to 
Phillips Academy at Andover, where he remained till 1828, when 
he entered the freshman class of the institution over which his 
father presided. He graduated with honors in the class of 1832. 
During his college course, he taught two or more wintere in dis- 
trict schools, and at its close he wjus engaged for one year in a 
private school at Springfield. In the fall of 1833, he was elected 
to the position of a master in the "'Old Training Field School" in 



^ EDUCATION. [September, 

Charlestown, at a salary of ♦700. This was aflenvarAs known as 
the Winthrop, and is now the Frothingham School. 

Although the English High School of Boston had been estab- 
lished as early as 1821, most of the towns in its vicinity were still 
without schools of this grade. In Charlestown, Mr. Bat^s was 
selected to receive from all parts of the town those pupils who 
desired an advanced course, or preparation for college, so that his 
work was, to some extent, that of the High School teacher of the 
present day. 

The firet movement towards an educational revival seems to 
have been made in Essex County, where an association of teachers 
was formed in Topsfield in 1829. This is l)elieved to l^e the first 
attempt in this countrj' to bring together the scattered teachers 
for consultation and mutual improvement. The late Gen. Henry 
K. Oliver was its first president. 

On the 15th of March, 1830, a few friends of educfition met at 
Columbian Hall, Boston, to consider what could be done to 
strengthen and advance the cause in which they were engaged. 
As a result of this conference, another and more general meeting 
was held in Representatives' Hall at the Stiite House, in August 
of the same year. Eleven states were represented. It was the 
wish of many to form a State Association, but the pleas of those 
from other states were heeded and the American Institute of 
Instruction, which has just held its fifty-ninth annual meeting at 
Newport, was organized with William B. Calhoun of Springfield, 
as its president. The object of the Institute as then set forth was 
" to promote the cause of popular education, to elevate the char- 
acter of instruction, to widen its sphere, to perfect its methods, as 
well as to compare opinions upon topics relating to it." 

That the teachers of New England were ready for such an asso- 
ciation is evident from its strength and vigor from the very first. 
Twelve to seventeen lectures were given each year by the ablest 
men among them. Among the many, I select a few : Warren 
Colburn lectured on Arithmetic ; Thomas Sherwin on Geometry ; 
George D. Tichnor on Language ; William Kussell on Reading ; 
Horace Mann on Spelling ; Richard Green Parker on Composition ; 
Goold Brown on Grammar; George S. Hilliard on Histor}% and 
James Murdock on Elocution. The words of such men upon topics 
in which each was an expert, could not fail to arouse a lively inter- 
est. The name of President Bates appears in the list of early 



1888.] JOSHUA BATES, 26 

officers and lecturers, and in 1847 Joshua Bates of Boston was one 
of the vice-presidents and was cliairman of the Committee on 
Nominations. 

In August, 1852, the Institute met at Troy, N. Y., and he gave 
his well-remembered lecture upon Thomas Arnold, wliich won for 
him great praise. It was felt, however, by members of the Essex 
County Association, and doubtless by othera, that the Institute 
did not fully meet their wants, and that there was still need of a 
state association. A committee, of which Charles Northend was 
chairman, was appointed to take measures to secure its formation. 
In response to a circular issued by this committee, a convention 
was held at Brinley Hall in Worcester, on Monday, Noveml:)er 
24, 1845. 

The Massachusetts Teachers' Association was then and there 
formed. Oliver Carlton of Salem was its fii*st president, and 
Joshua Bates one of its vice-presidents. At its third annual 
meeting, a committee, of which he was chaiiman, was appointed to 
bring to the legislature the subject of " Truancy," and in 1850 he 
gave a lecture upon *' The Enactment of a law to prevent Truancy 
and Irregular Attendance." At the meeting in 1845, at which the 
Association was formed, a committee was appointed to consider 
the expediency of establishing a " Teachers' Journal " to be its 
organ. As it would assume no pecuniary responsibility, there was 
some delay, and it was not till December, 1847, that four gentle- 
men met in Mr. Bates' room at the United States Hotel to decide 
upon the name the magazine should bear, and to read the first 
proof. For several years this room and the study of Mr. Philbrick 
at his own home were the editorial rooms of the Massachusetts 
Teacher. 

We can form but little idea of the pecuniary sacrifice, the time 
and effort freely given by these gentlemen that it might be estab- 
lished upon a firm basis. The first year there were but 250 paying 
subscribers, and ten years elapsed before the list was increased to 
2,000. Educational magazines had before existed as private enter- 
prises. The first in the country^ was published from 1826 to 1830. 
It was edited by William Russell, and called The Journal of Edu- 
cation. This was succeeded by the Annals of Education which 

*'* The Academioian," a semi-mnntbly majirazine, "containinK the elements of scholas- 
tic science and the oatlines of Philosophic EOucation. predicated on the analysis of the 
butnan mind and exhibiting the improved methods of instruction," was published in 
Kew York from 1818 to 1820, and edited by Albert Picket and John W. Picket.— [Bditor. 



26 EDUCATJOy. [September* 

continued from 1831 to 1839, under the editorship of William C. 
Woodbridge. 

In November, 1838, Horace Mann started the Common School 
Journal, which was published in Boston until 1852, William B. 
Fowle being its editor during the last few years of its existence. 
While Mr. Bates was still in Charlestown the State Board of Edu- 
cation was organized, being created by an Act of the Legislature 
in April, 1837. Horace Mann, who had been largely instrumental 
in securing it, was secretary, and Edward Everett president. 
Mr. Mann used the Common School Journal as the semi-official 
organ of the Board. 

For ten years or more, efforts had been made to secure Noimal 
Schools in Massachusetts. The idea was deemed by many men 
of influence at the State House, to be both visionary and imprac- 
ticable. The elocjuence of John Quincy Adams, Webster, Ran- 
toul, and Everett was enlisted in their behalf, but they were not 
secured until Edmund Dwight pledged 810,000 for their support^ 
on condition that the State provide an equal sum. 

On the 3d day of July, 1839, the doors of the first Normal 
School in America were opened. Rev. Cyrus Peirce, who had 
said : '* I had ratlier die than fail," was its first principal. In an 
hired building, an old academy at Lexington, on the morning of 
that day assembled three pupils. These girls, the first female 
Normal School students in the world, took turns in sweeping the 
room and Father Peirce, as the weather became cool, made the 
fire. 

What small l^eginnings, yet less than fifty years have passed 
and now every State and almost every large city has its Normal 
schools. Let Julv 3, 1889, witness a worthv semi-centennial cele- 
bration. The names of James G. Carter, Charles Brooks, Edmund 
Dwight, and Horace Mann should ever be held in remembrance, in 
connection with these schools so indispensable to a complete sys- 
tem of public instruction. 

In 1852, wliile Barnas Sears was secretary of the Board, the first 
Teachers' Institute, or " Flying Normal School," was held in Bos- 
ton, although they had l)een held in other cities before this. The 
afternoons and evenings of four days were given to it and schools 
were dismissed that teachers might attend. The meetings were 
held in the Lowell Institute, and at the close, Mr. Bates as chair- 
man of a committee on Resolutions, in behalf of the teachers of 



1888.] JOSHUA BATES, 27 

the city, presented tlianks to the Legislature for the establishment 
of the Institutes. 

Lowell Mason, on his return from Europe in 1840, set himself 
to secure the introduction of music into the schools. This took 
place in Boston in 1844, and drawing was introduced at about the 
same time. School supervision became also a subject of discussion, 
and after years of agitation the Boston School Committee, in 1851^ 
decided to employ a Superintendent of Schools, and Nathan Bishop 
was elected to the position. 

Space will not permit me to give any account of the introduc- 
tion of evening schools, changes in school buildings, grading of 
pupils, and many other improvements aflfecting the schools of this 
commonwealth, and, through it, the schools of the civilized world. 
It will be observed that a large part of the educational agencies 
which are still influential, had their origin in the early part of the 
active life of Mr. Bates, and that he had no small share in their 
adoption and continuance. When he entered the Brimmer School 
as Master of the Grammar department in 1844, it had just been 
organized in Common Street, upon the site where the Franklin 
School had stood before its removal to Washington Street. There 
were then nineteen schools in the city of the Grammar grade. 
These were the Eliot, Hancock, Endicott, Mayhew, Bowdoin, 
Boylston, AtUims, Franklin, Johnson, Wells, Hawes, Mather, Win- 
throp. Brimmer, Otis, PliillijKS, Lyman, New South, and Smith. 
The latter was for colored children. All of these, except the last 
three, were upon the " double-headed " plan, one master at the head 
of the Reading and another of the Writing department. This anom- 
alous plan was not entirely discontinued until 1850, although the 
present one was introduced at the Quincy School in 1848, under 
the charge of John D. Philbrick. But nine of the nineteen schools 
of forty years ago, still remain. The demands of business occasion 
changes in population, which result in the depletion of some and 
the erection of many more new ones. 

The Brimmer School had, in 1845, 513 pupils. Thirty-six of 
these were in the first class, and their average age at graduation 
was thirteen years. The agitation of Horace Mann had led the 
Boston School Committee to fear that the schools of the city were 
not in a desirable condition. In view of this, a sub-committee was^ 
appointed in 1845 to examine them. The committee was an able 
one, consisting of Theophilus Parsons, S. G. Howe, and RoUin H» 



28 ED UCA TIOX. [September, 

Neale. In due time, they presented a moat elal>orate and detailed 
report of every school, in each branch of study, and pronounced 
the results unsatLsfactorv. 

I give a few of these, as examples showing the per cent, of cor- 
rect answers which were obtained : 

Highest K. Lowest )(. 

Geography, Winthrop, 46 Otis, 18 

Histor}*, Adams, 59 Phillips, 8 

Philosophy, Bowdoin, 36 Johnson, 12 

Grammar, Adams, 61 Otis, 15 

Definitions, Eliot, 55 Phillips, 8 

Written examinations alone are never a just test of the condi- 
tion of a school, especially if the questions are prepared by out- 
siders and, if, as in this case, the pupils are unaccustomed to such 
examinations. I must admit, however, that there was some good 
ground for the decision of the committee. This comparison of 
schools engendered strife and ill-will which twenty years did not 
wholly remove. If it secured good, it was not unalloyed. 

Although Mr. Bates had l)een but a year in the Brimmer, wliich 
seems to have been neither the highest or the lowest in rank, in 
any study, the committee speak of its *- excellent master " and 
say : " We regard his methods and principles of discipline and 
instruction entitled to pniise and of much promise." 

The report of 1847 says : " Of the boys' schools, we give the 
Brimmer School the first rank. The mind of the energetic teacher 
has been brought in contact with the mintls of his pui)ils and a 
spirit of reatling, of inquiry, and general activity has been excited." 

It is safe to say that for more than thirty years it continued to 
rank among the veiy first. Of his work in the routine of the 
schoolroom, I can say but little, except to point to the results 
secured. A former sub-master, Mr. Boardman, for many years 
master of the Lewis School, writes : " His influence on his own 
class and upon the lx)ys of the entire school was always of the 
right kind. He inspired in the lx)ys a feeling of self-respect, a 
disposition to gentlemanly bearing, an ambition to go to the High 
School and afterwards to seek eligible and honorable positions in 
the work of the world. The boys in whom he encouraged self- 
respect have shown the highest regard for him in maturer years. 
He ever sought the best teachers and with beginners was patient, 
giving helpful advice and suggestion. He was careful never, by 



1888.] JOSHUA BATES, 29 

word or act, to weaken or impair the influence of a teacher with 
her class. His devotion to the interests of his school did more 
than any rules or precepts to create a like spirit in his assistants. 
If one brought a divided interest she was ' not to his mind.' Dur- 
ing the fourteen years and more that I was with him my confidence 
in and respect for him was constantly increasing, and has contin- 
ued to do so, as I have been in a way to know better the nature of 
the duties devolving upon him." 

The teacher of a Primary class in his district says : " I always 
found him a gentleman, just and conscientious in his frequent 
visits." 

The graduates of the Brimmer School were perhaps the first in 
the city to form an Alumni Association. Two or three years 
since it was my pleasure to be present as an invited guest at one 
of their annual reunions, and it was a delight to see his former 
pupils, many of whom were already bearing the mark of advancing 
years, gather around Mr. Bates as children around a loved father 
at the family Thanksgiving festival. 

Among my many associates in the ranks of the Boston Masters, 
I can recall no one who aimed so much as he did to improve the 
moral nature of his pupils. He not only seized the opportunity 
as the events of the day brought a subject to the attention of the 
school, but he took occasion to give more formal talks on morals 
to his boys, who were so soon to take a place amid the activities 
and temptations of city life. It was not so much the curriculum 
of the school as the character of the man and his desire for their 
moral well-being, which occasioned this strong hold upon the affec- 
tions of his graduates, to which Mr. Boardman has referred. 

For nearly fifty years the Masters have met once a month at the 
social board. At first they assembled at the residence of each in 
turn, or at some hotel as he might elect; but for many years the 
meeting has been at the School Committee rooms at 4.30 p. m. 
We have there considered topics of vital interest to the schools. 
Mr. Bates was an active participant in our discussions and was 
always earnest in the advocacy of what he deemed the right. 
The welfare of the schools was dear to him and to wound them 
was to wound him. His convictions were strong and so often was 
the language he used to express them. The " hallucinations " 
of the " zamzumons," to use two of his favorite words, were sure 
to arouse his indignation and call forth his vigorous protests. His 



30 EDUCATIOX, [September, 

voice and pen were often called into requisition to condemn the 
course of some official, or to expose the fantastic tricks of some 
educational humbug. If there were those who doubted the jus- 
tice of his censure, there were none who questioned his sincerity 
or devotion. 

From these rooms we adjourned to a 6 o'clock dinner at Parker's. 
By common consent the place of honor, the head of the table, was 
for years assigned to him. He was our Nestor, without a rival. 
His massive head, his portly form, and genial face became the place 
and well did he adorn it. 

The last meeting at which he presided was on the first Tuesday 
of October, 1874. In the course of his remarks at the table, he 
said : " From whatever eLse you deprive me, cut me not off from 
these monthly gatherings, and you will not, while these eyes can 
see the way and these feet can tread the path to these meetings 
and to a seat at this board. Let us cling to this association as our 
first love, advising one another, helping one another and so con- 
secrating our whole energies to our noble callmg, that when 
we shall be laid ' each in his narrow cell where heaves the turf 
in many a mouldering heap,' this, the noblest of epitaphs, shall 
be engraved on our tombstones : ' Here lies a faithful, devoted 
teacher.' " 

At story-telling, when in a mood for it, Mr. Bates was an adept, 
but when not inclined to tell one, no amount of persuasion was of 
any avail. The presentation of a good one by another, however, 
would sometimes remind him of a better, which he could not for- 
bear to tell. I have seen the company convulsed with laughter 
upon hearing the same story from liim for the twentieth time and 
of its repetition they seemed never to tire if it came from his lips. 

On one occasion, many years ago, with a party of gentlemen, I 
spent the day in an excursion from Bethlehem, N. H., to the Pro- 
file and the Flume. The journey, both there and back, was enliv- 
ened with song, and wit, and story. Chief among those who 
contributed to the pleasure of that memorable day was Mr. Bates. 
The pure mountain air and genial company served to exhilarate 
both brain and tongue, and none present will forget him or the 
occasion. 

Prompted by ill health, Mr. Bates presented his resignation on 
the 26th of May, 1876, to take effect September 1st. A leave of 
absence was immediately granted and a committee appointed to 



1888.] JOSHUA BATES. 31 

present suitable resolutions at the next meeting, which was held 
June 27th. At that time, Godfrey Morse, Esq., offered the fol- 
lowing, which was unanimously adopted : — 

" Besolved^ that the School Committee of the city of Boston, recognizing the 
faithful and successful labors of Joshua Bates, who for thirty-two years was 
principal of the Brimmer School, desire to place on record their approbation 
of the fidelity with which he performed his duties, and attest to the success 
which has crowned his persevering labors. The Committee regret the loss to 
the city of so valued an instructor and hope that relaxation from active service 
will restore him to the enjoyment of his health, while the best wishes of the 
Committee for his well-earned rest and happiness accompany him to his retire- 
ment." 

It is evident that he was not content to be idle, for writing from 
Florida the following March, he said : '' My health is, I think, 
somewhat improved of late. At times, I feel quite uneasy and 
long for the profession of my choice, in which I have spent so 
many happy years, but I will not repine, for I feel most grateful 
that I have had so many years granted me to work in one of the 
noblest fields of usefulness." 

I have often heard him say that if he was to live his life over 
again he would select the same occupation, the profession he so 
nobly adorned. He often said, too, that he was thankful that his 
life-work was done when it was ; for he saw ominous clouds already 
above the horizon. 

There have been teachers, I fear, even in Boston, who seemed 
to feel that wisdom was so embodied in themselves, that little 
could be gained from without and consequently have kept aloof 
from familiar contact with their associates. Not so Mr. Bates. 
Whenever we assembled for consultation or to listen to words of 
counsel from our Superintendent, he was habitually present. 
After he had, by his resignation, severed his official connection 
with the schools, and even after he had come to feel deeply the 
effect of physical infirmities, again and again have I seen him 
toiling up the two long flights of stairs at Mason Street, that he 
might enjoy the reading of some paper or listen to a discussion 
upon some subject in which he continued to take a profound 
interest. 

No one, who has left our ranks and was not in some capacity 
still connected with the schools, retained to such a degree as did 
he, his hearifelt interest in them. In 1865, when less than thirty 
years of age, I was elected Master of the Franklin School, and I 



32 EDUCATIOX, [September, 

desire to bear witness here to the cordiality with which I was 
received by this veteran in the service, who was my next neighbor. 
This spirit was continued to the end, and I recall with satisfaction 
his many kindly words. I am sure that others, could they testify, 
would speak of like treatment at his hands. 

Upon the return of Mr. Philbrick from Europe, in October, 
1873, Mr. Bat^s was selected by the Mjist^rs to offer liim in their 
behalf an address of welcome. Usually, upon the death of one of 
our numl^er, Mr. Bates was appointed chairman of a committee on 
resolutions. For this position, he was eminently adapted, in view 
of his large-hearted sympathy, his just appreciation of men, as 
well {IS his power of felicitous expression. 

In 1877 a portrait of Mr. Bates was presented publicly to the 
Brimmer School. He Wiis deeply moved by this act and by the 
words si)oken upon the occasion. I quote from a letter bearing 
date of March 24, 1877 : — 

^^ The many kind thini^s said of ine there by past pupils and friends have 
touched nie. I feel that I liave not merited all the liindness and warm expres- 
sions of regard so generously lavished on me in my old age. After so many 
years of service in the Boston schools, I can but continue still to feel the liveli- 
est intere<;t in their welfare and in all that pertains to their success and pros- 
perity. [ am often living over the many happy days I have spent in the school- 
room and in the monthly meetings of the Masters for educational improvement 
and social interchange, where so many good suggestions were made and where 
those teachers most interested in their work caught a new enthusiasm and 
entered again on their labors with fresh motives for action and new ideas in 
plans and methods of instruction. '' 

In 1880, the degree LL. D. was given liim by his Alma Mater» 
and of this he writes : — 

'* This honor conferred upon me was doubly gratifying, not only because it 
is the first instance in which such a degree has been conferred upon a Boston 
Grammar Master, but also because it is one more evidence that Teaching is fast 
becoming more properly recognized as among the learned and honorable pro- 
fessions, where it certainly deserves to be ranked.'^ 

Mr. Bates continued to the last a firm and devoted friend of Mr. 
Philbrick, and he could hardly find words to express his detesta- 
tion of the acts of those who were instrumental in his removal 
from office. In writing him on one occasion he said : — 

*^ It would seem amusing, if the subject were not too serious for Jesting, that 
men, most of whom are babes in educational matters, should pretend to know 
more about the management of schools than yourself, who for twenty years 
have made it the study of your useful and laborious life. My indignation has 
been roused that some men in Boston, and even some on the School Committee, 



1888.] JOSHUA BATES, 33 

should ignore your plans and methods. In a short tirae they will sink into 
ignoble and forgotten graves, while your name will continue to live on, as one 
who has done more for the success and prosperity of the Boston schools than 
any other man. Continue firm, my dear friend, in the views you have expressed 
and stand unmoved on the ground you have taken, and I know the better sense 
of all true and practical friends of education will sustain you.'* 

These were prophetic words and Mr. Bates lived to see them 
fulfilled, for nearly everything for which Mr. Philbrick contended 
has since been adopted, while that which he opposed has been dis- 
carded. Upon learning that the Memorial Volume of Mr. Phil- 
brick was to be issued, he wrote to Mrs. Philbrick : — 

^^ If any man deserves posthumous reputation, that man is Dr. Philbrick ; so 
distinguished an educator and so noble a man.'* 

After an examination of the book he wrote again : — 

'^ Now, that I have finished reading the various tributes to his memory, I 
have been most deeply impressed with the nobleness of his character and life. 
I have always esteemed and honored your beloved husband, but never have 
I been so impressed with his greatness as I have since reading the tributes to 
his character from distinguished educators. His influence will live on in future 
years as one of the greatest benefactors of his race.'' 

At the early age of fifteen, Mr. Bates became connected with 
the Congregational Church at Middlebury, but in later life was a 
regular attendant at the service of the Episcopal Church. He was 
conservative in his religious views, and as I learned from his own 
lips, in words spoken with strong emotion, he had a firm convic- 
tion of the truths of evangelical religion and the highest esteem 
for those, who, trusting to atoning blood for their own salvation, 
sought in daily life to exemplify the spirit of the Master. 

He married, somewhat late in life, a daughter of Hall J. How, 
of Boston, who, with Frank C, his only child, survives him. For 
twelve years after his resignation he lived, honored and beloved 
by former pupils, associates, and friends. 

On Monday, June 25, 1888, at the age of seventy-eight, he died 
at Beverly, where for many years he had made his summer home. 
In the absence of his own pastor, the rector of Emmanuel Church, 
Boston, Rev. EUery C. Butler, of Beverly, a warm, personal 
friend, oflBciated at the funeral. The service was short and sim- 
ple. As it was understood to be private, many who would gladly 
have been present to pay respect to his memory were denied the 
privilege. His body rests, where lie so many of Boston's great 
and good, at Mount Auburn. 



i 



34 EDUCATION, [September, 

His dignified bearing and commanding presence will be seen no 
more, but he is not dead. Influence is immortal. The infant 
dying, still lives in the l>etter thought and life of those who loved 
it here. 

The herald of the cross, in foreign lands although called to die, 
ere yet he has learned to utter one intelligible word in the ear of 
those he would save, yet speaks to them by the consecration which 
led him to their shores. 

What shall we say, then, of the undying influence of him, who 
for almost half a century labored and taught, that he might train, 
inspire, and elevate thousands of boys, who vnW ever revere the 
precious memory of ** Master Bates." 



JAMES JOHONNOT, who, for many years, lias been prominent 
in educational work, and is the author of a number of popu- 
lar schoolbooks, died, June 18th, at Tarpon Springs, Florida. 

He early advocated many reforms in school methods and school 
economy, which he lived to see, in a great measure, accomplished. 
Though somewhat radical in Ids views, because in advance of cur- 
rent opinions upon many subjects, his chief aim was to place the 
common schools upon a scientific and philosophic basis, arousing 
the mental powers, and making practical morals the educational 
means for the cultivation of sound character. The latter years of 
his life were given mainly to literary work, and at the present time 
there have been published the following books, written and edited 
by him : " Principles and Practice of Teaching," *' Geograpliical 
Reader," " Natural History Series of Instructive Reading-Books," 
consisting of "Book of Cats and Dogs," '" Friends in Feathers and 
Fur," " Neighbors with Wings and Fins," " Neighbors with Claws 
and Hoofs," "Some Curious Flyers, Creepers, and Swimmers," 
and "The Animate World," "How we Live," an elementary 
physiology, "Historical Series of Instructive Reading-Books," 
seven volumes, and " The Sentence and Word-Book." 

Two different editions of " Principles and Practice of Teach- 
ing " have been published in Japan, in the Japanese language, for 
the use of the native teachers of that country. His death will be 
mourned widely and sincerely, as the loss of one of the foremost 
educators of America. 



1888.] OUTLINE NOTES. 35 



OUTLINE NOTES ON THE RENAISSANCE AND 

THE REFORMATION.^ 

BY IDA M. GARDNEB. 

[These outlines are based upon notes on leotures delivered before the Rhode Island 
State Normal School by the late Prof. J. Lewis Dlman, D. D., of Brown University. No 
attempt has been made to develop them into anything more than a connected whole. 
Such as they are, they embody the permanent impression made by the lectures upon a 
comparatively immature mind; and may therefore serve to illustrate Professor Diman's 
clear presentation of a subject, and its careftil analysis. It is believed that the notes 
will be helptal to teachers, not only in the lines of study suggested, but in presenting to 
classes a short, concise statement of this interesting period of modem history.] 

I. — THE REFORMATION. 

THE year 1517, when Luther nailed the ninety-five theses on 
the church door at Wittenberg, may be taken as the approx- 
imate date of the Reformation ; but in reality, the Reformation 
began in the twelfth century, when Arnold of Brescia, accepting 
all the doctrines of the Church, denied its political supremacy as 
claimed by the MedisBval Popes. 

In the middle of the thirteenth century, another grand move- 
ment occurred. This was the Rise of the Mendicant Orders. 
Ever since the sixth century, the ruling monastic orders had been 
founded on the Benedictine system. The rule of St. Benedict had 
done an immense amount of good in Europe. When civilization 
went to the lowest point in the Dark Ages, the Benedictines kept 
knowledge alive. This system began with vows of poverty, that 
is, for individuals, but the Order might hold property. The life 
was a pleasant one. The leaders became powerful men. Abbots 
and Archbishops often sat in the House of Lords. Young men 
became eager to secure such positions, and went into the monas- 
tery from worldly motives. The Order became in time very 
wealthy. Benedict lived at a time when a man could hardly help 
being wicked ; he must seclude himself to be pure. He thought 
of his own salvation, and was separated from sympathy with the 
world. But now men began to feel that religion had something 
more to do ; that man had relations and duties to other men. 

*■ Copsrright, 1888, by Ida M. Gardner. 



36 EDUCATION. [September, 

I. St. Francis of Assissi was the most remarkable character of 
Mediaeval times. He was a gay, pleasant^ fashionable, loving Ital- 
ian. A religious experience through which he passed, produced a 
conviction that religion ought to be a spiritual life. He became 
the founder of the Franciscans, or White Friars. They diflFered 
from the Benedictines in requiring absolute poverty for the Order, 
as well as for the individual. They took the triple vow of " chasti- 
ty, obedience, and poverty." Their whole aim was to imitate 
Christ. The Order did not oppose the Church, but introduced the 
new idea of spirituality. It was a mystical theology — "a sort of 
modem Quakerism." The Order became very popular. Feudal- 
ism prevailed, and nine-tenths of the people were in servitude. 
The system of St. Francis was a Gospel to the poor. They were 
made to feel that they too might imitate Christ. The rise of the 
Franciscans aided in paving the way for the Reformation, in that 
a spiritual religion would tend to lessen the value of the ordinances 
of the Church. St. Francis was a genial, loving mystic. Not so 
was 

II. St. Dominic of Spain. He was a practical man. He saw 
the Church doing nothing for the people. " He was the Moody of 
the thirteenth century." He made preaching prominent. The 
Dominicans, or Black Friars, were preaching friars. They had 
great influence at Oxford. ( The college gowns of to-day a relic 
of Dominican influence.) The Dominicans gave plain preaching 
on practical matters. Dominic might be called " the father of 
modern Methodism." The Dominicans preached in the streets — 
the beginning of itinerant preaching. The Franciscans urged to 
spiritual living ; the Dominicans, to reform in preaching. The 
results can hardly be over-estimated. These two gave back to 
Rome great masses of people who had become indifferent, and 
gave to Latin Christianity three hundred years more of life. The 
influence has been felt even down to the present day. Wherever 
there has been found any religious life in Europe, we almost alwaya 
find that one of these two influences has been at work. 

The Mystical movement occurred in Germany. None of the 
Mystics departed from the Church, but their influence was another 
aid to the Reformation. In the fourteenth century, all through 
the Rhine towns, went men who called themselves " Friends of 
God." They formed no order or association, though there was a 
very strong sympathy of opinion among them. Among their 



1888.] OUTLINE NOTES. 37 

preachers John Tauler upheld the most spiritual idea — the inter- 
nal influence of the Holy Spirit. It was a remarkable movement. 
It never took the form' of antagonism to the Church, but gradually 
leavened large portions of Germany. No one took a stand for 
distinct views, but they prepared the way for others to do so. 

After the fifteenth century, the religious movement becomes 
sharper. Savonarola was the first of the open reformers. He 
denounced doctrines. He was a man of intense spirit, but narrow 
in intellect. His lectures on the Apocalypse produced a profound 
effect. ( Read " Romola.") As a reformer, Savonarola presents 
himself in three attitudes, and we find he was not quite up to the 
standard of a real reformer. 

1. As a religious reformer. He denounced the wickedness of 
the clergy; attended the death-bed of Lorenzo di Medici and 
denounced his sins. He did not fear to face Alexander VI. and 
declare his wickedness. 

2. As a moral reformer. He denounced the extravagance of 
the times in living, dress, etc. So great was the effect of his 
preaching that the ladies of Florence gave up their jewels and 
treasures to be burned in the street. 

3. In regard to education. Savonarola opposed an extremely 
classical education. Claimed it should be Christian. 

After a career of great successes, Savonarola was put to death. 
Why did he fail, apparently, to produce a lasting effect? His 
training had been defective. He looked on religion as an external 
thing. The belief of men was untouched. He did not reach the 
vital point. 

II. 

All great periods have their representative men, from whom the 
age is named. Thus we speak of the " Age of Pericles," the " Age 
of Augustus," etc. The first quarter of the sixteenth century 
may be called the age of Leo X. To understand the shipwreck 
of Latin Christianity, we must understand the characteristics of 
the Age of Leo X. 

Leo's own name was John di Medici, the second son of Lorenzo 
the Magnificent. He was bom in 1475, when liis father was at 
the height of his power and splendor. He had every advantage, 
social and intellectual. In accordance with the custom of the 
times, John was dedicated to God, receiving the ecclesiastical ton- 



88 EDUCATION. [September, 

sure at seven years of age, and became Abbot of a large monas- 
tery. In the Middle Ages such ecclesiastical preferment was very 
common. At thirteen John became a Cardinal, but this was a step 
beyond any that had yet been taken. There was some question 
about putting a boy into the Pope's Board of Advisers, so he was 
not to enter upon the duties of his oflBce until seventeen. From 
this time he became a candidate for the papacy. The fact illus- 
trates the condition of things, when the highest and most sacred 
offices were thrown open to a child. 

John became very proficient in classical studies. He had all 
the attributes and qualities for a high literary career. Had he 
been born in other circumstances, he would have been a famous 
scholar. He was fond of art, and became a munificent patron 
of Art. 

The condition of Italy wliile John was growing up, had its influ- 
ence upon him. The attempted reform under Savonarola was a 
genuine movement in the Church. Notwithstanding the perfectly 
shameless life of Alexander VI. and his court, there were signs of 
a strong reaction in favor of a high tone in private and public 
morals. Savonarola's preaching produced a profound impression ; 
but after his death came a reaction, and Florence was worse than 
before. All thought of reform seemed to have passed away. 
Then the papacy fell into the hands of a man who, if he had vices, 
had the decency to cover them. This was Julius II. All his 
tastes and inclinations led him away from ecclesiastical concerns.* 
He was never happy unless fighting on horseback, at the head of 
his army. His influence, though not immoral, was almost as bad 
as Alexander's had been. It tended to secularize the papacy, and 
make men forget that the Pope was the Vicar of Clirist. 

Another downward tendency at this time, came from the change 
in Art. Julius's influence on Art was pernicious. The pure period 
of Italian Art closed with Da Vinci. His " Last Supper " may be 
taken as the culmination of Art as religious. After that time Art 
changed. Julius II. was not the man to appreciate an artist like 
Fra Angelico. He had no taste for the simple and pure. He 
loved splendor, and looked on Art as a means of decorating great 
buildings. This was the occasion of the frescoes in the Sistine 
Chapel. Julius was a munificent patron of Art, but he had a bad 
influence on Michael Angelo and Raphael. In the time of Julius 
there were already signs of the decay in Art. 



1888.] OUTLINE NOTES, 39> 

In 1513 John di Medici became Pope under the title of Leo X. 
He made great changes in the papacy. We study him in three 
aspects : 1. As a politician. 2. As patron of Art. 3. In con- 
nection with religious reform. 

As a politician, Leo was able. Julius gave a word and a blow. 
Leo followed a pacific policy. To avoid trouble he balanced the 
states of Italy one against the other. He wished to be the arbiter 
of Italy. This policy succeeded for a time, but it always breeds 
suspicion and discontent, and generally alienates all parties. Leo 
escaped war, and kept the papacy from entanglements of any kind. 
He kept Italy in equilibrium ; but was obliged to play " fast and 
loose," now on this side, now on that. All the powers of Europe 
came to look upon the papacy with indifference. From watching 
Leo's course, they began to act in the same way, and this period is 
known as the Era of Diplomacy. It lasted till the French Revo- 
lution. Leo was adroit, skilful, often successful, but had no politi- 
cal reputation, advanced no political idea, roused no enthusiasm, 
inspired no devotion. He presents a great contrast to Gregory 
VII. A man who has moral earnestness never fails to inspire 
devotion ; and has followers ready, if need be, to die for liim. 
Leo was polite, elegant, and well-bred; would hardly speak of 
religion. He was fond of hunting, and the stage. This was the 
man who stood at the head of the Church, " who opened heaven or 
hell to men I " Leo had about him pleasant, refined men for Car- 
dinals. Scholars were such purists that they would not speak of 
the Holy Ghost, except as "the Divine Afflatus." The i)apal 
court was elegant, literary, polished ; but made no mark on Euro- 
pean society. The age was one of indifference, and therefore a 
weak age. 

Leo as a patron of Art, was a striking and magnificent character. 
He had a genuine appreciation of the beautiful, and a love for 
literature and art. He was a great friend of Raphael, but cor- 
rupted his art. It is not the richest patrons who aid Art most. It 
must often develop in struggle. Inspiration comes when no patron 
asks for it. Raphael changed greatly, in his endeavors to please 
his courtly patron, and lost the high religious sentiment that marks 
his earlier works. Looking on Leo in contrast with other princes 
of his day, we find liim far above all, and deserving to rank liigh. 

We now study Leo as a religious reformer ; not in personal 
religion, but in ecclesiastical concerns. Here his idea, as in his 



40 ED UCA TION, [September, 

temporal rule, was to have tilings pleasant and easy. Unfortu- 
nately he came where two seas met, and the storm was beyond his 
skill. Leo was eager in his plans for carrying on the work on St, 
Peter's. He meant to improve on the plans of Julius II., but his 
expenses were heavy, he lived handsomely, and he became short 
of money. He could get it by remitting the sins of the people. 
He knew the conscientious character of the Germans. He chose 
a coarse, vulgar, Dominican monk, John Tetzel, to go to Ger- 
many and sell indulgences. Tetzel sold indulgences " as a trader 
sells fish." The Germans did not seem to like tliis idea. Tetzel 
ran against Luther, and trouble followed. Leo was surprised at 
the Germans. He could not understand what he had never experi- 
enced. He had no religious feeling himself, to be outraged. He 
regarded this disturl>ance in Germany as a monkish quarrel, and 
poohed when asked to do something about it. So little did he 
understand religious sentiment. Yet this was to divide Latin 
Christianity I It is remarkable as showing that a sharp, shrewd 
man may at times be the least penetrating. The builtling of St. 
Peter's precipitated the Reformation. 

III. 

Martin Luther is generally looked upon as the central figure of 
the Protestant Reformation. He was a great man, but Charles V. 
or Leo X. might just as truthfully be given a central position. 
The fact is that the Reformation was due to a great variety of 
causes acting together. 

Martin Luther was hon\ at Eisle]>en, in 1483. His boyhood 
forms a striking c(mtrast to that of Leo X. He was the son of a 
I)oor miner, but had a good education for that age. His parents 
were godly people, and brought uj) their boy to know right from 
wrong ; but he afterward shuddered at the severity of their disci- 
pline. His school-training was not dissimilar. In his ''Table 
Talk " he speaks of having l>een flogged sixteen times over a Latin 
verl). At last Martin was sent to Magdeburg. Here he studied 
hard, supporting liimself by singing in the streets. He was 
intended for the law ; but he very early became subject to religious 
impressions, and at last entered a convent. Here for a time 
Luther's life passed uneventfully to the casual observer, but his 
religious life was one of struggle. The turning-point in his career 
was his visit to Rome in 1510. His emotions on approaching the 



1888.] OUTLINE NOTES. 41 

Holy City were intense, but he was doomed to bitter disappoint- 
ment. Religion was the last thing to be talked about. Julius II. 
was then Pope. The mysteries of the faith were scoffed at by 
ecclesiastics. There was the most utter indifference to religion. 
The effect upon such a nature as Luther's was incalculable. He 
returned to Germany and began to think. The University of 
Wittenberg had been founded in 1502, for the study of Greek and 
Hebrew ; and in 1508 Luther was called to be a professor at Wit- 
tenberg. Here he became the centre of an intense intellectual 
life. Melancthon soon joined him, and they quietly pursued their 
course for some years. Luther turned his attention to the study 
of the Scriptures. He read the Bible now in the original tongue, 
and lectured on it. The University became famoiLs. Scholars 
flocked thither, drawn by his powerful eloquence. Luther was a 
good monk, but his mind was working. He was an independent, 
plain-spoken man, known as a ''jolly, good-hearted fellow." He 
entered into life heartily, which was one secret of his popularity. 

In 1513, Leo X. became Pope. Tetzel came to Germany to sell 
indulgences, that Leo might go on with his work of decorating St. 
Peter's. Luther was revolted at Tetzel's ideas. After thinking 
the matter over, he wrote out ninety-five propositions, or theses, 
and nailed them up on the Church door. This was a common 
way of holding disputations on any subject. It was only the sub- 
ject which was unusual — '* The just shall live by faith." This 
was in 1517, and it made a great stir in Wittenberg and Germany. 
Tetzel was a coarse man, not at all agreeable to the sober Germans, 
and their minds were all ready for the discussion. Observe Luther's 
position. He did only what a hundred others had done. His step 
was not so far-reaching as that of Arnold of Brescia, or of Savon- 
arola. He denied no doctrine, sacrament, or authority of the 
Church. When he found how he was assailed, he wrote a letter 
to the Pope, protesting his entire submission to the Holy See. 
On the one point only, he differed. 

Three steps may be noted in Luther's career : I. As a reform- 
er, by the theses of 1517, when he was not out of the pale of ortho- 
doxy. II. As the antagonist of Leo X. After many discussions 
an ai)peal was finally made to the Pope. He was not inclined to 
interfere. Thought it a mere monkish quarrel which would all 
come right. Unfortunately it did not, and many joined themselves 
to Luther. At last Leo was forced to condenm him. This put 



4S EDUCATION. [September, 

Luther in a new position. " Leo could n't give up, and Luther 
would n't." Opposed by the authority of the Pope, Luther was 
now forced to question it. This led to the great discussion at 
Leipsic. 

In 1519, Maximilian died. Charles I. of Spain, and Francis I. 
of France, were rivals for the Imperial crown. During the inter- 
regnum, Frederic of Saxony governed Germany. He protected 
Luther, who felt secure and took another position. The Reforma- 
tion began to assume the appearance of a struggle between Luther 
and the Pope. Leo did not wish to excommunicate Luther, if 
avoidable ; but it was necessary to stop him, and at last the Papal 
Bull was issued against him in December of 1520. Luther burned 
the Pope's Bull. There was now no possibility of his return to 
the Church. 

The Pope now did a very foolish thing, in appealing to the Ger- 
man princes to aid him in making Luther an outcast. The separate 
princes must be gained to his side. There were nearly four hun- 
dred princes, claiming the rights of sovereign power. There was 
no one head to appeal to. The matter dragged on, till at last 
Charles I. of Spain was crowned emperor in 1520, as Charles V. 
of Germany. Immediately after his election, the Diet of Worms 
occurred. Leo applied to the Diet. It was proposed that Luther 
should come before the Diet and tell his story. This was the last 
thing the Pope ought to have done. It enabled Luther to take 
the next step in his career. III. The appeal to the civil power. 
Luther's ^vritings had been well circulated through Germany, and 
many of the German nobles at the Diet were well inclined toward 
him. On being urged to retract, Luther took the position he had 
so often taken before — "I will retract whatever I have said that 
is contrary to the Word of God." His answers and arguments 
produced a profound impression. Charles was perplexed, the Diet 
not unanimous. It was the crisis of Modern Europe. Before, 
Luther had been a private person. He went from the Diet a 
national hero. It was no longer a question for monks to settle, 
but for princes. On his way from the Diet, Luther was seized and 
confined in the Wartburg. Here in a certain sense his career 
ended. The movement now ceased to be theological, and became 
a great political question. Luther was no longer the leading 
spirit. He did not like mixing religious reform with political 
matters. 



1888.] OUTLINE NOTES. 45 

It is interesting to compare Luther and Savonarola, and the 
result of their work. Both were monks of the Mendicant order. 
Savonarola was a Dominican, Luther an Augustinian. Both were 
yearning for a spiritual, personal religious life. Savonarola never 
went beyond externals ; did not touch doctrines nor the question 
of the soul. He was destitute of an inner experience of spiritual 
truth. Luther, too, was moved by externals, but also by deepest 
spiritual convictions. Great movements have their roots in strug- 
gle. Savonarola had none. Luther began early to doubt, and 
from his own personal experience he came to believe^ " The just 
shall live by faith." Savonarola died without touching the hearts 
of men. Luther's work is still living. Never was there such a 
leader of common men, as Luther. He had an intense, personal 
magnetism. He loved human things, domestic life, etc. His 
words were half battles. He used language in his own way ; may 
be said to have created German prose. His translation of the Bible 
while at the Wartburg is the standard of vernacular and idio- 
matic German. 



THE SILENT PR A TER, 

BY JULIA H. MAT. 

MY little boy had done a naughty deed 
And then was sorry, but he did not know 
What words to use to tell his father so, 
Nor how to speak them. I could plainly read 
His sorrow in his face, and felt his need 
Of speech ; but when I saw the baby throw 
Himself before me, then, oh ! then, although 
He could not speak, but, shaking like a reed. 
Clung to my knees, — I clasped him to my heart, 
And kissed forgiveness. 

Thus for my weak prayer 
That finds no fitting words, or unexpressed 
Lies syllabled within, my God may care 
Before the trembling lip has half confessed 
Its sorrow, for the Father's eye can see 
Repentant hearts, though voices silent be. 



44 EDUCATIOy, [September, 



CHILD SPEECH, AND THE LA W OF MISPRONUN- 

CIA TION. 

BY EDMUND NOBLE, BOSTON. 
I. 

DO children mispronounce in a haphazard way, without system 
of any kind, or is method manifested in their errors of pro- 
nunciation ? Do they lisp incorrectly in all sorts of fashions, and 
by all sorts of irregularities, or is their failure to rightly enunciate 
established sounds reducible in detail to conformity with unvary- 
ing rule and inexorable law ? The answei^s to these questions are 
of clear and direct interest to teachei*s, but their meaning for 
certain aspects of the science of education is great enough to i*aise 
the whole subject into a position of high importance. This, at any 
rate, is the conclusion at which the writer has arrived after several 
years' study in the fascinating realm of child-speech, and it is 
because he believes that we may have here, in this little known 
realm, a new source of help for natui^al methods of tuition, a new 
treasure-house of facts for the science of man, that he ventures to 
offer some of the results of liis inquiries to the readers of Educa- 
tion. 

Let me begin by stating the general character of the conclusions 
which studies of child-speech in such languages as English, French, 
German, Russian, Italian, Danish, Swedish, Magyar, Calmuck, New 
Greek, and Finnish, have seemed to afford abundant justifica- 
tion. At an early period of the inquiry, there were discovered 
in the more prominent mistakes of child pronunciation, tendencies 
to error in certain common directions such as clearly implied some 
law as their inciting cause. I found, for example, that the sounds 
most imperfectly pronounced by children are sounds the formation 
of which by the organs of speech is obscure as a process when 
compared with the process necessary to the formation of other 
sounds ; and that the souniLs most accurately and soonest uttered 
by children are sounds the formation of which is clear and obvious 
as a process when compared with the process followed by the vocal 



1888.] CHILD SPEECH. 45 

organs in the creation of other sounds. That is to say, when chil- 
dren make mistakes of pronunciation, the tendency is to make 
them in the case of sounds which are produced either in the throat 
or the posterior part of the mouth, or by some arrangement of the 
organs of speech which is either not visible as an arrangement, or 
which leads to a partial suppression of the sound within the mouth, 
or which gives rise to a sound of such faintness or complexity that 
it cannot easily be imitated. On the other hand, when children 
are correct in their pronunciation at a time when their speech is 
naturally imperfect, the sounds correctly pronounced will be 
found, as a rule, to be those sounds whose formation by the organs 
of speech is not obscure but obvious — sounds, in fact, which are 
produced in the anterior part of the mouth, by the lips, or in such 
a manner as to give rise to a clear and forcible impression in the 
mind of the hearer. 

Before a child can reproduce a sound once heard, two processes 
are necessary. The brain of the child must first receive the im- 
pression, or the percept, of that sound. Then, the moment before 
reproduction of the impression as sound, the percept must be 
reproduced as re-percept. Now, the resemblance between the 
sound as uttered by a teacher and the sound as reproduced by the 
vocal organs of the child, will depend — first, on the vividness of 
the percept ; second, on the faithfulness of the re-percept to the 
percept ; and third, on the completeness of the response yielded 
by the organs of the voice to the nerve stimulus setting them in 
motion. Yet we have here to do simply with the percept. If that 
be vivid, it will assert its character in the correctness of the repro- 
duced sound. But if it is weak or faulty in any respect, then its 
defect will be reproduced in an erroneous pronunciation. 

By what circumstances, then, or conditions is the character of 
the percept determined? It must first be remembered that, for 
purely human experiences like those of speech and of listening to 
speech, the senses need organization ; and that in the child their 
progress to the degree of acuteness which belongs to human beings 
fully matured is definite and gradual. The period of the acquire- 
ment of speech is also the period in which the sense of sight, and 
particularly that of hearing, undergo a cumulative improvement 
of considerable range. Hence it is in this period that such senses 
are only fully awake to the strongest and most vivid impressions 
The circumstances under which a sound is produced or an objec 



46 EDUCATION. [Septembei, 

is seen will thus have a much more important effect upon the char- 
acter of the percept created by the sonorous or visible object than 
they can possibly have at a later period, when the senses have 
acquired their full acuteness. Any obstacle in the way of the 
sonorous wave will exert an inhibitory effect upon the percept 
larger than that which would be exerted in the case of an adult, 
and it will therefore be of considerable importance to the hearing 
of a child, and to its perception of a vocal sound, whether that 
sound is uttered in the posterior part of the mouth, or is produced 
by the lips, or with the cooperation of the tongue and teeth. Nor 
do very young children depend alone for the imitation of a sound 
upon the sense of hearing. In the early stage of their acquire- 
ment of speech, at any rate, they usually gaze at the speaker's 
mouth, with an apparent, and verj"^ real, though only sub-conscious, 
purpose of observing the position of the lips and tongue, or the 
movements of both, in the act of articulation. This attention to 
the visible phenomena of speech — this application of all the 
available means of successful imitation — seems to pass away as 
the child gains the rudiments of articulate language ; but while it 
continues, the testimony of vision is as clearly in favor of the 
acquirement of visible arrangements of the mouth and tongue, as 
is the testimony of hearing in favor of the more audible to the 
disadvantage of the less audible sounds. In other words, the 
sounds modified in the fore-part of the mouth, where there is no 
obstacle in the way of the sonorous vibrations, and where the 
physical arrangements of vocal utterance may be clearly seen, have 
a tendency to be selected for earlier acquirement than the sounds 
which are modified in the posterior part of the mouth, where there 
are obstacles in the path of the sonorous vibrations, and where the 
organic positions that produce those vibrations cannot be observed. 
Now, if there be such a selection as this, children must find it 
on the one hand easier to pronounce labials and dentals, on the 
other, more difficult to enunciate medials and gutturals — easy or 
difficult, in fact, to produce sounds according as they possess the 
conditions of ease and difficulty as just described. Moreover, a 
law like this requires, as proof of its existence and operation, not 
only that certain sounds shall be easy to acquire, and certain other 
sounds difficult to acquire, but that in the child speech to which 
the alleged law is applicable there shall occur more of the " easy " 
than of the difficult sounds, and that the blunders of children in 



1888.] CHILD SPEECH. 47 

pronunciation shall be mainly blunders arising out of the improper 
rejection of the difficult sounds and the improper selection of the 
easy ones. 

The first examination of child speech to which I shall draw 
attention was recorded in the Transactions of the American Philo- 
logical Association for 1877. It resulted in the preparation of a 
tabular statement presenting the whole of the words known by a 
child two years of age. The list showed the use of the different 
letters of the alphabet in the following proportion: 



A, 


14 


G, 


15 


M, 


32 


T, 37 


B, 


53 


H, 


29 


N, 


17 


UV, 5 


c, 


51 


I, 


5 


0, 


12 


W, 25 


D, 


22 


J, 


8 


P, 


34 


X, 3 



E, 5 K, 8 Q R, 21 Y, 3 

F, 16 L, 16 S, 60 Z, 3 

Unfortunately, proportions like these give us no direct clue to 
the child's ability to utter certain sounds with greater ease than 
certain other sounds. Its milieu^ the conversation of its parents, 
a hundred accidental circumstances, may have decided it in the 
choice of words for imitation. But if we believe that it would be 
more likely to acquire a word beginning with an easy letter than 
a word beginning with a difficult letter, then the table may be 
admitted to have a certain significance. And if we regard as easy 
letters B, D, F, M, N, P, S, T — each of which is an obvious sound 
in the sense already laid down — then we shall have 271 separate 
utterances as compared with 210 utterances of the more difficult 
sounds. The result would stand in a more explicit statement 
thus: — 

Eight letters of the alphabet, representing easy sounds, yield 
271 repetitions. 

Eighteen letters of the alphabet, representing difficult sounds, 
yield 210 repetitions. 

In a further examination with a second child, also at the age of 
two years, the largest number of repetitions were of the following 
letters : — 

B, 47 C, 39 S, 45 T, 32 

The B, S, T, labial, sibilant, and dental respectively, are clearly 
" obvious," markedly visible and audible sounds. The C is too 



48 ED UCA TION. [ September, 

obscure to lie taken account of, since it may frequently form part 
of the combination *' ch," or may occasionally be used as a sibil- 
ant — in both of which cases it would, like the rest, be an obvious 
sound. Mr. Holden's C words do actually include ** comer," 
'* chair," *•• cellar," while reckoned as an S word we find "sugar." 
The third experiment, with a boy two years old for subject^ 
yielded the following results : — 



B, 


16 


S. 


13 


c, 


18 


M, 


12 


H, 


16 







In the year 1879 another investigator,^ having noted all the 
words known by a girl two years old, arranged them so as to show 
the frequency of occurrence of different letters as initial letters of 
the words.2 The following are the largest number of repetitions 
recorded : — 

S, 161 C, 95 

B, 126 P, 97 

It will be seen that whatever limitations properly belong to the 
experiments cited, the tendency to repetition has in every case 
been overwhelmingly in favor of those sounds which peld vivid 
percepts, and which are easily followed in their " physical " aspects 
by the eye. 

Much more suited to our purpose are the observations of Preyer, 
a well-known German investigator, who has given an exhaustive 
account of errors made in pronunciation by certain German chil- 
dren whose earliest experiments in speech he was enabled to follow 
closely.^ It may be said at once that the results thus obtained 
give a general confirmation of tlie view advanced in these pages. 
At times, exceptions may be found, or a law fully operative in the 
early period of a child's struggles with vocal sounds may seem 
much less a power in the later period of those struggles ; yet gen- 
erally there will be found a distinct preference by children for the 
sounds designated easy or obvious, and a distinct inability to pro- 
nounce, or to pronounce well, those sounds which I have called 
difficult. That guttural or throat sounds, for example, have a 

^ Mr. W. Humphreys, in Transactions of tbe Amerioan PhUological Association for 
1879. Page 5. 

* With a purpose, of course, quite distinct fkt>m mine. 

> See " Die Seele des Kindes." 



1888.] 



CHILD SPEECH. 



49 



tendency to be rejected, is well shown by the following errors, as 
cited by Herr Preyer : — 



Word. 


Mispronun- 
ciation. 


Word. 


Mispronnn 
ciation. 


Hin, 


in. 


Karl, 


all. 


Herz, 


atz. 


Grete, 


ete. 


Klatschen, 


atsen. 


Gewesen, 


wesen. 


Garten, 
Gasse, 


atten. 
asse. 


Kopf, 


opf. 



The " sh " is also a difficult sound, pronounced entirely within 
the mouth, and by a rather complex arrangement of the vocal 
organs. How children deal with it is shown by the fcJllowing 
examples : — 

Schule, tule Schwein, wein. 

Schaf, saf. Tisch, tiss. 

Schlafen, lafen, slafen. Ding, din. 

Hirsch, iss. Singt, int. 

Stuhl, tul. 

R represents another difficult sound, which most children fail to 
pronounce clearly. That the German child does not enunciate it 
readily is thus shown : — 

Durch, duch. Traurig, taotech. 

Bret, bot. Rohe, ule. 

Unter, ante. 

The L is frequently interchanged in language by R, probably 
owing to the likeness existing between the physiological arrange- 
ments needed to produce the sounds. That they are alike in diffi- 
culty is shown by such cases of mispronunciation as : — 

Licht, icht. Blatt, batn. 

Vogel, voge. Mantel, mante. 

Laterne, atenne. 

The following are examples of complex rejection : — 

Rike, itte. Gross, toss. 

Finger, finne. Katze, tatze. 

Klein, tein.. 

In the first example, the difficult R is rejected, and the easy TT 
put in place of the difficult K. In the second case, the difficult 
NG is replaced by the easy NN. In the third, the easy T takes 



60 EDUCATJOX. [September, 

the place of the two difficult sounds of KL. In the fourth, GR, 
each of which letters represents a difficult sound, yields to the 
easy sound of T. In the fifth example, the easy T replaces the 
difficult K. Not less significant are such changes as : — 

Hase, ade. Besen, l>ebe. 

Wasser, webbe. Schwalbe, baubee. 

Bos, beb. 

It will be noted that in the fii^st of these examples, the difficult 
H disappears altogether, and tliat the easy S (pronounced as Z,) 
is replaced by the still easier I). In the second, the easy SS is 
rejected«in favor of the easiest of all sounds, that of the B. In the 
third, B takes tiie place of the less easy S (Z) ; in the fourth, 
there is a similar change ; wliile in the fifth, the B is made to do 
duty for the difficult SCH and the L. 

The next group of errora noted by Herr Preyer may be given 
as follows : — 

Morgen, 
Martha, 
Arnold, 

These supply us — fii*st, with two rejections of the difficult R, 
with the substitution of a vowel and an easy T, then \\4th an easy 
N, replacing a third R, a still easier M taking the place of a fouilh 
R, and an interchange m the last example of L for R. 

The same story is told by the following cases : — 

Bild, bind. Legen, degen. 

Lampe, bampc. Lowe, wewe. 

Stille, tinne. 

Here, easy N replaces difficult L ; still easier B takes the place of 
difficult L ; easy T replaces difficult SH ; easy D is preferred to 
difficult L; and easy W (V sound) excludes difficult L. 

The following are miscellaneous illustrations : — 

Ohr, oa. Blatt, batn. 

Hemd, hem. Tuch, tubs. 

Hand, hann. Vater, fa-ata. 

The most noticeable characteristic of these seven cases of error 
is the omission or the replacement of the R and L. The difficult 
guttural CH is rejected in one of the examples. In two cases, a 
final D is omitted, probably out of sheer laziness, the potency of 



moigjen. 


Warum, 


amum. 


matta. 


Werfen, 


welfen. 


annold. 







1888.] 



CHILD SPEECH. 



61 



which in lingual development, has been abundantly acknowledged. 
In such examples as — 



Auge, 


autse. 


Zahne, 


tane. 


Bart, 


baat. 


Schulter, 


alter. 


KinD, 


tenn. 







the reader will recognize in every case the rejection of a difficult 
for an easy sound — of S (Z) for N, of II for A, of K for T, of Z 
(TS) for T — and the complete dropping of SCH. 

The last errora I shall add on the authority of Ilerr Preyer, are : 



Schlittcn, 

Kamm, 

Trommel, 

Korb, 

Schlussel, 

Nichts, 

Klopfen, 

LiifteD, 

Kleben, 

Verbrochen, 

Abscheiden, 



lita. litta. 

dam, lamm, namm. 

tommel. 

torb. 

littl. 

nits. 

topf. 

aflfle. 

leben. 

versprochen. 

abneiden. 

nepf. 

Messer neiden. 

tain Milch da. 

dass-la-okk. 



Knopfc, 

Mit dem Messer schneiden, 
£s ist kein Milch da, 
Das ist der Schlafrock, 

With infrequent exceptions, easy sounds are sulistituted for dif- 
ficult ones in all the al)ove-cited cases. 

Some other noteworthy experiments, errors of pronunciation by 
children have lx»en collected by Frau von Strumpell, ^amongst 
them the mistakes made by a child ten montlis old. They are 
presented in the following order : — 

Fahren, 

Fallen, 

Brot, 

Augen, 

Artig, 

Stirn, 

Wange, 

A clear preference for easy sounds to the exclusion of sounds 
that are difficult is shown by every one of these thirt43en examples. 



paren. 


August, 


aua. 


pallen. 


Trinken, 


tinken. 


hot. 


Gabel, 


dabcl. 


aujcn. 


Schliissel, 


lussel. 


atig. 


Nichts, 


nits. 


tirn. 


Ileiss, 


eiss. 


wanne. 







62 EDUCATION. [September, 

The changes, taken in the order of their occurrence, may be 
described thus : Substitution of easy P for less easy F (twice) ; 
omission of difficult R ; rejection of difficult G for easy (vowel) 
J ; omission of difficult R ; use of easy T in place of difficult ST ; 
omission of difficult G (twice); omission of difficult R; substitu- 
tion of easy D for difficult G; omission of difficult SCH; omission 
of difficult (guttural) CH; omission of difficult (aspirate) H. 

Vierordt, the German physiologist, writing in the Deutsches 
Revue for Januaiy, 1879, gave the following examples of mispro- 
nunciation by a child between two and three years old: — 



Bos, 


beb. 


Lowe, 


wewe. 


Besen, 


bebe. 


Blasebalg, 


babaube. 


Wasser, 


webbe. 


Schemel, 


emele. 



That is to say: use of easy B for less easy S (Z); substitution 
of Cixsy BB for less easy SS ; employment of easy W (V) in place 
of difficult L; omission of difficult L and substitution of easy BE 
for difficult LG; omission of difficult SCII. 

Herr I. E. Lobisch, another investigator in the field of infant 
speech,^ states that the fii*st consonants uttered by childi*en are 
those which are formed by the opening and closing of the mouth 
or lips, namely, M, B, P. M. A. de la Calle tells of a child whose 
first attempt to utter the word heau resulted in the sound M-BE, 
showing the ease with which two classes of labials may be inter- 
changed.2 The same child made the following errors in pronun- 
ciation : — 

Otes-toi, 6t-ta. Mouchoir, moussoir. 

Clou, cou. La-haut, la-lo. 

In the first case, 01 is avoided as being too difficult ; in the sec- 
ond, the child rejects L; in the third, the 01 is at last accom- 
plished, but the difficult C/H has to be replaced by the easy SS ; 
in the fourth (probably separated from the first by an interval of 
time), the L has been acquired, and is found easier to pronounce 
than the guttural H. M. A. de la Calle found it necessary to 
employ the formula RGH in representation of the sound of R, 
wliich he says '4es enfants ne peuvent prononcer pendant long- 
temps." 

1 See ** Entwickelungsgeschichto der Scele des Kindes." 

*Iu New Greek the sound B is expressed by the two consonants MP. The Romaic 
method of spelling a well-known poet's name is, therefore, not Byron, but Mpyron. 



1888.] EDITORIAL. 53 



EDITORIAL, 

PRESIDENT ELIOT, of Harvard College, is, just now, putting 
forth some valuable papers ; none more worthy of attention 
than his essay, in the August number of the Atlantic Monthly, on 
the reaiTangement of the couree of study for seeondarj'^ and graded 
schools. The President urges that too much time is given to 
irrelevant instruction in the earlier years of schooling ; and that 
our children are more damaged by the confusion of our ambitious 
schemes of elementaiy education than they would be by steady 
work that would present important topics, treated in an attrac- 
tive way. 

He suggests that foreign languages may l^etter come in at eight 
than twelve years of age ; and that, because of the postponement 
of the preparatory department, the time of entering college is so 
delayed that the average graduate can hardly be expected to 
become self-supporting till nearer thirty than twenty yeai's of age. 
He maintains that the boys in the French schools are so handled 
that they accomplish a larger amount of solid work and are farther 
advanced in preparatory studies, at a given age, than our own ; 
and, although he deprecates hasty changes, he urges a movement 
in the direction indicated and insists that this reform would be 
invaluable to schools of every sort. We believe a good deal in 
the President's theory. The expert instruction in the elementary 
and grammar school work of our cities has reached a point of 
elaboration, diffusion, and almost distraction that calls loudly for 
WLse condensation, the weeding out of superfluous matter and the 
bringing forward, more rapidly, of the points of real importance. 
We somewhat distrust, however, the value of such parallels as the 
President and a large class of our University men are fond of 
drawing between European and American cliildien, in this respect. 
The European continental boy and girl live in a world so different 
from our own that there is little, comparatively, to divert their 
attention from steady, quiet, and often severe school work. Be- 
tween eight and fifteen, the American cliild is in contact with a 
whole class of ideas, stimulants, impressions, and aspirations which 



64 EDUCATION. [September, 

must prevent the same kind of absorbing interest and steady 
application. And this environment of the American youth, though 
often disparaged by the school-men, is really ^an indispensable, 
sometimes the most valuable, portion of his educational outfit for 
American life. 

The essay, moreover, regards the educational question chiefly 
from the University point of view, which is not that of a grow- 
ing majority of the more thoughtful American people. There is, 
certainly, as much need of readjustment and adaptation in the 
College and University as in the reform suggested in the elemen- 
tary and secondary schools. But essays like tliis will certainly 
help to bridge the chasm, so long maintained by the stubborn 
managers of the higher education, and hasten the day when there 
shall be a true national system of instruction, from the Kinder- 
garten to the University. 

THE great excitement in Boston over the case of Mr. Travis and 
his teaching of history continues, and is likely to enter as 
an important factor into the coming election of the school com- 
mittee of that city. The controversy is rather upon questions 
of fact than of theory. These, too, are of such a natm^e that 
there would seem to be little difficulty in determining them. 

No one should object to the teaching in the schools of the facts 
of the Salem Witchcraft, the banishment of Roger Williams, or 
the cruel punishment of the Quakers in the early history of the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony. In like manner the ugly facts of the 
fires of Smithfield, the trial of Galileo, or the sale of TetzeFs 
indulgences may be taught as passages in the history of Europe. 
The human race is advancing, and better principles are now gov- 
erning men than in the earlier ages. Let us rejoice in that, and 
while teaching the facts of the past, let it be done with such can- 
dor and good will to men as not to stir up the worst passions of 
the race, but in recognition of the fact that God has made of one 
blood the entire race, and that blood should everywhere prove to 
be thicker than water. But the tiling above all others to be jeal- 
ously guarded, preserved and fostered is our system of free, pub- 
lic schools, and no portion of our cosmopolitan community should 
be permitted to interfere with this essential American institution. 



1888.] EDITOBIAL, M 

EFFICIENT arrangements are now making for an appropriate 
celebration at Washington of the one hundredth anniver- 
sary of the adoption of the Federal Constitution, and the four 
hundredth anniversary of the discovery of this continent by 
Columbus. An association called the " Board of Promotion, Per- 
manent Exposition of the Three Americas," with Mr. Alex. D. 
Anderson as secretary, has been organized, and measures are now 
being taken to insure general interest in the matter throughout 
this country and in Europe. Spain has already signified her inten- 
tion to participate, and the American Congress has taken the pre- 
liminary steps. The site proposed for the permanent exposition 
and the celebration is on the public lands between the Washington 
monument and the Potomac, and handsome buildings are to be 
erected for the purpose. The Board of Promotion have published 
a beautiful bird's-eye view of Washington, in colors, which would 
be a useful and artistic ornament to any school. 

THE education of the young in sentiments and principles of 
patriotism should form one of the most importiint functions 
of our public schools. Chicago has set a good example in offering 
prizes to the pupils in the schools for essays on " Patriotism." 
The income of $10,000 has been given to the school department 
of the city by Mr. V. F. Lawson, the publisher of The Chicago 
Daily News, to be expended in procuring suitable medals to be 
awarded each year. Mr. Lawson states the object he has in view, 
in the following words : '' For the purpose of stimulating interest 
in the study of patriotic literature by the pupils of our public 
schools to the end that familiarity with the causes which led to the 
founding of the American Republic, and with the motives which 
inspired the struggles and sacrifices of the fathers may develop a 
higher standard of American citizenship." Here is an example 
worthy to be followed in other cities. 

THE meeting of the National Educational Association at San 
Francisco proved to be of very high order. It was well 
planned and the admirable plan was equally well carried out. 
The people of that great city are deserving of all praise for their 
abundant hospitality and generosity. The cause of education 
upon the Pacific coast must inevitably be a great gainer for such 
a stimulating meeting. Now let the next meeting be at Boston, 
and let it be worthy of that cultured city. 



66 EDUCATION, [September, 

PROFESSIONAL study for teachers is constantly gaining 
ground in this country. New facilities for such study are 
being furnished from tinie to time and in various ways. It is a 
pleasure to announce that the University of the City of New York 
has undertaken to give, for the benefit of teachers, courses of lec- 
tures upon pedagogy, and has appointed Prof. Jerome Allen, 
Ph. D., the editor of the New York School Journal, to that depart- 
ment. The first course was given last year, and the experiment 
proved a success. During the coming scholastic year, a course 
will be given on Saturdays at eleven o'clock, beginning October 
4th. These lectures will be the foundation for a thorough course 
of study, to cover three years. The first course comprises the 
" History of Educational Thouglit " ; the second, " The Science of 
Education " ; and the third, '* Methodology." The last named in- 
cludes '^ the organization, supervision, and management of schools ; 
the art of grading and arranging school work, and the conduct of 
Institutes ; school law ; the art of teaching and governing ; the 
philosophy and methods of instruction in the various branches ; 
general school-room practice ; school hygiene, etc." This advance 
movement will receive the cordial approval of all friends of 
American Education, and it is hoped that it will prove a decided 
success. 

IT is not sufficiently understr^od that, j)erhaps, the gi-eatest gain 
in our new educational methods is not found in our improved 
ways of instruction, but in the organization, spirit of discipline, 
moral and social training, and general conduct of the entire realm 
of school life. Here the ultra advocates of the religious and 
moral element show their narrowness, in leaving out of account 
the prodigious moral advantage to the cliild in the kind of place 
a good school has now become. It would have Ix^en impossible to 
work the improved modern methods of instruction in the old-time 
schoolhouse under the narrow limitations there existing. Outside 
a superior family, there is no position in wliich the mass of our 
children are now surrounded by so many inducements to virtue, 
where it is so easy to grow up into good morals and gentle man- 
ners, as in the better class of our graded schools. 



1888.] MISCELLANY. 57 



^fISCELLANr. 

THE following extract from a letter from New Zealand will 
be of interest to our readers, giving as it does particulars 
of educational work and progress in this distant and (comparatively 
unknown part of the world : — 

The underlying principle of our primary 83'8tcm of education is ex- 
pressed in the three words — /ree, secular^ and compulsory. The money 
for the maintenance of our primary schools is voted by the House of Rep- 
resentatives — our House of Commons — on the application of the Min- 
ister of Education, who presents his report to Parliament, in which report 
the estimate for the year is given and asked for. Tliis year, the sum 
applied for was £360,624; the sum granted was £360,619, being less 
by five pounds than requested. The motion that the vote be reduced by 
this small amount was a mere technical matter to atford the opposition 
members an opportunity to discuss the whole question of retrenchment. 
The above sum is supplemented by moneys accruing from reserves set 
apart for primary education when New Zealand was divided into seven 
self-governing Provinces. These Provinces were abolished twelve 3'ears 
ago, and the whole Colony placed under a general government. The 
whole moneys available from direct vote out of the consolidated fund, 
and from these reserves, amounts roughl}' to over £400.000. This 
amount is paid u|>on the daily average attendance which last year 
amounted to 83.405, the number on the roll having been 106,328. This 
money is distributed by the Central Department among the thirteen 
Boards of Education, who again distribute it among the local com- 
mittees. 

The vote for Buildings has for several years been paid out of loans ; 
but this mode of payment is now stopped, and there is a battle going on 
as to whether the local Boards shall have i)ower to impose rates for this 
purpose, or whether the approaching Parliament shall be asked to pay 
both the money for teaciiing and the mone}' for building out of the con- 
solidated fund. Before leaving this part of the subject I may state that, 
in the opinion of many, we are on the eve of some changes as to admin- 
istration. The opinion is growing that we have too much machinery. 
Boards and Committees and a Central DepartmiMit are not all needed 
to do the educational work of a colonv containintc but six hundred thou- 
sand people, and less than one-sixth of that number of children. As 



68 EDUCATION. [Sept«mber^ 

things are. Boards have the appointment of teachers, and yet by the 
terms of the act, thev are to ''''consult" the local committee before an 
appointment can be made. Some boards consult by practically allowing 
the committees to appoint or dismiss the teacher ; others select a few 
competent men, and send their names to the committee for final dioioe. 
This question and some others often gives rise to serious friction. Some- 
times a complete dead-lock occurs, and at present there can be no appeal 
to the Minister of Education Then again, Boards have the appoint- 
ment of Inspectors (corresponding, I presume, to your Superintendents), 
and the payment of teachers ; accordingly, the standard of inspection 
varies in different districts, and the salaries of the teachers show glaring^ 
irregularities. There is reason for thinking that most of these serious 
defects will be removed from the system by special legislation in the 
immediate future. I am strongly of opinion, that local committees could 
be swept away and their places taken by a visiting commissioner. As 
to Boards, six of them could very well do the work required. Both 
Inspectors and teachers should be appointed by the Minister of Edu- 
cation. 

It follows from the above principle, that parents have no fees to pay. 
In some parts the}* do not even pay for stationer}', pens, and ink — these 
being provided by the local committee out of what is called the Fund for 
Incidental Expenses, voted by the Boards. It is really a question 
whether if. is the quintessence of wisdom thus to let the parent off scot- 
free. People usually value most what they give something for. In these 
circumstances, you would expect parents to send their children with 
considerable regularity. Yet they do not. Professedly, compulsory 
powers are given to committees to enforce one-half of possible attend- 
ance ; but this power is rarely exercised, mainly because of the expense 
of putting the legal raachiner}* in action, aud the further uncertainty of 
the magistrate's decision. In two cities, however, a truant officer has 
been appointed, and the results have been signally satisfactory As the 
Parliamentary vote depends upon the strict average attendance, the ques- 
tion of regular attendance is thus seen to be a very important one. On 
the question of fees it is fair to say, that before a special commission 
which recently sat, ten out of thirt\' witnesses were in favor of imposing 
fees on parents whose children are in the higher standards. In view of 
the absolute need for retrenclnnent, some such course as this is likely to 
be adopted at no very distant date. 

It may be well to complete the trilogy of words by glancing at the 
secular character of the system. The IVaraer of the present education 
act intended all schools to open with reading a portion of Holy Scripture 
and reciting the Lord's Prayer. He was, however, overruled. By the 
terms of the act, there must be two hours' consecutive secular instruc- 



1888.] MISCELLANY. 69» 

tion in the morning, and two hours* cx)n8ecutive secular instruction in the 
afternoon ; but the committee may allow the schoolroom to be used by 
any minister of religion for the purpose of giving religious instruction 
after or before school hours. A very small fraction of ministers — and 
those Episcopalians — really use the opportunity afforded them. When 
the people have been tested by Plebiscite, they have almost to a man 
voted in favor of securing religious instruction for their children during 
school hours, so that there is some likelihood of a change being made ia 
that direction erelong. 

It should be mentioned that the Boards of Education amongst them 
provide for forty scholarships at £30 each, to enable the highest of the 
primary scholars to pass into the secondary schools ; while there again,, 
the University of New Zealand provides junior scholarships worth £40 
a year to pass these on to the University, and while at the University, 
such scholars may win senior scholarships to completely carry them on ta 
the M. A. degree. Thus a career is open to talent. We already — in 
ten years — have men who began at the lowest, and who have passed to- 
the highest educational positions in the land. t. f. 

THE proprietor of the Chicago Daily News, Victor Lawson, has re- 
cently given ten thousand dollars to establish a Public School 
Patriotic Fund. An income of five per cent, on this fund is guaranteed, 
which is to be used in providing medals to be awarded for the best essays- 
on American Patriotism, prepared by the pupils of the Grammar and 
High .schools of the city. To each High school are offered one gold 
medal and two bronze medals, and to each Grammar scho(»l, one silver 
medal and two bronze medals. Nothing could be more opportune than 
this effort to impress upon the minds of the school children the impor- 
tance and nobility of patriotism, and especially so in a city where two- 
thirds of the people are foreign born, or have foreign born parents. In 
Chicago, and, I think, in most of our cities, the young people study 
American history during the entire last two years of the Grammar school 
course. The prime object of this study is to make patriots, to awaken 
an admiration and love for our country which shall be akin to family 
pride and affection, and which will lead to the sacrifice of personal inter- 
ests for the national welfare. This effort to cultivate patriotism is simi- 
lar to that of the Old South in Boston. 

The award of a medal is a simple record of honor, but it will do much 
to stimulate the 3'oung people to study the career of our noblest men, 
and it will keep before them, with a good deal of personal interest, dur- 
ing the whole two years, the most important phases of American history ; 
and, what is of almost equal value, it will be a constant leading string to- 



60 EDUCATION. [September, 

the teacher, steadily guiding the work through the great movements and 
important crises of our country. The offer of three medals to each 
school, instead of one, gives a wider range and greater hope to the com- 
petitors, and the extension of the offer to the High schools encourages 
the study of American patriotism after the class work in American his- 
tory is endeil. The pupils of sixty or seventy schools will compete for 
these prizes, and nearly two hundred medals will be awarded among the 
public schools of Chicago, for prize essays, on the one subject which is 
of supreme importance in our public school education, while several 
times as many pupils will have tested their knowledge and feeling in the 
same effort. 

This is a large measure of leaven, which will be sure to work more or 
less through the whole lump of public school life. Was ten thousand 
dollars ever more wisely invested? One boy, who took one of the silver 
medals, in June, by a notably good essay, entered school one morning, 
two years ago, with an anarchist flag in his button-hole. 

Mary £. Beedt. 

MERRICK LYON, LL. D. —The death of this distinguished edu- 
cator takes from our sight another staunch friend of *'good 
learning." Few men have presided over one school for more than forty 
years, annually sending young men to their college course of study. 
Dr. Lyon became principal of the University Grammar School in Provi- 
dence, R. I., in 1845, which position he retained till the day of his death. 
Seldom has one man fltted more bo3's for college than he, or done the 
work better, or during a long life shown himself a firmer or wiser friend 
of education. He was always active, and generally wise. He was an 
eflicient member of the school board of Providence for more than thirty 
years. He was president of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction, 
and of the American Institute of Instruction, aud a member of the 
National Council of Education. He was a trustee of Brown University, 
and later a member of the Board of Fellows of that institution. For 
thirty-three years he filled the office of deacon in the Baptist Church, 
and by the symmetry of his Christian character, his example was f\ill 
of good fruits. 

MISS MARGARET K. SMITH, of Oswego, New York, well 
known as a teacher, author, and translator, who has lately 
returned from Euroi>e, after two years* study, chiefly in Germany and 
France, is at present translating Herbart's Manual of Psychology and 
Lange's Apperception. 



1888.] FOREIGN NOTES. 61 



FOREIGN NOTES. 

Germany. The Classics vs. Science. — One of the most important 
contributions to the discussion of the classics in schools in Germany is 
an article by Prnfessor Preyer, which appeared in the *' Revue Scien- 
tifique" for April 28th. 

Professor Preyer insists that the study of the ancient languages as 
conducted in the ^^ Gymnasia/* is an obstacle to the development of in- 
telligence and that the advantage which the ^' Gj'mnasia" have over the 
^^ Real Schools *' by the admission of their pupils to all the university 
faculties, is unjust and artificial. In 1869 the Prussian Minister of 
Public Instruction submitted the following question to the universities : 
Should the graduates of '' Real Schools " be admitted to the several 
faculties, and upon what conditions ? 

The eleven faculties of theology responded in the negative. Six of 
the nine faculties of law did the same. The nine faculties of medicine 
were divided, four being in favor of admission, four opposed to it, and 
one neutral. 

According to Professor Preyer, since 1869 a great change has taken 
place. While the theological faculties remain favorable to the old pro- 
grammes, among the other faculties a majority would be found to favor 
placing all secondary schools on the same footing. 

The greater importance attaching to science courses at the present 
date as compared with 1869 is shown by the relative increase in the 
number of professors. The faculty of law shows a numerical increase 
of 3.3 per cent.; that of theology, of 5.2 per cent.; while the increase 
in the faculties of philosophy, science, and medicine was 23.4 per cent., 
46.4 per cent, and 55.7 per cent, respectively. The increase in the 
number of students is also much less in the faculties of law and of 
theology than in the other faculties. The tendency is illustrated by the 
attendance upon the University of Berlin. Here the faculties of medi- 
cine and of science have gained over the other faculties more than 700 
pupils, or a number in itself sufficient to fill a university. ^^ These fig- 
ures show conclusively," says Professor Preyer, '^ that the study of the 
natural sciences has made incessant progress in the last few years, and 
has necessitated the creation of a much greater number of chairs than 
are required in the faculties of law, theology, and classical philology. 
Gradually but surelj^*' he observes, *^the natural sciences are taking in 



•62 EDUCATION, [September, 

the higher seat of learning the place which belongs to them, and it is 
•certain that the vivif3ing influence which they have already exercised 
upon the universities will be felt at no distant day in the secondary 
schools." 

France. Address of the Minister op Public Instruction. — The 
spirit which animates republican France is well illustrated by the utter- 
ances of successive ministers of public instruction. The changes of 
government have brought six different men to that position within a 
decade ; but it has wrought no material change either in the conduct of 
the department or in the educational ideals maintained. 

The present minister, Mons. Edward Lockroy, delivered an address on 
the occasion of the recent annual distribution of the prizes of the Poly- 
technic Association, which, saving only the absence of the impetuous 
florid eloquence of Jules Ferry, might have been his own speech on a 
similar occasion half a dozen years ago. 

While understanding perfectly the importance of technical instruction, 
no people evince a Ailler appreciation than the French of the narrowing 
tendencies of the training and the necessity of offsetting these in the 
education of a people. 

Mons. LfOckroy presented these conditions in a manner so clear and 
impressive that his words may well be rehearsed among us : — 

''You have understood," he said, addressing the members of the 
association, '' that in a democracy like our own, it is not only necessary 
to make men useful and honest, — without honestj', a democracy must 
soon cease to exist, — but also to make citizens familiar with general 
ideas, having notions of law, of political economy, of history ; capable 
of comprehending the great questions that agitate Parliament, capable 
also of judging of doctrines, and of men when called to elect representa- 
tives in the exercise of the right of sovereignty. 

" You have recognized the importance of raising men above the anxi- 
eties of daily life, the perpetual routine of a painful existence, above 
their cares, their disappointments, their sorrows, by imparting to them 
an interest in the great discoveries of science, a taste for general knowl- 
edge, and by bringing them in contact with great writers and poets who 
are the true consolers of humanity." 

Physical Training in French Secondary Schools. — A committee 
has been formed in France under the presidency of Jules Simon, for the 
promotion of physical training as a part of the education of the young. 

This committee includes a number of men holding high civil positions 
or distinguished as doctors and educators. Recently, under the guidance 
of Mons. Simon, they visited the Monge school to investigate the first 



1888.] FOREIGN NOTES. 63 

experiment made in France for including physical exercise in the daily 
routine. 

The director of this school, Mons. Godard, maintains that eleven 
hours' intellectual work for young pupils and thirteen hours for those a 
little older is too much, and following the example of English schools, 
he has decided to reduce the hours of stud}* in order to secure time for 
exercise and play in the open air, — games have been instituted and pro- 
vision made for riding and boating. 

Jules Simon, who has been endeavoring for a long time to convince 
his countrymen that French students are overworked, was delighted 
with what he saw at this school. It is his purpose to create three school 
parks : one at Saint Cloud, and the others upon appropriate sites, thus 
giving substantial proof of his devotion to the cause which he has so 
long advocated. 

England. Married Teachers under the London School Board. — 
The motion introduced into the London School Board by Hon. Conrad 
Dillon, to prevent married women teachers in the fhture entering upon 
or remaining in the service of the Board, excited opposition not unmixed 
with indignation. The most satisfactory endorsement of the services of 
the married teachers was the loss of the motion by a vote of twenty^ 
seven against three. 

Sir Henry Roscoe on Technical Training. — In an address upon 
*' Technical Instruction," delivered June 20th, on the occasion of the 
fifty-first annual meeting of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Insti- 
tute, Sir Henry Roscoe examined the provisions of the Technical Bill 
now before Parliament. While he took a more favorable view of many 
of its provisions than other critics have done, he noted as a grave defect 
that the limit of the instruction is placed at the seventh standard. He 
urged the importance of a provision similar to that in the Scotch Bill, 
by which the Boards are empowered to use the rates for the maintenance 
of higher grade schools. *' All,** he says, *' acknowledge the importance 
of this higher training. If the head is not educated, the hands are apt 
to get into mischief.** And again, commenting upon the adage that 
victory comes to the strong, he said, *' But remember that it is not to 
the bodily strong, but only to the strong mentall}' and morally' that the 
victory comes.** a. t. s. 



64 



ED UCA TIOX. 



[Septeinbert 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CURRENT PERIODICAL LIT- 

ERATURE UPON EDUCATION. 



The followlngr bibliography of current periodical literatare includes articles upon 
education and other subjects calculated to intei*est teachers. Only articles from peri- 
odicals not nominally educational are mentioned. ArticleH of special importance to 
teachers will, as a rule, be mentioned in notes. 



American Party Convention, The. 
Alexander Johnston. iVeto Princeton 
Bevievo^ July. 

Astres, Sur rA^randissement des 
Astresdl Horizon. G. Lechalas. Re- 
vue Philosophique^ July. 

Bologna, Die Universit&tsfeier von, 
in ihrer Bedentung fur die italienisch- 
deutsche Rei;ht8-und Staatswissen- 
sehaf t. Deutsche Rundschau. August. 

Bologne, Le Huiti^me Centeuaire de 
I'Universit^ de. Gaston Boissier. Re- 
vue des Deux Mondes, 1 August. 

Botany as it may be taught. B. D. 
Halsted. Popular Science Monthly. 
July. 

British Intellect, The Geographical 
Distribution of. Dr. A. Conan Doyle. 
Nineteenth Century^ August. 

British Museum, The, and the Peo- 
ple who go there. Blackwood's Maga- 
zine^ August. 

Bruno, Giordano, Before the Vene- 
tian Inquisition . Scottish Review, *^"IZ' 

Capital and Culture in America. K. 
A. Proctor. Fortnightly Review, Au- 
gust. 

Catholic University, The Present 
Standing of the. Catholic World, Au- 
gust. 

Christianity. What Is Left of Chris- 
tianity ? W. 8. Lilly. Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, August. 

City Life, Injurious Influences of. 
Walter B. Piatt, M. D. Popular Sci- 
ence Monthly, August. Suggestive. 

Conkling, Roscoe. Isaac Smlthson 
Hartley. Magazine of American His- 
tory^ August. 

Coal and Iron Interests of the Pa- 
cific Coast. Henry G. Hanks. Over- 
land Monthly. August. 

Countlng-Out Rhymes of Children. 
H. Carrington Bolton. Journal of 
American Folk-Lore, April-June. 

On the principle that things which 
occupy the serious attention of men in 



the savage st^te become the play- 
things of children In a civilized period^ 
the writer holds ''that ^ countlng-out *^ 
is a survival of the practice of the sor- 
cerer, using this word In its restrlctcni 
and etymological meaning.*^ 

Courage. General Viscount Wolse- 
ley. Fortnightly Review, August. 

Criminal, The Study of the. Ando- 
ver Review, Aufi^uH. Editorial. 

Culture and Science. Theodore GUI. 
American Naturalist, June. 

Darwinism and the Christian Faith. 
III. (Concluded.) Popular Science 
Monthly, July. Reprinted from The 
Guardian. 

Dialectlque Soclale, La. G. Tarde. 
Revue Philosophique, July. 

Education and Hinduism in Bengal. 
F. H. Barrow, C. S. Calcutta Review^ 
July. 

Education In America. J. H. Cal- 
cutta Review, July. 

Education, The New. Prof. Geo. 
M. Forbes. Baptist Quarterly BevieWy 
July. 

Engineering Schools. George Fran- 
cis Fitzgerald. Nature, August 2. 

English Dictionaries, Some Curiosi- 
ties of. G. L. Apperson. Chntle- 
man^s Magazine, August. 

English Elementary Schools, Short- 
comings of. J. H. Yoxall. Long- 
man -s Magazine, August. 

English Pronunciation. Knowledgcy 
July and August. 

Epicure, son ^poque, sa religion, 
d' apr^A de r^cens travaux. L. Car- 
tau. Bevue des Deux MondeSy 1 Au- 
gust. 

Essen, Ueber Gebr&uche und 
Aberglauben beim. Carl Haberland. 
Zeitschrift fur Volkerpsychologie und 
Sprachwissenschaft, Drittes Heft. 

Evolution and Ethics. Rev. James 
Eastwood. Universalist Quarterly^ 
July. 



1888.] 



BIBLIOOBAPHT. 



65 



Faust Legend, The. T. B. Saun- 
ders. Scottish Revietc^ July. 

Frankreich im siebzehnten und 
achtzehnten pohrhundert. Fenlinund 
I^theissen. Deutsche Btmdschau, Au- 
gust. 

Freedom of Education in Massachu- 
setts, The Attack on. Prof. Thomas 
D wight, M. D. American Catholic 
Quarterly Remew^ August. 

'* The protest against the Mnjority 
Report of the Joint Special Committee 
of the General Court of 1887 on the 
Employment and Schooling of Chil- 
dren and against any Legislative In- 
terference with Private Schools.'' 

Genius and Talent. Grant Allen. 
Fortnightly Review^ August. 

German University as a Pattern, 
The. James T. Bixby. Unitarian 
Review^ August. 

Argues especially for the German 
Freedom of instruction. 

Grant, General, Personal Recollec- 
tions of. Charles K. Tuckerman. 
Magazine of Americ<in History^ Au- 
gust. 

Great Men, Their Tastes and Hab- 
its. W. H. D. Adams. Gentleman's 
Magazine, August. 

Homeric Life in Greece Today. J. 
Theodore Bent. National Review^ Au- 
gust. 

Shows many interesting parallels to 
Homeric life in the life of today in the 
remoter Greek islands. 

Humanistic Religion. Alexander T. 
Ormond. New Princeton Review,, July. 

"Increment" Dogma of Henry 
George a Delusion, The. David >f. 
Johnson. Uhiveraalist Quarterly ^ July, 

Inter-Collegiate Contents; Are they 
Pernicious? Andover Review, July. 
An editorial. 

Israel. Etudes d*histoire Israelite. 
H. Ernest Renan. Revue des Deux 
Mondes^ 15 July et 1 August. 

Judiciaiire. I At Pouvoir Judicial re 
aux li^tats-Unis. Due de Noailles. 
Revue des Deux Mondes^ 1 August. 

Literature In the Public Schools. 
Horace E. Scudder. Atlantic, August. 

A forcible argument ft)r the free use 
of the classical American authors in 
the schools. *' The place of literature 
in our pi^blic school education is in 
spiritualizing life.*' 

Literature. The study of Eigh- 
teenth-Century Literature. Edmund 
Gosse. New Princeton Review, July. 

Manual or Industrial Training. G. 
Von Taube. Popular Science Monthly, 
July. 



Math^matiques, Les Notions Pre- 
mieres en. A. Galinon. Revue Philo- 
sophique, July. 

Memory. Westminster Review, Au- 
gust. 

Gives a good account of Pick's sys- 
tem of mnemonics, and notices the r^ 
cent books that show Loisette's system 
to be essentially the same. 

Menacing Irruption, A. T. V. Pow- 
derly. North American Review, Au- 
gust. 

Mental Deterioration : Some of Its 
Avoidable Causes. Westminster Re- 
view, July. 

Discusses the alcohol habit, tobacco 
habit, excessive mental work, etc., as 
causes of menial deterioration. 

Mental Science: Experiments in 
Thought-Transferrence. Science, Ju- 
ly 27. 

A criticism of Charles Rlchet's arti- 
cle in the last Issue of the Proceedings 
of the English Society for the Psychi- 
cal Research. 

Mental Science : The Nature of Mus- 
cular Sensation. Memory of Move- 
ments. Science, July 13. 

Misquotations, Current. E. A. 
Meredith. Andover Review^ August. 

Names, History in. Rev. G. H. 
Hubbard. Yale Review, August. 

Naval Academy, The United States. 
J. D. Jerrold Kelly. Harper*s, July. 

Neo-Scholasticism, The Lesson of. 
F. Winterton. Mind, July. 

New Departure In Education, The. 
James Runclman. Contemporary Re- 
view, July. 

A very bright criticism of prevalent 
methods in English schools, with ap- 
proval of the present movement for 
manual instruction. 

New England Educational Institu- 
tions. XII. Colby University. Prof. 
Albion W. Small. XIII. Newton 
Theological Institution. New England 
Magazine, August. 

New England, The Awakening of. 
Francis H. Underwood. Contempo- 
rary Review, August. 

New York after Paris. VV. C. Brow- 
nell. New Princeton Review, July. 

Octroi at Issoire, The : A City made 
Rich by Taxation. Prof. David Starr 
Jordan. Popular Science Monthly, Au- 
gust. 

Shows in a most readable manner 
the fallacies of some of the ordinary 
arguments for protective taxes. 

Parlor Game Cure, The. Rev. Thom- 
as Hill. Popular Science Monthly, Au- 
gust. 



66 



EDUCATION. 



[September, 



Pensiero logico, La eostanza del dos- 
tro, e la scienza e la pratlca delT Ed- 
ucazioue. Bivista di Filosojia Scienti/i-' 
ca^ M&gg\o, 

Philosuphisehe Kriticismus, Der. 
Th. Aohelis. Unsere Zeit^ Achtes Heft, 

Physiology. Teaching Physiology 
In the Public Schools. A Teacher. 
Popular Science Monthly^ August. 

Au interesting article. 

Programmes. Can School Pro- 
grammes be Shortened and Enriched? 
C. W. Eliot. Atlantic, August. 

Contains valuable suggestions for 
the improvement of our school sys- 
tem. 

Prohibitory Law and Personal Lib- 
erty. President Seelye et al. North 
American Beview^ August. 

Prometheus of ..^schylus. Part L 
William Cranston Lawtou. Atlantic, 
August. 

Protection. Abbot Kinney. Over- 
land Monthly, August. 

Psychologic. Zur Psychologic der 
Scholastik. H. Siebeck. Arcnir fur 
Oeschichte der Fhilosophie, Heft 3 u. 4. 

Psychology, The Uerbartlau. G. F. 
Stout. Mind, July. 

Gives a systematic summary of the 
synthetical portion of ilerbart's Psy- 
chology. 

Psychology. The Relation of Will 
to the Conservation of Energy. E. D. 
Cope. American Naturalist, June. 

Abstract of a paper read before the 
Philosophical Society of Washington. 
The writer lays down and Illus- 
trates the following law : ** The Dyn- 
amic expenditure of au act of will has 
no dynamic relation to the nature of 
the decision involved in it." The will 
does not create energy, but directs it. 

Psychology, The Teaching of. M. 
Paul Janet. Popular Science Monthly, 
July. 

Translated from the Bevue des Deux 
Mondes, An interesting discussion of 
physiological psychology. 

Questions, Our One Hundred. Lip- 
pincotVs, August. 

Reality and Thought. F. H. Brad- 
ley. Mind, July. 

Reform Essential, Educational. G. 
T. Ferris. North American Beview, 
August. 

Rivers and Valleys. N. S. Shaler. 
8cribner*8, August. 

Rousseau und Kant. K. Heinrich von 
Stein. Deutsche Bundschau, August. 

Rugby Ramble, A. H. A. Newton. 
English Illustrated Magazine, August. 

Sagenhafte Volker des Altertums 



und Mittela Iters, Ueber. LudwigTob- 
ler. Zeitschrift fur Volkerpsychologie 
und Sprachwissenschaft, Drittes Heft. 

Science, The Unity of. M. Jacob 
Moleschott. Popular Science Monthly, 
August. 

Scientitic Spirit of the Age, The. 
Frances Power Cobbe. Contemporary 
Beview, July. 

Shows the dangers that beset scien- 
tific education. 

Send the Whole Boy to School. Au- 
gustus D. Small. Catholic World, Au- 
gust. A criticism of Professor Stu- 
art's article in Education on the " Rai- 
son d'Etre of the Public High School," 
and an argument for religious instruc- 
tion in the schools. 

Social Question, Aspects of the. W. 
M. Salter and the Editor. Unitarian 
Beview, August. 

An account of the Chicago Eco- 
nomic Conferences, with comments by 
the editor. 

Social Science, Instruction in. Lend 
a Hand, July. 

Stat« Socialism. John Rae. Con- 
temporary Beview, August. 

Statesmen, American (concluded). 
Prof. Goldwin Smith. Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, August. 

Storage of Life as a Sanitary Study. 
B. W. Richardson. Longman's Maga- 
zine, August. 

Technical Education, Lord Arm- 
strong on. Nature, August 2. 

Technical Education, The Vague 
Cry for. Lord Armstrong. Nineteenth 
Century, July. 

Telepathic. Wilhelm Bolsche. Nord 
und SUd, August. 

Based on the studies of Mr. Gurney 
of the English Psychical Rese^irch So- 
ciety. 

True Theory of Identity, The Philo- 
sophical Importance of a. B. Bosau- 
quet. Mind, July. 

Trusts. What shall be Done with 
Trusts? Morrison I. Swift. Andover 
Beview, August. 

Truth, The Unity of the. Rev. 
Francis H. Johnson. Andover Beview, 
August. 

Vacation, the Teacher's. H. W. 
Camptou. Century, August. 

What Shall the Public Schools 
Teach? Bishop R. Gilmour. Forum, 
June. 

An argument for religious instruc- 
tion. 

What Shall the Public Schools 
Teach? Prof. L. H. Ward. Forum, 
July. 



1888.] 



AMONG THE BOOKS. 



«7 



AMONG THE BOOKS. 



Academic Trigonometry. Plane and 
Spherical. BvT. M. Ulakslee, PH.D., 
Professor of Mathematics in the 
University of Des Moin«'S. Boston : 
Giiin & Co. ISSS. Pp. 33. 80 cents. 
Paper, mailin*;: price, 20 cents ; for 
introduction, 15 cents. 

The plane and spherical portions 
are arranged on opposite pages. The 
memory is aided by analo<^ies, and 
the author believes that the entire 
subject can be mastered in less time 
than is usually given to plane trigo- 
nometry alone, as the work contains 
but twenty-nine pages of text. The 
plane portion is compact, and com- 
plete in itself. 

Warman's Practical Ortho^pt 
AND CiUTiQUE. By K. B. Warman, 
a.m., author of " Principles of Pro- 
nunciation'* in Worcester's Diction- 
ary, ** School-room Friend," etc. 
Chicago, 111.: W. H. Harrison, Jr. 
Publishing Co. 1888. 448 pages. 
Cloth, $2. 

A volume from the pen of one so 
widely and favorably known as is Mr. 
Warman, and one which shows such 
an immense amount of time spent in 
its preparation, will attract the atten- 
tion and will receive the careful exam- 
ination and study of thoughtful edu- 
cators. Mr. Warman has achieved 
an enviable reputation as an oithoO- 
pist and a master of ])honetization. 
His •'Principles of Pronunciation" 
having been adopted by the publishers 
of Worcester's dictionaries and issued 
by them in the school edition, War- 
man*s Scries, prove him to be acknowl- 
edge<l authority. We have not room 
to mention the headings even of the 
various subjects so ably discussed in 



this valuable work. The two princi- 
pal subjects, however, are his ** Criti- 
cal Survey '' of our dictionaries, which 
is the fruit of nine years* earnest 
labor, and is a bold, vigorous attack ; 
and a list of 6,399 words usually mis- 
pronounced. Every pronunciation 
accords with both Webster and Wor- 
cester. When the authorities do not 
agree, both are quoted. The volume 
is certainly worthy the perusal and 
study of every student and scholar in 
the country. 

BuFFON. By H. Lebasteur. Illus- 
trated. Paper covers. Paris: H. 
Lecene and II. Oudin. Pp. 237. 

This new volume, by the editors, 
Lecene and Oudin, belong to their 
series of Popular Classics. Lebas- 
teur has divided his work into six 
chapters: (1) Life and character of 
Buffon; (2) Nature; (3) Man and 
the animals ; (4) Description and pict- 
ures ; (5) Epochs of Nature, and (0) 
Discourse upon style. The work is 
admirably dcme and will prove of in- 
terest to American readers. 

Proceedings of the Trustees of 
THE Peabodv Education Fund. 
1881-1887. Vol. 111. Cambridge: 
John Wilson & Son. 1888. Pp. 4:)"). 

This volume of proceedings of the 
trustees of this great fund should 
be read with care by all who desire 
to keep ahead of the times in matters 
showing the condition and progress 
of education in this country. It 
contains a record of proceedings dur- 
ing the four and more years of Dr. 
Curry's general agency, and the sub- 
sequent service of Dr. Green as 



68 



SDVCATIOK. 



[September, 



general agent, pro tempore. All will 
be glad to leiirn that Dr. Curry, who 
has so won the respect of, and en- 
deared himself to, the educators of 
this country, both North and South, 
is expected soon to accept a reap- 
pointment as general agent of this 
fund. He will be cordially welcomed 
on his return to this country, and we 
may expect to be richly benefited by 
what will appear from his pen con- 
cerning Spain and its past relations 
to our country. 

Max O'Rell. John Bull, Junior ; 
OK, French as shk is Traduced. 
By the author of *^ John Bull and 
His J Aland/* etc. With a preface 
by George Eggleston. New York : 
Cassell A, Co., 104 Fourth Ave. 
For sale in Boston by Clarke & 
Carruth. Price, $1.00. 

Mr. Eggleston, in his preface, says 
that in his opinion this is the best of 
Max O'Reirs books. A very wise 
and distinguished educator has de- 
clared that ^^ the whole theory of 
education is to be extracted from these 
humorous sketches.** In this work, 
as in his others, thei*e is much of wit 
and humor, but the main purpose is 
earnest, and the wit is but an aid to 
its accomplishment. 

Christopher Sower and his De- 
scendants. 

This is a remarkably unique chart 
about four feet wide and ten feet 
long, exhibiting by an original design 
a list of the descendants in families 
of that worthy settler in the early 
days of Pennsylvania, ^^ Christopher 
Sower, Printer." Compiled by Charles 
G. Sower, the senior member of the 
former firms of Sower & Barnes; 
Sower, Barnes & Potts ; Sower, Potts 
& Co., and now Christopher Sower 
Company. Mr. Charles G. Sower 
was bookseller in Norristown from 
1836 to 1844, since which time he 
has been a publisher of excellent 



school and other books in Phila- 
delphia. 

The original Christopher Sower 
published the first Bible printed in 
America in any language of Europe. 
It was a German Bible and was pub- 
lished in Germantown in 1743. It 
was in quarto form, 1,281 pages, and 
was sold for twelve shillings — less 
than two dollars. ^^ But for the poor 
and needy we have no price.*^ This 
work of Mr. Sower is a beautiful 
tribute of affection and appreciation 
to a noble ancestor by a worthy 
descendant. 

Introduction to the Study of 
English Literature. II. Six 
Lectures. By G^eorge C. S. South- 
worth. Boston and New York: 
Leach, Shewell, & Sanborn. 

These lectures are intended to give 
a glimpse of the proportions of the 
subject to a class about to begin the 
study of the successive periods of 
English literature, and also to point 
out models of English style, and to 
delineate the epochs of national 
growth. The marginal references 
will be found to be of great value, 
aud the book is one which should be 
upon the table of all students of Eng- 
lish literature. 

Roger Ascham the Schoolmaster. 
Edited by Edward Arber, f.s.a., 
etc.. Fellow of King's College, Lon- 
don. Boston : Willard Small. 1888. 

This book belongs to the series of 
English reprints. It was written be- 
tween 1563-08. The first edition was 
published 1570, and was collated with 
the second edit ion, 1572. In our rush 
for the new we overlook the value of 
those works which are older. The 
book is not only of great value to 
those who are teaching I^atln, but 
also to all who are intei-ested in the 
subject of the intellectual and ruoral 
development of the young. The mar- 
ginal references are a great addition 
to the book. 



isdd.j 



AMONG tBE BOOltS, 



m 



British Novelists and their 
Styles. By David Masson, m.a., 
Professor of English Literature in 
ttie University of Edinburgh, au- 
thor of "The Life and Times of 
John Milton," etc. Boston: Wii- 
lard Small. 

This critical sketch of the history 
of British fiction is made up of four 
lectures, llie first lecture is on the 
novel as a form of literature, and on 
early British prose fiction ; the second, 
British novelists of the eight^^nth 
century ; the third, on Scott and his 
influence ; the fourth, on British nov- 
elists since Scott. The lectures are 
full, IntereAting, and critical. 

The Blessed Dead. By Rev. J. M. 
Greene, d.d. Boston and Chicago: 
CongTogational Sunday-School and 
Publishing Society. Price, 75 cents. 

Here are five sermons concerning 
death and life beyond the grave, which 
are tender, comforting, and assuring. 
Those questions are answered which 
are in the minds of all who have lost 
friends, sometimes much to their 
troubling. The book is very taste- 
fully gotten up, and is worthy both 
of the author and the publishers. 

How TO Teach Vocal Music. The 
Teacher's Eclectic Manual. By 
Alfred Andrews. New York: 
Fowler & Wells Co., 775 Broad- 
way. 

A complete course of study is here 
mapped out from the beginning of 
" learning the scale," and which may 
be carried through several years* 
practice, if desired. Teachers who 
have vocal music as a part of their 
course will find this work of great 
value. 

The Print of His Shoe. By Rev. 
William Wye Smith. Square. Bos- 
ton and Chicago: Congreffational 
Sunday-School and Publishing So- 
ciety. Pp. 160. Price, 75 cents. 

A series of short essays on Bible 
themes, which have the pungency and 



directness of familiar talks. The 
author has a happy way of making 
his readers feel that they are pernon- 
ally addressed. The essays are bright, 
readable, and short. 

Theological EfiSAvs. Ho Deu- 
TEROS Thanator; or. The Second 
Death. Dives and Lazarus. By an 
Orthodox Minister of Fifty Years' 
Standing. Published for the author. 
Syracuse, N. Y. : C. W. Bardeeu, 
publisher. 

This is one of the great questions 
of the day. Arguments appear, first 
on one side and then upon the other. 
The periodical press is full of the 
subject. In this little work by "An 
Orthodox Minister," he who enjoys 
this sort of thing will find the sort of 
thing he enjoys. 

Responsive Readings in the Re- 
vised Version. With Morning 
and Vesper Services. By Rev. J. 
T. Duryea, d.d. Boston and 
Chicago : Congregational Sunday- 
School and Publishing Society. 
Introduction price, 50 cents. Retail 
price, 70 cents. 

In the first part of this beautiful 
book are given selections from the 
Psalms and other Scriptures In the 
Revised Version, to be used as respon- 
sive reading in church services and 
on special occasions. In the back of 
the book a morning and vesper ser- 
vice are given for the use of congre- 
gations, colleges, schools, and acade- 
mies, which, bound with the respon- 
sive readings, add much to the value 
of the work. In the readings and 
in the services, the scholarly and 
the refined taste of Dr. Duryea is 
everywhere evident. The volume Is 
printed In large clear type, and the 
book presents a very attractive ap- 
pearance. The morning and vesper 
services are bound separately and 
may be had for 30 cents, or for intro- 
duction at 25 cents. 



70 



EDUCATION, 



[September, 



Grammar School Reader. Vol. I. 
Price, 90 cents. 

History and Science Reader. 
'i'he Interstate Publishing Ck)., 
Boston: 30 Franklin Street. Chi- 
cago : 183 Wabash Ave. Price, 50 
cents. 

Vol. I of the Grammar School 
Rc4ider contains three hundred and 
eighteen pages, is fully illustrated, 
and finely bound In cloth. Stories 
and sketches by best authors. An 
excellent book for a reader, since It 
is made up of stories that cannot fail 
of interesting the pupils. It is also a 
book that will be held as a treasure 
in any family. 

The Ili.-^tory and Science Reader 
contains one h indred and ninety-four 
pages, with continued articles under 
titles, "Magna Charta Stories,'' 
*' Little Biographies — Music," '' The 
Traveling Law School," " Old Ocean," 
" Health and Strength Papers," etc., 
by famous authors, beautifully illus- 
trated, and tastefully bound in cloth, 
for school use. This book also is one 
from which the children will learn 
much that is valuable. 

These two books arc made from 
material which has been used the past 
two years in the monthly '• Grammar 
School," the first being made up of 
stories, the latter of the ** Supple- 
ment" or ''History and Science De- 
partment." 

The Lki)-1Iorsk Claim. By Mary 
Hallook Foote, author of "Friend 
Barton's Concern," " A Story of 
the Dry Season," etc. Boston: 
Ticknor & Co. Price, oO cents. 

This romance of the mining camp 
combines some description of the 
miner's life and surroundings of the 
camp with a novel such as will inter- 
est many who deliglit in n»ading of 
the wild, rougli manners of the fron- 
tier life, or the lumberman's hut, or 
the miner's camp. 



Helps to the Intelligent Study 
OF College Preparatory Latin. 
By Karl P. Harrington, m.a. Bos- 
ton : Ginn & Co. 1888. 

This little work is intended to help 
the student, as well as the teticher, 
find the answers, in the briefest pos- 
sible time, to such questions as, 
** Who was Caesar?" ** Who were the 
Gauls?" ''Why did Caisar subdue 
them?" "What kind of a soldier 
was he?" " How did Virgil look?" 
"What sort of a man was he?" 
"WTiat kind of hexameter did he 
write?" "Was Catiline as bad as 
Cicero makes him out?" "How 
may Cicero's literary style be de- 
scribed?" etc. These are questions 
which tlie students in our preparatory 
schools cannot answer. This book 
will show them where to find the 
answers, and will serve to encourage 
individual research. 

Laboratory Year Book for 1S8S. 
By John Howard Appleton, a.m., 
I*rofessor of Chemistry in Brown 
University. Providence, H. L: 
Gordon, 'Boscoe & Co. Pp. 32. 
Price, 12 cents. 

Among the large number of mod- 
em calendars, here is one for the 
chemist. Revised to date, it is an 
excellent handbook for the desk of 
every science teacher. 

Cassell's National Library. Sub- 
scription price per year, $o.00; 
t<»n cents a copy. Cassell & Co., 
739 Broadway, New York. 

No. 104. An Essay upon Pro- 
.JECTS. By Daniel Defoe. No. 105. 
Crickkt on the Hkarth. With 
selections from *' Sketches by Boz.'' 
By Charles Dicke'ns. No. 106. Anec- 
dotes of the Late Samuel John- 
son, LL.D. By Hester Ljnich l*io/zi. 
No. 107. Plutauch's Lives of 
Solon, Publicola Philopoewkn, 
Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and 
Caius Mauius. No. 108. Prome- 



1888.] 



ciMOXG TUE BOOKS. 



71 



THEUS Unbound. With Adonais, The 
Cloud, Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, 
and An Exhortation. By Percy 
Bysshe Shelley. No. 109. The Re- 
public OF THE FuTUKE. By Anna 
Bowman Dodd. No. 110. Kino 
Lear. By William Shakespeare. 
No. 111. Seven Discourses on 
Art. By Sir Joslma Reynolds. No. 

112. A IllSTORY OF THE EaRLY 

Part of the Reign of James the 
Second. By Charles James Fox. 

Riverside Literature Series. No. 
;W. Tales OF a Wayside Inn. By 
Henry W. Lonj^fellow. With an in- 
troduction }in(i notes. In tliree 
parts. Tart I. No. 34. Part II. No. 
30. Sharp Eves and Other Pa- 
pers. By John Burrou«:hs. No. 3"). 
Tales of a Wayside Inn. By IL 
W. Lonjjjfcllow. With an hitrodur- 
tion and notes. In three num- 
bers. III. lioston and New Yorlv : 
IJoujjliron, Mittlin & Co. Single 
numbers, 15 cents. Yearly 8ul>- 
scription (9 numbers), 91.2o. 

Cassell's National Library. 
Price, ten cents each. Subscripti<m 
price per year, 8.5.00. New York : 
Cassell&Co. No. 113. The Diary 
OP Sajviuel Pepys. From October, 
1607, to March, IfiOS. No. 114. 
London in 1731. By Don Manoel 
Gonzales. No. ll.'i. The Apolo<jy 
OF the Church of England. By 
John Jewel. No. 110. Much Ado 
About Nothing. By William 
Shakespeare. No. 117. Sketches 
of Persia. By Sir .folin Malcolm. 
Vol.1. No. 118. The Shepherds' 
Calendar. By Ednmnd Six»nser. 
No. 119. The Black Death and 
the Dancing Mania. By J. F. C. 
Ilecker. No. 120. Sketches of 
Persia. By Sir John Malcolm. 
Vol. 11. No. 121. The Diary of 
Samuel Pepys from March to 
November, 1008. 

Old South Leaflets. General 
Series. Price, 5 cents per copy ; one 
hundred copies. $3.00. Published by 
D. C. Hejith & Co., Boston. No. 1. 
The Constitution of the United 
States. No. 2. The Articles 
of Confederation. No. 3. The 



Declaration of Independence. 
No. 4. Washington's Farewell 
Address. No. 5. MagnaCharta. 
No. 6. A Healing Question. 
By Sir Henry Vane. No. 9. Frank- 
lin's Plan of Union, 17.*i4. No. 
10. Washington's Inaugurals. 
No. 12. The Federalist, N«»s. 1. 
and 2. No. 13. The Ordinance 
OF 17S7. 

The latest volumes of the Ticknor 
Paper Series are Next Door and 
The Minister's Ch ar(je. The former 
of these two popular novels is writ- 
ten by Clara T^ouise Buruham and is 
one of the few stories in which the 
characters and plot are true to 
nature. This delightful and domes- 
tic story is full of bright humor 
and pure healthful sentiment. The 
character sketches are wonderfully 
natural, piquant, and attractive. The 
Minister's Charge, by William D. 
Uowells, Avlll need no recouunen- 
dation to those who so enthusias- 
tically welcome anything from the pen 
of this popular author, llowells's 
pure, inimitable fun is enough to 
carry any story he may write. 

We have received from Ilenry Holt 
&, Co., New York, A Manual of 
Qeiuian Prefixes and Suffixes. 
By J. S. Blackwell, PH.D., Professor 
of Semitic and Modern Languages 
in the University of Missouri. Tlie 
book is designed as a practical aid to 
students who may wish to gain a 
nearer sense than even the best dic- 
tionaries give of the meaning of Ger- 
man words. The work gives in a 
small compass a great deal of matter 
that cannot be found elsewhere in so 
convenient form. The plan of the 
Manual does not include the etymol- 
ogy of the pretixes and suOlxes. 
Students of German will hail with 
delight this work which gives such 
an insight to the German language. 



72 



EDUCATION. 



[September, 



The Social Influence of Chris- 
tianity, with special reference to 
Conteinporary Problems. By Da- 
vid J. Hill, LL.D., President of Buck- 
nell UniYersity. The Newton I-eo- 
turoj* for 188*7. 231 pages. Full 
Cloth, Gilt, Price, $1.25. Boston: 
Silver, Burdett & Co. Publishers. 

This work by President Hill is unique 
and scholarly, rather than a mere com- 
pilation of current thoughts intended 
for temporary popular efft»ct. It is a 
work of a really philosophical charac- 
ter presented in a most inviting form. 
Ten years of experience as a teacher 
of economics and sociology have ena- 
bled the author to grasp the Issues of 
his subject in a scientific manner, and 
his extended travel in Europe has en- 
riched his knowledge of the contem- 
porary condition of society with the 
fruits of observation. The leading 
views regarding the nature of society, 
both ancient and modern, are com- 
prehensively stated, traced In their 
development, and intelligently criti- 



cised from a scientific, Christian, and 
American point of view. The central 
Ideas of Christianity, which the au- 
thor carefully distinguishes from the 
Church, are admirably defined, and 
their Influence upon society histori- 
cally studied. In typography, bind- 
ing, etc., the book Is a gem^ and adds 
another to the beautiful specimens of 
book-making recently given to the 
public by Its publishers. It should 
find a place In the library of every 
thoughtful student. 

Trie Blue; Mother Goose's Cam- 
paign Melodies. Edited by a well- 
known American author. Published 
by the Campaign Publishing Com- 
pany, 707 Filbert Street, Philadel- 
phia. 

Bright with wit, sparkling with 
good sense, and. In a happy vein, puts 
some logical political arguments terse- 
ly and with becoming gravity. Sent 
by mall for ten cents. 



MAGAZINES. 



PoMiibly no other departmont of our lit- 
erature has made more rapid Improve- 
ment within the last ten or a dozen yearn 
than the maKazineo. The Century ^ Scrib- 
ner*tt The Forum, The American Magazine, 
The Atlantic, The Xetc Princeton, The North 
Amerimn Jievitw, The Catholic m»rld. The 
Popular Science Monthly, LippincotVa, Sew 
EnyUtmler, Awlover Revtcw Presbyterian /?e- 
riew, Frank Leslie, Cosmopolitan, and a hotit 
of olhera " too numerouM to mt* ntlon," are 
all witne»«e8 to the Mlaut Htridei* of Im- 

{)roveinent made In this direction. We 
lave not ttpace to speak of them all in de- 
tail, but Hhall from month to month call 
the eHpeolal attention of our readern par* 
tlonlarly to those articles which seem to 
have the greatest interest and to be of the 
greatest value to the e<lucatlonal frater- 
nity. Every teacher should, however, c<m- 
slantly bt>ar in mind that much reading 
should be done outside ofprofessional lines. 
—Mrs. Martha J. l^mb gives, in the Septem- 
ber number of The American Magazine of 
History, an especlall}' interesting and 
wellllluMtrate<l account of Marietta, Ohio, 
speaking particularly of the foundation 
of civil government beyond the Ohio Kiv- 
er.— ** Tne Story of Boston Common " is 

given in Edward Everett Hale's usual 
right, attractive style, in the September 
Ifide AuHil-e.—The torum for September 
gives a glowing tribute to the Government 
of the I nited States, fnnn the pen of the 
Marquis of Lome. Ever>- American citi- 
zen ought to be more proud of his country 
after reading this answer to an "eminent 
American writer." The article is entitleil 
** Distrust of Popular Government." — Paul 
B. Cleveland discusaea in the Augoat Cos- 



mopolitan the question, ** Is Literature 
Bread-winningi'^' — All lovers of history 
and civil government will be glad to 
rea<l .John Fiske's account of the ** First 
Year of the Continental Congress," in the 
September number of the Atlantic Monthly. 
—A unique article on ** History in Names " 
by Rev. G. H. llubbard, of North Cam- 
bridge, is given in the Xew Englander and 
Yale Review.— The question, ••What is a 
Royal Commission? *' is answered in the 
September number of CasselVs, by George 
Howell, M. P.— i>rof. John W. Burgess gives 
an account of •• The German £mperor," in 
the Political Science Quarterly.— Tho excel- 
lent articles on Abraham Lincoln still con> 
tinue In the Century, The August number 
gives the history connected with Tennes- 
see and Kentucky.— TAt; Overland Monthly 
for August opens with an article about the 
great artesian belt of the I'pper San .Joa- 
quin Valley.— A most instructive as well as 
interesting article is to bti found in the Au- 
gust Scribner*s, by N. S. 8haler, on ** Rivers 
and Valleys."— In the September Wide 
Awake, Rev. H. O. Ladd, President of the 
University of New Mexico. <lescribes the 
Ramona Industrial School at Santa Fc^ and 
the Ramona Memorial Hall, a beautiful 
school for Indian Girls which Is being built 
as a monument to •• H. H." The JTide 
Awake children are invited to build the Re- 
fectory in the school, giving two cents a 
weeJ: for a year. This dining-nall is to cost 
a thousand dollars, and is to be known as 
the IFiile Awake R^ectory. The names of 
the •• Ri-fectory Thousand " — the givers— 
are to be hung in the hall, and are also to 
be printed in WkU Awake, 



€3d U CTATI R 

DEVOTED TO THE SCIENCE, ART, PHILOSOPHY, AND 

LITERATURE OF EDUCATION. 



Vol. IX. OCTOBER, 1888. No. 2. 



THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

AND LITERATURE,^ 

BY n. E. SHEPHERD, LL. D. 
Preiident of CkarUtion CoUege^ CharUttont 8. C. 

I. 

METHODS OF STUDY IN ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

THE prominence assigned in our contemporary educational lit- 
erature, as well as in our practice, to the art of methodology, 
has led to a revulsion which is both logical in its character and 
salutary in its effects. The untempered zeal of the extreme meth- 
odologists has caused them to assign to their shallow artifices a 
sort of magical efficacy, as though the highest ends of insti'uction 
were to be accomplished by mere dexterity, pure attainment, culti- 
vated judgment, delicate scholarship, lofty idealism, all being of 
secondary import in this dispensation of sciolism. In the develop- 
ment of his philosophic system Bacon seems to have anticipated 
some of the characteristic features of our modern educational em- 
piricism. The Novum Organum which he believed was to revo- 
lutionize existing methods of philosophic investigation, was to 
achieve success not by force of individual skill or aptitude, but by 
the intrinsic excellence of the mode pursued. Original differences 
of genius, temperament, character, were to be effaced by the adop- 
tion of a system which ignored them and accomplished its ends by 
the supreme merit of method alone. Bacon's scheme of levelling 

1 Copyright, 1888, by Eastern Educational Bureau. 



74 EDUCATION. [October, 

all original differences and setting aside all native or acquired fac- 
ulties is a suggestive and entertaining commentary when read in 
the light of modern developments. Still, it is neither wise nor 
salutary to press reactionary movements to an extreme degree, and 
there can be no doubt that metliods may be effectively employed 
as an auxiliary to the higher condition of true scholarship. In 
any sphere of educational work, their function must be secondary 
and subordinate, not primary or exclusive. 

So much has been written and said in regard to modes of instruc- 
tion in primary schools tliat the world has grown weary of the 
theme. The loftier spheres of scientific, literary, and historical 
teacliing have happily escaped the empirical epidemic, and will 
remain free from its tainting touch. The field of English Litera- 
ture and the English Language — in its higher forms — seems to 
have been thus far undesolated by the oracles of empirical edu- 
cation. 

I pur|)Ose in the present paper to set forth concisely some results, 
gathered from a varied and changeful career as teacher of English 
Literature. They are offered in no spirit of dogmatism — merely 
as suggestions for consideration — for scholarly reflection — by no 
means for necessary acceptance or approval. 

First of all, it is the tendency of modern teaching to divorce 
the literature from its natural cognate and interpreter — the de- 
paHment of history. For literature is the artistic expression of 
the historic life. The one elucidates and illumines the other; 
their separation is illogical and empirical. A broad, critical, and 
sympathetic knowledge of the great lines of historic growth, is an 
essential requisite on the part of every teacher of English litera- 
ture. It is in the bewildering complexity of modern historic life 
that tliis harmony of relation is most perceptible and most impress- 
ive, yet it may be traced in the simpler liistoric development of 
antiquity — a notable illustration being the advance of Athens to 
the literary and political supremacy of Greece, under the stimu- 
lating influence of the Persian wars. Other instances may be 
gathered from the elder world, but the modem ages abound in 
examples and illustrations. Let us select from the rich field at 
our disposal, elaborating our selections, so as to confirm the truth 
of the general proposition. The Elizabethan age is a mirror held 
up to nature, in wliich is reflected the form and pressure of the 
historic life. Every phase of its luxuriant and versatile growth, 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANOUAOE. 76 

is suggestive of some distinctive feature of its political, moral, or 
material expansion. The creative form assumed by its litemry 
types, the surrender of its noblest writers rather to impulse than 
to critical guidance, point to the quickening force of certain his- 
toric influences which we shall now endeavor to indicate. 

As a matter of historic record, when Elizabeth ascended the 
throne in 1558 both language and people were in a disorganized 
and distracted condition. The sweet strains of English song that 
had arisen with Chaucer died away almost as suddenly as they had 
begun, leaving only fitful echoes of their melody during the dreary 
age that extends from the advent of the fifteenth century to the 
preluding symphonies of Surrey and Wyatt. The nation had been 
convulsed by the thirty years' war of York and Lancaster — a 
struggle involving no grave constitutional or moral principle, but 
leaving an abiding impress upon the character of English history 
and of English speech. The introduction of printing stimulated 
in its first effects prevailing linguistic disorder. The Renaissance 
and The Reformation followed in its train. Classical learning, at 
first pursued in accordance with logical and rational methods, 
soon degenerated into an elegant affectation, and instead of striv- 
ing to domesticate the acknowledged graces of Greek and Roman 
artists, strove to engraft upon the simple structure of our lan- 
guage, the complicated periods of the ancients. The acrimonious 
strife of the Reformation absorbed the minds of scholars, and 
diverted their energies from the ennobling pursuits of literature. 
The structure of the language was unsettled, its syntax was fluc- 
tuating, its vocabulary not ascertained, its metrical principles and 
combinations undetermined. Its verbal richness was being steadi- 
ly increased by translations of the Greek and Latin classics, by the 
spirit of commercial adventure, geographical enterprise, and knight- 
ly daring. For the higher purposes of scholarly composition, the 
language was had in slight esteem, and Ascham apologizes for 
employing it, " doubting not that he should be blamed " for this 
act of supposed condescension to the rights of the native speech. 

At the accession of Elizabeth, there was no clear foreshadowing 
of the most brilliant creative epoch that has been developed in 
modern literature. Yet in thirty years from the beginning of her 
reign it was ripening into supreme vigor and splendor — the trans- 
formation is complete. 



I 



76 EDUCATIOy. [October, 

Let 118 note the historic influences that had produced this mar- 
velous result. First of all — preeminent above all — was the lofty 
sense of self-respect, the stimulus to national consciousness, re- 
sulting from the splendid victory over the Spanish Armada, an 
achievement that may be justly described as the English Salamis. 
Other influences are to be enumerated. The knightly love of ad- 
venture ; the spirit of heroic emprise ; the expansion of geograph- 
ical and commercial knowledge ; colonization ; the quest of strange 
lands in the " unformed Occident," were all determining forces, 
exhilarating agencies. Then too, was the relation of England to 
foreign powers, growing out of the complex struggles of the 
Reformation to esttiblish itself in the Low Countries, the Hugue- 
not struggles in France, and the almost ceaseless strife with the 
power of the Spanish monarchy. The revolt of the Netherlands 
began in 1568. Sidney was then fourteen years of age ; Bacon, 
eight ; Shakespeare, four ; Raleigh and Spenser were sixteen, being 
both born in 1552. In the midst of all, and in one sense above 
all, was the brilliant figure of Mary Stuart, the inspiration of the 
Catholic cause ; the object of an unfailing homage, whose tragic 
death at Fotheringay, in February, 1587, was the immediate occa- 
sion of the descent of the Armada upon England. Sir Philip 
Sidney, the purest expression of all that was noble and lovely in 
the manhood of Elizabethan England breathed out his young life 
in October, 1586. During this year it is probable that Shakes- 
peare came to London in quest of a livelihood. In 1587 appeared 
Marlowe's Tamerlaine, wliich forever fixed the place of blank 
verse in the English drama. During these same eventful years, 
Raleigh was founding the first English colonies on Roanoke Island, 
and Drake was circumnavigating the globe. The age was a drama 
in constant progress ; its moulding influences were dramatic ; that 
its literature should have in large measure assumed the di-amatic 
form is but the logical outcome of the events that fashioned it. 
Much even of its non-dramatic poetry is tinged by a dramatic 
radiance. The noblest allegorical expression of contemporary life 
has its dramatic features and its dramatic tone. The peculiar 
blending of the spirit of chivalry, the fantasies of the mediajval 
era with the rising realism of the modern world, is a marked char- 
act^jristic of the Elizabethan age. Its Sidneys and Raleighs, its 
Galahads and Lancelots, had not outlived the fascination of the 
romantic day, at the same time they had developed some of the 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 77 

distinctive features of our modern materialistic and realistic life. 
They stand on the border land, where the charm of one age is 
receding, and the strongly marked outline of another is rising into 
view. The old order is changing, but the ancient economy lin- 
gers, its brilliance and its glamor are still reflected, and the new 
dispensation has not lost the freshness and the vigor of novelty. 
That the literature of Elizabethan days should have assumed a 
creative and dramatic caste, would seem to be the mere logic of 
events, every historic influence converging to this grand result. 
No teacher is capable of estimating the character or the causes of 
this unparalleled era, who is not acquainted with the complex 
historic life of the sixteenth century. If we select the age of 
Anne, we find that the general law of literary and historic rela- 
tion holds good. If we investigate the closing decades of the 
Georgian era, the epoch coincident with the dawn of the first 
French Revolution, the revival of romanticism, and the decay of 
classicism, we find that our principle applies in undiminished 
vigor. It is one of the peculiar charms of literary history, if it 
be pursued in accordance with rational or scientific spirit, that the 
seminal forces, the germs which are to ripen into mature activity 
in a given age, may be detected in the age which precedes it. 
The neologism or barbarism of one era becomes the reputable 
idiom, the recognized type of the next. The scholastic genius of 
our Augustan age is not only potentially present, but vigorously 
developed in the literary work and character of Ben Jonson. The 
philosophic scheme of Bacon was unfolding just as Shakespeare 
had reached the highest point of our romantic drama. 

When we pass from the " spacious times of great Elizabeth," 
into the reign of the second Stuart monarch, we note the gradual 
but steady development of that "obstinate questioning," that 
rationalistic temper which at a subsequent day is to come to ma- 
turity in the Principia of Newton, the philosophy of Hobbes and 
of Locke, the structural charm and " golden cadence " of Addison 
and Pope. In political development, in the struggles of the Long 
Parliament, in the constitutional revolution of 1688, in the expan- 
sion of physical science by scholars and thinkers during the dis- 
tractions of the civil war, in its mature development under the 
culture of Newton, in every phase of intellectual life, we detect 
the presence of this same critical arid regulative spirit. It is seen 
in the decline of our periodical syntax, in the development of our 



78 EDUCATIOX. [October, 

modern prose form, in the perfection of the heroic couplet, in the 
Bentley-Boyle controversy, as well as in the struggles against 
monarchical absolutism. The entire range of literature will fur- 
nish scarcely an exception to the fundamental law enunciated. 

Take the decline of German national spirit and the consequent 
decay of German literary aspiration aft^r the Thirty Yeara' War ; 
the subjection of Germany to Parisian influences, intellectual as 
well as political ; the falling off of English literature from the 
death of Chaucer to the advent of Surrey and Wyatt, in whom we 
see the first-fruits of the English Renaissance ; the classic type 
assumed by French literature in consequence of the political in- 
fluences that controlled the age of Louis XIV. ; the vice of 
romanticism in France during the era succeeding the revolution, 
when in Great Britain the genius of Wordsworth, Burns, and 
Scott had laid bare the very springs of native life and romantic 
spirit. 

Let us insist rigidly upon the observance of the principle, that 
literature and history elucidate and interpret each other ; that the 
scheme of instruction which divorces the one from the other is 
illogical, misleading, and irrational. 

In the next place I would impress the need of restraint and 
moderation in the pursuit of this study. Nowhere in the range 
of instruction is the necessity greater for regarding the laws of 
harmony, the principle of adjustment. 



THE marvelous changes, political, social, moral, intellectual, 
and physical, which give character to the nineteenth century, 
are but the prelude to a drama which shall make all past acliieve- 
ments of our race appear weak and contemptible. To imagine 
that our superiority is merely mechanical and material is to fail to 
see things as they are. Greater individuals may have lived than 
are now living, but never l)efore has the world been governed 
with so much wisdom and so much justice ; and the power back 
of our progress is intellectual, moral, and religious. Science is 
not material. It is the product of intellect and will. 

• Bishop John Lancaster Siwldixg, of Peoria. 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS. 79 



THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS.^ 

II. 

THE ECONOMY OF MEMORY IN THE STUDY OF ARITHMETIC. — II. 

BY SIMON N. PATTEN, PH. D., 
ProfuMor in the Untveraitff of Penntylvania. 

TO use correctly different systems of measurement is not so 
easy as it may seem at fii-st sight. Even mature minds 
easily become confused when they attempt to use different stan- 
dards. Take for example the case of thermometers. How many 
persons are there who can readily tell how forty-eight degrees 
alx)ve zero Fahrenheit is expressed in both of the other methods of 
measuring temperature ? To do this, a person must have the three 
different units of measurement well in hand, and this requires a 
great effort even for a mature mind. Persons living in foreign 
countries always have great difficulty in using the new standards 
of money, weights, etc., and this can be true only because it re- 
quires so much effort to acquire a ready use of any one system 
of measurement. If the changing of the standard of measure- 
ment requires a great effort even on the part of mature persons, 
why should we compel children to measure each numl)er directly 
by every smaller number instead of allowing them to measure 
them all by that system which is most familiar — the system of 
twos ? If a child had twenty sticks, in what way would he ac- 
quire the best idea of their relative lengtlis — by using everj'^ stick 
in turn as a measure of the others, or by using some one stick 
until he became so familiar with its use that he thought of every 
other stick only in terms of this one stick? Suppose again, that 
a mother wished to teach her child the capacity of all the dishes 
she used. Should she measure each dish by each smaller one — 
the dipper by the cup, the kettle by the dipper, and the tub by 
the kettle ? Or would she succeed better if she used some one 
dish, say the quart biusin as the unit in whose terms the capacity 
of all the dishes is expressed ? 

> Copyright, 1888, by Eastern Educational Bureau. 



80 EDUCATION. [October, 

Now these questions are of the greatest importance. From the 
difficulty in changing from one standard of measurement to an- 
other must we determine whether we should use some one number 
as the measure of all others, or whether we should measure each 
number directly by every smaller number. We can compare each 
number with everj"^ smaller number and still use one unit of meas- 
urement ; for example, five can be compared with three by using 
two as the unit of measurement ; three equals one two-j-l, and 
five equals two twos-j-l* Their difference, therefore, is two, and 
their sum eight. When, however, we measure five directly by 
three, we attempt a difficult task for a child, and one that should 
be deferred until a later period. 

Commencing with the smallest combination of numbers and 
learning each larger one in turn in a disconnected way is just as 
confusing and burdensome as it is in history to leani the first fact 
of any period, then the second one, and so on, making no grouping 
of the isolated facts around the more important events with which 
tliey are associated. A teacher who teaches history in a discon- 
nected way is not now regarded as very progressive, nor should 
that teacher be ranked any higher who in numl>ei*s commences 
with the smallest combination and then proceeds to the larger ones 
in order, thus comi)elling the child to keep them all distinct in 
memory without the aid of any system of notation. 

Griibe was right when he advocated that all four primary oper- 
ations, addition, subtraction, midtiplication, and division, be taught 
in connection with one another. lie overlooked, however, the 
fifth primary operation, the need of a system of notation to ex- 
press numbei's and the relief which is thereby given to the memo- 
ry. This also should 1x3 taught from the Ixjginning, and this can 
only be done when, for the time being, the decimal system is dis- 
carded and in its place a system of twos — the most simple of all 
systems — is substituted. A child should be taught to think in 
this system, and no other way of measuring numbere shoidd l>e 
used until the child can exi)ress all the small numbers readily in 
terms of two, and can, by substitution, find the sum of any two of 
the small numbei's. Then he should be taught to think by the 
system of fours, which is \\(tyii to the system of twos in simplicity ; 
two twos make four, and it is as easy for a child to think by fours 
if he can already think by twos, as it was in the beginning to go 
from a system of units to the system of twos. 



1888.] THE TEACHIXO OF MATHEMATICS. 81 

When these two systems have been thorouglily acquired, the 
child is ready for the decimal system, and with the aid of what he 
already knows he can soon master this system if it be correctly 
presented. We must not, however, rely on mere memorizing, but 
the facts should be so presented that their relations can be seen 
and thought out. The digits are related to one another according 
to their position in the decimal scale, and those numbers should 
be taught together which are nearest related and not in their 
numerical order. Nine should be thought of as 10 — 1 ; eight as 
10 — 2; seven as 10 — 3, and six as 10 — 4. When this is done, 
any one who is familiar with the combinations of four and the 
smaller numbers can perform any of the operations of the decimal 
system. The following tables will show clearly what I mean : — 






90 





80 





60 





70 


1 


81 


2 


72 


4 


54 


3 


63 


2 


72 


4 


64 


8 


48 


6 


56 


3 


63 


6 


56 


12 


42 


9 


49 


4 


54 


8 


48 


16 


36 


12 


42 


5 


45 


10 


40 


20 


30 


15 


35 


6 


36 


12 


32 


24 


24 


18 


28 


7 


27 


14 


24 


28 


18 


21 


21 


8 


18 


16 


16 


• 32 


12 


24 


14 


9 


9 


18 


8 


36 


6 


27 


7 



From these tables it will be seen that the order in which the 
digits occur in the last figure of each number is the same for ones 
in addition as for nines in subtraction, for twos in addition as for 
eights in subtraction, and for fours in addition as for sixes in sub- 
traction. The revei"se is also true. The order of ones in subtrac- 
tion is the same as of nines in addition ; twos in subtraction is the 
same as eights in addition, and foui-s in subtraction as sixes in 
addition. A summary of these facts can perhaps be best illus- 
trated by placing the final figures of each set in a circle : — 



Fo 


r Ones and Nines. 


For Threes and Sevens. 




















1 




9 


3 




7 


2 






8 


6 




4 


3 






7 


9 




1 




4 




6 


9 




8 



82 EDUCATIOX. [October, 

For Twos and Eigbts. For Fours and Sizes. 



2 8 4 6 

4 8 2 

If in any of these circles we begin at any point going to the 
right, we add by the larger number and subtract by the smaller 
numl^er, thus : beginning with 3 in the second circle if we add 
by seven, we have the last figure of each of the numbers in turn 
moving to the right, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 52, 59, 66, 73, 80. 
If we desire to subtract by seven, we must go the other way 
around the circle, thus : 93, 86, 79, 72, 65, 58, 51, 44, 37, 30, 23, 
and so on, ever repeating the circle. For the even numbers the 
series is more simple, as there is but one-half the numbers in it ; thus, 
in adding by six beginning with 8, we have 8, 14, 20, 26, 32, and 
then the circle is again repeated, 38, 44, 50, 56, 62. We have 
also the same series of final figures in subtracting by fours, thus : 
58, 54, 50, 46, 42, 38, etc. Go around the same circle the other 
way and we subtract by six or add by four ; thus, subtracting by 
six we have 94, 88, 82, 76, 70, 64, etc., or in adding by four we 
have 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, etc. 

If these facts be generalized it will l)e seen that all the opera- 
tions, whether in addition, subtraction, multiplication or division, 
have at tlieir basis a regular order of repeating the final figures, 
and if numbers be taught so that the child can perceive this fact, 
the burden on tlie child's memory will be greatly reduced. Ones 
and nines should be taught in connection, l)ecause they repeat the 
final figures in the same order. For the same reason the twos and 
the eights go together, the fours with the sixes, and the threes with 
the sevens. When the larger numbei's are thus taught in connec- 
tion with the smaller numl>ers, they can be learned without burden- 
ing the memory. If nine be taught as 10 — 1, and eight as 10 — 2, 
any one who understands the decimal system and knows the ones 
and twos, can add or subtract by eight or nine. When ten is 
added and two is sul)tract^d we add eight, and if we subtract ten 
and add two we subtract eight. In a like manner six becomes 
10 — I and seven becomes 10 — 3. When we subtract ten and add 
three we subtract bv seven, and to add by seven we must add ten 
and subtract three. All the combinations of the digits are really 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS. 83 

nothing but those of the first four numbers, and if tlie pupil keeps 
in mind the decimal system and the order in which the last fig*e 
of each series repeats itself, the whole subject becomes very sim- 
ple indeed. The great difficulty in teacliing the use of the larger 
digits arises from the endeavor to teach them before the child really 
comprehends the decimal system. Addition by tens should precede 
the addition by any digit larger than four. If a child cannot readi- 
ly see that G3-|-10^73, or 26+10=36, he has not that maturity 
needed to add by any of the larger digits and he should be re- 
quired to think by twos or fours until the proper age has arrived. 

The multiplication and division tables are of course but a form 
of adding or subtracting continually by the same number. Care 
should be taken by the teacher to see that these tables are thought 
out by the pupil, and that they are not acquired by mere memoriz- 
ing. The child should be made to comprehend all those facts 
which will enable him to think from one step to another. This he 
will do but slowly at first. Soon, however, he can think out the 
steps as rapidly as he could if he liad memorized them and without 
the liability of becoming confused by a failure of memory. To 
think of nine as 10 — 1 is at first a slow process ; but when this 
habit has been once acquired, the act can be performed as readily 
as if all the combinations of nine had been learned outright. 

It may seem at first sight that what I call thinking out the sum 
of two numbers is in reality but another name for memorizing it ; 
but a closer examination will show a radical difference. There 
are three different ways in which we determine the sum or differ- 
ence of two numbers. Suppose the sum of three and five be 
required. We may first take three objects and then five more 
objects and placing them all in conjunction, we can determine that 
their sum is eight. This way I should call working out the 
answer. Secondly, we may think of three and five in terms of 
two. Then three becomes one two and one, while five becomes 
two twos and one ; two twos and one two are three twos ; one and 
one are one two ; tliree twos and one two are four twos, and four 
twos are eight. In this way we reason out the result, using as a 
basis of our reasoning our knowledge of a number smaller than 
those about which we wish to reason. Tliis is what I call think- 
ing out the answer. The third way Ls to memorize all the possible 
combinations so that when the sum of three and five is desired we 
can remember it is eight. This third way is what sliould be 



84 EDUCATION. [October. 

avoided. A skillful iise of the fii-st two will accomplish all that 
is^esired and at the same time call into exercise those faculties in 
the child of which he stands in the greatest need. By the first 
method the perception is developed, and by the second a habit 
of accurate thinking is acquired and only by the proper develop- 
ment of both of these faculties can the child make that progress 
which we desire. 

When the tables are learned by memory alone the child has no 
idea of the relations in which the numbers stand to one another. 
When the child says 2 X 6=12, 2x 7=14, etc., the relation which ex- 
ists between twelve and fourteen is not brought out. If it be said 
A is six miles, B is eight miles, and C is ten miles from Boston, there 
is no ground for the inference that all three places are in the same 
direction from Boston, and that B is two miles from A and C, and 
that C is four miles from A. They might l^ in different direc- 
tions from Boston and be ten or twelve miles apart, and yet the 
statement l)e true. The usual manner of learning tlie tables has 
the same defect as the above statement alx)Ut the places around 
Boston. They do not bring out the relation that exists l^etween 
the various products and thus connect the facts here learned with 
the previously acquired knowledge of these numbers. To show 
the relation existing between the various products, the tables 
should l)e thought out in the following manner until the child is 
thoroughly familiar with the table : — 

2x1+2=4 2X4 = 8 

2X2 =4 2x4+2=10 

2x2+2=0 2x5 =10 

2x3 =6 2x5+2=12 

2x3+2=8 2x6 =12 

This form of the table keeps vivid in the child's mind the con- 
nection Iwjtween addition and multiplication. The child can see 
that two added to the product of two multiplied by any number is 
the same as tlie product of two multiplied by the next higher 
number. All the steps in the tal)le are l)rought out clearly and 
the child can see liow to construct a like table for himself. When 
all the steps are visible the child can think out a tal)le for himself 
without memorizing ; but when any of them are left out, the child 
has no other resource tlmn its memory. 

« 

To keep clearly in a child's mind the connection bet\Yeen addi- 
tion and multiplication is the first essential in giving him a clear 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS. 85 

conception of numbers. For this reason it is best always to give 
some work in addition in direct connection with the multiplication 
table. The utility of such work is greatly increased from the fact 
that in practice there is almost always something to add to each 
product — the tens of the previous product. In multiplying 8234 
by 9, we have in each product after the first some tens to carry, 
which must be added to the product of the next number multiplied 
by nine. As in actual work we are compelled to carry and add, 
we should teach the tables so as to accustom the child to such 
work. For example, instead of telling the child to say the fours 
alone we should give it some number to add to each product. 
The child should be taught to say the fours and carry one, then to 
carry two, and then three. With each table each of the numbers 
smaller than the multiplicand in the table should be made use of 
as a number to carry. In actual practice each of these numbers 
would occur as a number to carry and all that the child will meet 
in real work should be taught him in his preliminary practice. 
Tables with a number to carry would be formed thus : — 

6x1+4=10 8x1+5=13 

6x2+4=16 8x2+5=21 

6 X 3+4=22 8 X 3+5=29 

6 X 4+4=28 8 X 4+5=37 

6x5+4=34 8x5+5=45 

There would also be a great advantage in such work from the 
means it would offer to test each child as to whether he really 
understood the tables, or had merely learned them by rote. 
While a child can learn the simple tables by rote without under- 
standing them, he cannot in this manner learn all the varieties of 
them which could be fonned by carrying. All these varieties 
could be readily thought out by the child who understood the sub- 
ject, and thiLs the teacher would have a ready means of determin- 
ing the real knowledge of each child. 

The single rule that must be kept in mind in using the method 
I have presented is to think of the larger numbers in terms of the 
smaller ones. When this is done all the operations of primary 
arithmetic l)ecome very simple and there is no need of much 
memorizing. The child should be first taught to think by twos 
and each number should be thought of as so many twos and all 
operations should be performed in tenns of twos. After the child 



86 EDUCATION. [October, 

can think readily in the system of twos he should be taught to 
think by fours, and when he can do this easily the decimal system 
should be presented. Each of the digits should be taught in con- 
nection with the number expressing its difference from ten, and 
all numbers should be taught as relative terms before they are 
taught as absolute terms. By this means alone can a child be 
taught to reason correctly and the use of memory l)e so econo- 
mized as to render the study of arithmetic a pleasure instead of a 
dreary task which it too often becomes when presented by other 
methods. 



HOW THET WERE EDUCATED. 

BT FRANK U. KASSON, A. M. 

AMONG the very interesting series of papers recently published 
in the Forum under the heading, *' How I was Educated," 
three are of special interest. They were written by Rev. Dr. 
Edward Everett Hale, Col. Thomas W. Higginson, and President 
S. C. Bartlett, of Dartmouth. A comparison of their experiences 
may not be uninteresting. These three men were born about the 
same time ; Doctor Hale In 1822, Colonel Higginson in 1824, and 
President Bartlett in 1817. Dr. Hale was the fourth of seven 
children, Colonel Higginson " the youngest of a large family," and 
President Bartlett one of five brothers, three of whom had a col- 
lege education. 

Each of these famous men had parents of whom he was justly 
proud. Doctor Hale's father was a distinguished Boston editor, 
and he it was who " introduced the railway system into New Eng- 
land." His mother was a thoroughly sensible woman who made 
him this answer when he thought she would be displeased because 
he stood only nmth in a class of fifteen : " O, tliat is no matter. 
Probably the other boys are brighter than you. God made them 
fio, and you cannot help that. But the report says you are among 
the boys who behave well. That you can see to, and that is all I 
care about." And the Doctor adds his own later estimate, that 
conduct is '* the most important affair in earth or heaven." 

Colonel Higginson came of a noted clerical and literary family. 
His grandfather was the reputed author of the " Laco " letters, his 
father "wTOt« several pamphlets" and his mother "some chil- 
dren's books, in one or two of which I figured." He came hon- 



1888.] HOW THEY WEBE EDUCATED. 87 

estly by his love of authorship, and also by his ardent anti-slavery 
principles, for he tells us that his eldest brother wrote '' a little 
book against slavery." President Bartlett speaks in high terms 
of his parents. His grandfather was a physician and his father a 
successful country trader. The latter was noted for liis "integ- 
rity, energy, skill, prudence, and executive ability." Of his moth- 
er he remarks, she was " in her sphere fully the equal of my 
father." When he was eight years old she gave him a Bible for 
having read it through. Thus we see that each of these distin- 
guished men was exceptionally well born. And tliis is a very 
great advantage to anyone. 

Dr. Hale began to go to school to Miss Susan Whitney when 
very young, because the older children went. And here he stayed 
three hours in the morning and two in the after^^oon till he was 
five years old. Of this early period he recollects four things : the 
flickering of motes of dust in the sunbeams, making sand-pies on 
the floor, the first page of the New York Primer, and sitting in a 
yellow chair reading an interesting book. At five years of age he 
began attending a boys' school. At six years he was studying 
Latin paradigms, and at eight, limped through a Latin version of 
" Robinson Crusoe." At nine he went to Boston's famous Latin 
School — the oldest school in America — in wliich such men as 
Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Adams, John Adams, John Hancock, 
Edward Everett, Charles Sumner, and Wendell Phillips have been 
trained. Four years of faithful work here fitted him to enter 
Harvard College in 1835. 

Colonel Higginson was born next door to Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, just in front of the Jefferson Physical Laboratory, being 
then just outside of the Harvard College grounds. The poet's 
birthplace has already given way to a " great academic structure." 
Higginson's advantages were exceptional. He " tumbled about " 
in the very same library with Oliver Wendell Holmes, and at 
home in a " comfortable library of Queen Anne literature." At 
four he could read or lie on the hearth-rug and hear his mother 
read Scott's novels. Many distinguished people visited his home 
and added a keen literary stimulus to the active young mind. 
After being taught for a time by a woman, he, at eight years of 
age, went to William Wells's preparatory school. Being a day 
scholar he walked the mile each way twice a day. Among his 
schoolmates were Lowell and Story, though they were five years 
older than Higginson. 



88 ED UCA TION. [October, 

President Bartlett early began attending the large district school 
at Salisbury, N. H., six houi-s a day being spent in study, and 
the rest of his time being given to outdoor sports. His teach- 
ers were largely Dartmouth students. Though attending this 
district school in winter till about twelve, he began at nine to 
attend the Salisbury Academy in summer, and was thoroughly 
drilled in Latin. At eleven he spent some time at the Boscawen 
Academy, under the stimulating instruction of JarvLs Gregg, and 
began the mastery of the Greek language. The next winter he 
was placed for a time under the private tuition of a young cler- 
gyman. Then followed two years of hard study at Pinkerton 
Academy (Derry, N. H.), and he was ready to enter college. 

Each of these three young men entered college at a very early 
age ; Doctor Hale and Colonel Higginson at thirteen yeai's, and 
President Bartlett before he was fifteen. The first two graduated 
at Harvard in 1839 and 1841, respectively, being each but seven- 
teen years of age. President Bartlett studied at Dailmouth, and, 
though yoimg, by his energy and remarkable faculty of continu- 
ous application, stood at the head of his class. Among those 
whom Doctor Hale regards as his chief teachers, and of whom he 
speaks most feelingly, were Professors Edward T. Channing and 
Longfellow ; also, his father, his mother, and an elder brother. 
Colonel Higginson makes special reference to Professoi-s Chan- 
ning, Longfellow, and Peirce. For the latter he has the strongest 
words of kindly recollection. Other powerful influences came 
from Jared Sparks, Ralph Waldo Emeraon, and, after graduation, 
from a cousin, Stephen H. Perkins. President Bartlett gratefully 
recalls the stimulating influences of his father, his mother, and 
her two sisters, highly educated teachers, as well as J. J. San- 
bom, Jarvis Gregg, and Professor Haddock. And then some 
years later, the powerful influence of those great Andover pro- 
fessors, B. B. Edwards, Moses Stuart, and chief of all, Edwards 
A. Park. 

The ripe fruits of the matured intellects of these three great 
scholars. Hale, Higginson, and Bartlett, justify and elucidate the 
remark of President Bartlett, that " all higher education is essen- 
tially self-education." College life and good teachers greatly assist 
the young scholar to get a start and awaken his dormant faculties 
and set them in the right direction, but success only comes by long 
and assiduous study and reflection. May these examples incite 
many of our best youth to wise and noble endeavor. 



1888.] TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES. 89 



THE TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL 

LANGUAGES,^ 

II. 

THE FIRST YEAR IN I^VTIN. — I. 
BT ADELINE A. KNIGHT. 

MANY a reader must have smiled with ready sympathy over 
Dr. Muuger's remark in a late article of his that he really 
supposed, during his boyish conflict with Homer that the Iliad was 
written to bear out the assertions of the Greek grammai*. But the 
unnatural devotion to syntax, which was an unwelcome and gro- 
tesque fact about very much of the teaching of twenty-five years 
ago, remains in full force in the heginning year of any language. 
The first textbook — be it ancient Jacobs or the brightly man- 
aged and seductive modern Lessons — has been "written to bear 
out the assertions" of the Latin Grammar; precisely tliat, and 
not much more. It is all prose, literally and figuratively. It calls 
for and calls forth the same quality of teaching faculty as does the 
needful drill of little people in the introductory years of English ; 
it calls for this, plus as ripe scholarship as one can possibly pos- 
sess, that the Latin class may be taught wisely, with due regard 
for the imperious necessity of differing presentations of the facts 
to differing orders of minds. Beginners should never be put to 
teach beginners. Just as in morals, the weak, worst people need 
the best and rarest people immediately next them, so the begin- 
ners of a language heed teachers who have found out its secret 
somewhat. 

The matter of the pages of the grammar must be gone over 
much and over-much, and this is also true of the incessant, vigilant, 
varying application and illustration of the matter. The dry bones 
of nominative and verb must be treated patiently. Seldom allow 
yourself to relate an incident. Reserve it, usually, for the lesson 
in Roman history. All standard Latin Lessons present their meth- 
ods in the order of a recitation, and thus are to the inexperienced 

1 Copyright, 1888, by Eastern Edacational Bureau. 



90 EDUCATION. [October, 

teacher an indispensable help ; and to the experienced, they are 
a daily bread of suggestions. To this prosy aid we must cling, 
sternly watching ourselves lest for a few indolent minutes we " let 
up " on the drill. Rapidity of work is, of course, so largely a 
matter of class material and of personal genius for teaching that 
it has to be left to the individual worker. 

Unavoidably there are many workers in comparative isolation, 
with a very limited opportunity to study methods other than their 
own. Unavoidably and in consequence, there is a great waste of 
nervous force in anxiety and depression about apparent results. 
It is a very true thing, and one which will bear passing on from 
one generation of teachei*s to another, that you cannot really esti- 
mate results by appearances, and that a dull first-year class is apt 
to be roused astonishingly by Caesar. But the little flask of bitter 
tonic must be handed along also, that the average success of any 
class — dull or clever — in the examinations depends upon the 
amount of prosy, tiring, half-doubting, and somewhat discouraged 
drill you have given it. 

It is possible that some teacher who vexes her conscientious soul 
may be comforted by the presentment of what appears to an old 
teacher an ordinary progress of a recitation in Latiii Lessons, with 
fiuch results in the quality of blackboard work as are often found 
there. 

We will call the recitation period forty minutes, and we will 
follow the order of work given in Jones's Lessons. Thus there 
will be a few paragraphs of syntax to be thoroughly memorized, 
three or four examples in English and Latin illustrative of the 
syntax, a Latin exercise to be pronounced and translated, a couple 
of selected sentences of this to be analyzed, a necessary note or 
two at the foot of the lesson to be noticed, and six or eight sen- 
tences of English to be turned into Latin. This English into 
Latin is the real test. 

The lesson may be the use of the Ablative. In this case a 
couple of girls will go to the board with directions to write out 
paragraphs 250, 251 of Allen and Greenough. You should always 
cause them to depend upon numbers only, without any sort of aid 
in the way of mention of the subject of the proposed paragraph. 
While they write, four others will be called upon for the Latin of 
the examples. Three more will pronounce the sentences of Latin 
text and three others translate them. By this time the pupils at 



1888.] TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES, 91 

the board have probably finished their tasks and must be called 
upon directly to read the paragraphs, with class corrections of 
text, spelling, and punctuation. The entire class is now at liberty 
for the second exercise which must be carefully written upon the 
board. The fourth sentence of the English-Latin exercise of the 
lesson on the Use of the Ablative is a representative one. Let us 
read it in English and then examine the ordinary facility with 
which it will be rewritten in Latin. 

The lieutenant led his army into winter-quarters among the Aedui 
a little sooner than the time of year dejnanded. 

Legatus eum exercitun in hiberna in Aedos paulo facilius quam 
tempus anni postulavit deduxit. 

Or the lesson may be the Use of the Dative. The writer thinks 
teachers will agree that the example illustrative of the Dative of 
The Person Possessing, — 

/ have a father at home^ 
will pretty surely be (according to the unlucky beginner), 

Est domi pater. 

And the example of the Double Dative, — 

Th£y were a protection to the hindmost^ 
will turn out, 

Novissimis subsidio erant. 

These things, using the language of Mr. Micawber, may be 
expected with confidence, and must be borne with philosophy, 
unless a teacher pleases to send the cleverest girls to the board 
with marked frequency. 

If the sentence happens to hold an ablative absolute and a sub- 
junctive clause, like the following : — 

Ccesar^ after removing his horse out of sights urged his men to fight 
bravely^ 

she need not be at all surprised if one pupil, if no more, utterly 
breaks down after writing out — 

Caesar equo conspectu 

and if there is more or less of a procession of unfortunates to the 
board before the Latin equivalent is achieved in passable fashion : 

Caesar remoto ex conspectu suo equo suos hortatus est ut fortiter 
pugnarent. 

Translation work from Latin to English is often quite as dis- 
couragingly done. Take, for instance, a sentence like, — 



92 EDUCATIOy. [October, 

Nam equitatuU quern auxilio Cceaari Aedui miserant Dumnorix 
prceerat ; 

Tlie translator will most likely begin, — 

For Dumnorix had ruled over the cavalry, etc. ; 
a translation full of clumsiness as well as of inaccumcy. 

JSrit co7iHuli niatpius exercitus 
will very likely be rendered, — 

The consuls will have a large army. 

As was above said, these tilings will happen if you call upon 
the rank and file of your class without fear or favor. Teachers 
are familiar with this sort of sentence, — 

Boii et Tulhufi^ qui hominum milihus eirciter quindecim aymen 
hostium claudebant^ ex itinere nontros circumvenere. 

And with the perennial tmnslation by some handsomely dressed 
little dunce, — 

The Boii and Tulingi drew up the rear of the enemy, who were 
about fifteen thousand in number, etc. ; 
and with the depressing effort of the next, — 

The Boii and Tulingi who had drawn up the rear of the enemy, 
about fifteen thousand men m number, etc., 

A time of general trial and trouble following and bringing to 
the surface the fact that the clever ones only were aware that eir- 
cumvetiere is a form of the perfect. 

How many women have felt like giving up teaching in the face 
of Latin perpetrated over this : — 

It wa4t a great hindrance to us in battle that we could not fight with 
sufficient ease^ 

with — as a usual thing, its flat and senseless equivalent put upon 
the board in fully as silly a way as the following : — 

Impedimento erat satis commode ad pugnam vobis. 

A luckless friend of mine once bade a pupil, who it is fair to 
state was an uncommonly stupid girl with small fitness for Latin, 
but with ambitious parents who were determined she should have 
it, turn so simple a sentence as this into Latin : — 

Mg friend has faur sans ; obtaining this strange garment for it : 

Filii meam amico sumus. 

Courage ! " Rome was not built in a day." Uncompromising 
thoroughness is to the last degree important ; so it may be well to 
devote another five minutes to the syntax on the boards. Section 
251, A. & G., for example, has been legibly written thereon : — 



1888.] TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES. 93 

The Ablative, with ax Adjective or limiting Genitive 
is used to denote quality. 

As you are quite aware that the girls have a narrow range of 
English and an apathy about grasping ideas, you had best ask 
the meaning of Section 251 of the one who wrote it, and beg her 
to illustrate with an example in English. Her definition and 
example may be distressingly wide of the mark, but probably you 
will see that barely a half dozen of the class dare raise their hands. 
Of the half dozen, two are likely to give accurate statements, put- 
ting their comprehension of the matter beyond doubt. So you 
give yourself up to illustrations in English and Latin. In Section 
250, ask the meaning of the phrase Comparatives and tvords imply' 
ing comparison. You are sure to feel disagreeably about the qual- 
ity of your teaching wliich has led girls to write out, foinUime^ 
syntax which they really know next to nothing of. So you try to 
do your best at this gap, and — the bell rings. You look up to 
see that the sun has slipped a little down tlie sky, and that its 
light has a trifle more of the afternoon look. You bow, and the 
girls file out. 

The teacher is fortunate who finishes tlie allotted amount of 
work in a formal lesson in forty minutes. She is fortunate if she 
finishes tluee-fourths of it. Miss Smith is unusually dense and 
has to try a sentence many times, and Miss Brown fails to accent 
the right syllable of the word, and is able to correct herself and 
give the rule of proof after reflection only ; and for one reason or 
another the bell seems always to ring unduly soon. '' If I could 
only have time enough ! " the teacher thinks as she closes the 
books. But *' if " is always in the way about most things in this 
world. 

It is especially well for a class to begin Roman history during 
the first year in Latin, using also the section of Latin literature in 
Mrs. Lynch-Botta's General Literature, or some primer of Latin 
literature. The department of Rome in Anderson's General His- 
tory is very much what beginners require, and witli proper sup- 
plementing from the desk will furnish a term of history lessons. 

Tlie objection may be felt if left unexpressed tliat it is a pity to 
introduce immature girLs, standing 

*' Where the brook aud river meet,'' 
to the evils of a whole national life, which is, after all, so much 
like, and only so much more than the history of a whole human 



U EDUCATION. [October, 

life. There is force in the objection ; but perhaps the objectors are 
unacquainted with the present type of young girl character. The 
writer, for one, always hangs with affection over Bjornstone's 
description of a swarm of girls of Norway, at a nutting party : — 

^^ The girls laughed for nothing at all ; if three laughed, then five 
would laugh just because those three laughed. Altogether, they behaved 
as if they had lived with each other all their lives ; and yet there were 
several of them who had never met before that very day. When they 
caught the bough they jumped afler they laughed, and when they did not 
catch it they laughed also ; when they did not find any nuts, they laughed 
because they found none ; and when they did find some, they also 
laughed. They fought for the nutting hook ; those who got it laughed, 
and those who did not get it laughed also. Godfather limped after them, 
trying to beat them with his stick and making all the mischief he was 
good for ; those he hit laughed because he hit them, and those he missed 
laughed because he missed them. But the whole lot laughed at Arne 
(the solitary boy,) because he was so grave ; and when he could not help 
laughing, they all laughed because he laughed." 

Tfiere is the true giggle of fifteen I How ashamed I used to be 
of laughing so much, and how I thought I never should be able to 
leave off giggling indecorously I and could not imagine what life 
would be like when I should be tamed enough to no more do thus. 
I was not wrong, maybe, in thinking it would be difficult to leave 
it off ; I had no idea how easily it would leave me off. 

There seems less gaiety and sparkle about schoolgirl daily liv- 
ing now. They appear to be missing some of the keen delight of 
their life's June. A part of the change — be it real or apparent 
— is due to the different sort of teaching required for them today, 
in place of the desultory species of education bestowed formerly, 
when one attended, to acquire one's learning and one's accomplish- 
ments, some private school or other of excellent reputation, kept 
in a fine old house, roomy, airy, bright, sunny, cheerful, with 
lawns turned into capital playgrounds. There is no doubt that a 
lack of assiduity in studies was less severely treated than was well 
for heedless offenders. The curriculum was elastic, and subjects 
that were uncongenial matters, which the mind was unable or un- 
willing to assimilate were waived with a regard for individual 
development exceedingly and necessarily rare in the admirably 
arranged courses which have destroyed the old method of study- 
ing whatever our people chose for us, as we sat upon long benches 
in the "day schoolroom" through whose open windows came the 



1888.] TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANQUAOES. 95 

powerful, spicy odor of pinks like a warm breath of summer 
sweetness. Recesses were long, and the lofty, oil-clothed halls 
were very dim and cool ; and probably too large a portion of our 
abundant leisure slipped away in promenades, and somewhat envi- 
ous regard of the boarders, who joined only in some of the les- 
sons. In general, these ladies had nothing to do with us ; they 
had privileged places everywhere, and led a life of dignified sep- 
aration from the day scholars. How desirable were even the 
ostrich tips upon their awkward, " sky-scraping " bonnets, which 
were perched in those days with nearly alike unbecomingness 
above wrinkled countenances and sweet young faces. There were 
also occasional erratic vacations when the elders at home noticed 
that a small back threatened to become bent, or when headaches 
seemed frequent — weeks when we ransacked the high pastures 
for berries, and the sweet and solemn presence of the woods and 
hills and meadows and the forms and movements of the clouds 
were influences whose powerful spell was felt rather than perceived 
by matter of fact young creatures who hardly knew how divine a 
ministration they were receiving from everything that surrounded 
them. In some such fallow time, began for some of us an epoch 
of indiscriminate, omnivorous reading — a doubtful good — which 
lasted until we began to t^ach, when such delights were unavoida- 
bly given up for the practice of our profession. Vastly different 
from rambles through pleasaunces which the rising tide of im- 
provement has since swept away and growing towns have rolled 
over and beyond, is the steady work and are the serious examina- 
tions expected of those whom we teach. The training of the 
present is begun early and, " without haste, without rest," pro- 
gresses steadily through a term of years, subduing the body to an 
absolute responsiveness to the will practically unknown in the 
schooldays of twenty-five years ago, when lessons in all other 
books than the all-engrossing /ai'oriY^ study, whatever this chanced 
to be, were deferred disgracefully and committed at the last min- 
ute with a fitful and thoughtless spurt of resolution which was 
enough to electroplate us with cheap and hasty half knowledge. 
Mental processes now go, or are expected to go true to a hair 
along the upward ways of many a subject which used to be treated 
in a rudimentary fashion ; although we were not wholly brainless 

and our classics were not 

" Ladles' Greek 
Without the accents." 



06 EDUCATION, [October, 

And the graceful women who superintended our tutors and our 
exercises managed successfully all their pupiLs, becoming objects 
of enthusiastic devotion to the elder ones whom they admitted to 
companioiLship. 

These girls of fifteen are a trifle older and very much wiser 
than were we. 



PHILOSOPHT IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES.^ 

BY WILLIAM T. HARRIS, LL. I>. 

IN this paper I shall not undertake to furnish the statistics of 
courses of study in our colleges, nor to discuss the trend 
of philo80i)hic instruction in view of such statistics. I shall as- 
sume nither tliat the present trend in higher instruction is to 
undervalue philosophy and its methotls. And accordingly I shall 
endeavor to sliow that philosophy is indispensable to any and all 
courses of higher instruction. I shall also endeavor to show that 
philosophy is the most practical of all studies, l>ecause it furnishes 
the will power or the executive personality of the soul with the 
results of the intellect (or tlie discui'sive power of the soul). 

I. 

T ask attention fii'st, to a brief stjit^ment of the nature of plii- 
losophy and it« method, in order that we may see clearly it« rela- 
tion to all other dei)artments of knowledge, and hence, to all 
higlier instruction. Philosophy is that science (if we may call it 
science,) which investigates the ultimate i)resup[)Ositions of exist- 
ence. It seeks a iii-st [)rinciple of all. Accordingly, it sets out 
from any given fact, tiling, or event, and begins at once to elim- 
inate from it what is accidental or contingent and drop it out of 
consideration. Any science — all sciences deal in unity. They 
unite phenomena in a princii)le. If they have lK>come genuine 
sciences, they find for a i)rineiple a definite causal energy which 
unfolds or acts according to laws. These laws exi)ress the nature 
or constitution of that causal energy. A science tliat rests on 
mere classification has not yet arrived at a true scientific form 
because it has not yet shown how its general principle produces 
its details and api)lications. Such an imperfect science reaches 

1 Read before the National Educational Association, Departraentof Higher Instruction, 
July 18. 1888. 



1888.] PHILOSOPHY AV COLLEGES AND UmVERSITIES. 97 

merely subjective unities — mere aggregates of things or events 
more or less independent of each other. 

The word process names the important idea in science. All the 
material of a science should be united in one process. To consti- 
tute a process it is clear that there must be an active cause and 
its operation according to a fixed method. 

Keeping in mind this consideration of special sciences for a 
moment, we may notice that all science discusses presuppositions, 
and that philosophy is not the only knowledge of presuppositions. 
Given a thing or event, science proceeds to discover its ante- 
cedents and consequences — in short, to find its place in some 
process. This investigation on the part of science aims to learn 
the history of the object — which is a thing or an event. Its his- 
tory reveals to us its former states and transmutations, in other 
words, the activity of its energy or cause by which it has come 
to be. 

The true method of science, it is pretty generally conceded 
now, is the historical one — the method of discovering one by one 
the antecedent stages of thing.s or events, and learning by this 
means the nature of the principle that reveals itself in the 
process. 

This method of Natural Science points towards Philosophy as a 
sort of science of science. For, that there is a general scientific 
method implies that all the sciences are related one to another 
through some universal underlying condition, so that all objects 
must have antecedent conditions, belong to processes, and have 
their explanation in principles. This underlying condition in 
which all objects find their unity is time and si)ace, and all sci- 
ences presuppose the possibility of a science of time and space. 

The doctrine of time and space as explained through the idea 
of causality furnishes ultimate science because it explains how the 
special sciences get their form. 

It is ultimate science, or philosophy, too, inasmuch as it shows 
causality as transcending time and space, and it discovers this 
form of absolute or independent causality to be Mind or RecOson — 
Self-conscious, Absolute Personality. 

Such ultimate science shows the place of each and every thing 
or event in the system of the universe and reveals its origin and 
destiny. It explains things and events through the self-revela- 
tion of the Absolute Mind. 



98 EDUCATION. [October, 

At this point we must note that philosophy does not affect 
omniscience, no matter how much the above statements may 
seem to imply it. Philosophy does not inventory anything what- 
ever; it explains only what is furnished it — something being 
given in a definite manner, philosophy will discover one by one 
it« pre-suppositions and find it« place and function in the absolute 
system. If the thing or event is not so far defined by one of the 
special sciences, that it can be referred to some one of their princi- 
ples, then only a very vague utterance about it can be made by 
philosophy. If it is only a thing or event, and it is not said 
whether it is animal, vegetable, or mineral, or some activity of one 
of them, then only the vague di ctum can be pronounced that it 
arises somewhere in the creative process of the absolute, — or as 
religion states it, '*It has arisen in the wisdom of God's Provi- 
dence," — and we are sure in advance of all examination of the 
thing or event that it has a place and a purpose. 

If the thing or event is defined as a plant, or some activity of 
it, we can speak more definitely and predicate of it what philoso- 
phy has discovered in regard to the place and function of vegeta- 
tion in the world. 

I repeat it — for the reason that philosophy does not inventory 
any facts or events, but assumes them as thus inventoried by 
other sciences, it cannot be accused of affecting omniscience. It 
is in fact a special department of human knowledge and requires 
special study and investigation just like other departments. 

Here we encounter another great word in tliis dispute as to the 
place of philosophy, namely the word specializatimu We are told 
that specialization is the principle of all progress ; that philosophy 
deals with ultimate unities, and therefore can make no progress. 
All progress comes through inventorying anew some minute prov- 
ince — division or subdivision is best because the minuter the field 
the more completely and exhaustively it may be inventoried. 
Philosophy, it is said, is the enemy to this specializing and inven- 
torying ; it is content with any results that are handed to it, and 
managed; to deal quite as well with imaginary things and events 
as with real ones. It can explain equally well the unicorn, the 
phcenix-bird, the polar bear, and the kangaroo. 

For the reasons I have mentioned, namely, that philosophy does 
not inventory nor reduce to subordinate scientific unities, we must 
admit the validity of the objection in so far as it condemns philos- 



1888.] PHILOSOPHY IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. 99 

ophy as unfit to substitute for any one or all of the special sciences. 
It is true that philosophy can explain one fact as well as another, 
and just as completely as said fact is offered or presented to it by 
one of the special sciences. Tliis does not, however, render the 
explanation of real facts empty and void, any more than a mistaken 
application invalidates the religious doctrine of Divine Provi- 
dence. 

Another objection urges : That the nature of philosophy as here 
set forth seems to assume that philosophy has only one form, or 
that all its forms arrive at an Absolute Personal Reason as ulti- 
mate principle, whereas there are many philosophies and divers 
first principles. To this objection it must be replied, that all phi- 
losophies do imply this personal first principle, although they do 
not all unfold it as the presupposition. To make this clear it is 
only necessary to state it generally. Every philosophy sets up a 
first principle as the origin of all, the cause of all, and the ulti- 
mate destiny of all. Let such principle be called X. Then X is 
assumed as originating all through its own activity, and hence X 
is a self-activity. Self-activity is what we call living intelligent 
being when we behold it. 

Let us n8w notice the utility of this reference of things to a 
supreme unity — in other words, the utility of philosophy. 

II. 

Philosophy is the form of thinking which is exercised or em- 
ployed whenever one closes a train of reflection and resolves to 
act. Deliberation belongs to the intellect, it holds action in sus- 
pense until it shall get a complete survey of the subject. Such a 
survey implies an inventory and an act of systematizing. But by 
the nature of the case an inventory of an objective sphere can 
never be completed, by reason of the infinitude of its details. 
Each detail can be subdivided again and again. If the will 
waited and held back its action until absolutely all the data were 
in, it would never act at all. The deed would be "sicklied o'er 
with the pale cast of thought." What is necessary is this : the 
inventory must be stopped, and all the facts must be assumed to 
be in hand. Then they must be summed up and their trend and 
bearing ascertained. This being done, it is now in readiness to 
act. All action of the will assumes that the inventory is com- 
pleted, and that the ultimate bearing of the data is known. 



100 EDUCATION. [October, 

Hence all practical action deserts the scientific or discursive form 
of thought, and put« on the philosophical attitude, assuming its 
survey to be a complete and absolute one. 

With this insight into the relation of the philosophical attitude 
of the mind to the practical will-activity, we may now demonstrate 
the utilit}% or even the necessity of philosophy, as an indispens- 
able branch of higher instruction. 

III. 

The object of all instruction is said to be self-knowledge. Ad- 
mitting that there is a discrimination between two selves — a finite 
self and an infinite self — this proposition maybe admitted. Then 
it would mean that all instruction has for its object the conscious- 
ness of the relation of the finite self to the infinite self — or, less 
technically, the relation of man and the universe to God. 

The occasion of all human activity moreover, is some relation 
between the individual and the universe or the Author of the uni- 
verse. It is evident that the ultimate ground of action must 
always be a moral one, therefore, because the motive, express or 
implied, must always be some relation to God or to God's purpose 
in the univei'se. Now these relations are defined fh onlv two 
ways — by religion or by philosophy — or only in one way, inas- 
much as religion always grounds itself and its mandates in the- 
ology. 

Higher instruction diffei*s from lower instruction chiefly in this, 
lower instruction concerns more the inventory of things and 
events, and hence has less to do with inquiring into the unity of 
things and events. Higher instruction deals more with relations 
and the dependence of one phase of being upon another, and it 
deals especially with the practical relation of all species of knowl- 
edge to man as individual and as social whole. Such relation it 
is admitted is ethical. Now, since the doctrine of the ethical 
rests on the nature of the first principle, and philosophy is the 
investigation of that principle, it follows that philosophy, express 
or imi)lied, must be the basis of higher education. 

It is singular to note how exactly this is true, even in those col- 
leges and univei'sities where agnosticism prevails. For agnosti- 
cism is a world-view founded on philosophy. It is, so to speak, an 
arrested development of philosophy, for it is a world-view adopted 
by cutting short the philosophical process near the beginning. 



1888.] PHILOSOPHY IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. 101 

Insight gets so far as to see the uiisubstantiality of material 
things in time and space — in other words, all such material things 
are ''phenomenal," or dependent on something that transcends 
their sphere. At this point the doctrine is negative only — it ends 
in negating the substantiality of the material world and denying 
its finality. The real and substantial is something that transcends, 
but it is not said positively what it is. Like the "persistent 
force" of Spencer it may be called an "unknowable" or an "ulti- 
mate unknowable." It makes forms and it swallows them up 
again through the changes of time. Itself is no form, no tiling, 
no special force. Hence it is negative and the thinker calls it the 
"unknowable." 

This standpoint is pantheism. Pantheism is objectionable as a 
world-view because it denies personality to God, and likewise de- 
nies immortality and freedom to man. But pantheism is not the 
legitimate or logical outcome of philosophy. If one moves for- 
ward to the logical conclusion, he reaches affirmative ground and 
arrives at theism. For persistent force implies self-activity as its 
true nature, inasmuch as the persistent force is not correlated with 
any one or with all of the particular forces (heat, light, electricity^ 
magnetism, gravity, etc.), but it is the foundation of all of them, 
and they arise through its energy. It is self-related or self-active, 
and hence it is of the nature of life and mind, absolute and infi- 
nite. It is absolute, because being self-active it does not depend 
on anything else for its manifestation and constitution. It is 
infinite because it is self-limited, or, in ot)ier words, it makes its 
special limitations, the particular forces (heat, light, etc.), by its 
own act, instead of receiving a check through another being out- 
side of it. It is not limited by others but only self-limited — it is 
the absolute creator of its particular forces. Thus even the agnostic 
doctrines taught in the schools under the influence of George Henry 
Lewes and Herbert Spencer are only premature or unripe philos- 
ophies — even their own doctrines pointing toward theism. 

Hence the present decadence of philosophy in schools is only 
apparent and not real. It is simply the Avatara of pantheism 
imder a new form — the form of mental incapacity to comprehend 
what is already defined to be the negative of all attributes. Such 
an absolute is easy to comprehend, in fact, because there is noth- 
ing left in it to be comprehended. By its definition, abstraction 
has already removed all distinctions from it and left nothing in it 



102 EDUCATION, [October, 

of a determinate nature ; if reflection finds anything to think in 
such an absolute, it must supply what it thinks out of its own 
store of ideas. 

It is clear from this that there is a philosophy presupposed in 
those schools, and that it is a bad philosophy because it is a pan- 
theistic philosophy — a revival of Orientalism. 

In this theoiy of pantheism, there lie coiled up all the princi- 
ples opposed to our ci\Hlization. The history of the past two 
thousand years is one unbroken contest between pantheistic sur- 
vivals from the oriental world and the new spirit of Christianity. 
There has been a tendency to lapse back into some doctrine that 
denied the divine-human nature of God, or the individual immor- 
tality of man, and set up fatalism in the place of moral freedom. 
But the Church has always had the clear discernment to condemn 
as heresy all such doctrines. Mohammedanism was the most formid- 
able bearer of this spirit of the east against the spirit of Europe and 
the'west. Charles Martel, and afterwards the Crusaders defeated 
ite armies in the field, while Thomas Aquinas and the Scliolastic 
Theology defeated its intellectual heroes and established the doc- 
trines of a truly Personal God against an abstract Unity as the 
first principle. 

It is the true function of our higher education to defend and 
preserve this precious doctrine in our time, and in no way can it 
be done except by teaching a thorough-going philosophy which 
traces out the presuppositions of matter and mind to their ulti- 
mate implications and discovers Personality in the Absolute, 
and immortality and freedom in man. For these ideas alone 
make possible our civilization. 



We cannot help rejoicing in the increasing prominence of the 
idea that every being whom the world contains has his true place, 
written in the very make of his nature, and that to find that 
place and fill it is success for him. To help him find that place 
and make him fit to fill it, is the duty of his educators in all their 
various degrees. Phillips Brooks. 



1888.] DISCIPLINE THE PRICE OF FREEDOM. 108 



DISCIPLINE THE PRICE OF FREEDOM 

BY CHARLES E. LOWREY, PH.D. 

I 

OF the desirability of true freedom as the goal of human en- 
deavor no one has spoken more appropriately than Gen- 
eral Thomas J. Morgan (Education, May, 1888). Far be it from 
the purpose of the present comment to detract from the merit and 
spirit of his noble article, " Education and Freedom." Only that 
freedom may be a reality, and not a sentiment, is there need to 
supplement. 

General Morgan says: "The only discipline that fits for free- 
dom is liberty." That liberty is a discipline is granted. But tliat 
it is not the ordy discipline that "fits for freedom" is wherein lib- 
erty differs from freedom itself. Freedom is a conscious personal 
product in which liberty and necessity have become organically 
and spiritually a living unit. 

To imperfect activity in man, freedom assumes a double face, 
essential and propaedeutic to the personal possession of it, — this 
apparent contradiction, an incentive to complete self-knowledge. 
We must will to act the perfect way. So long as our liberty is an 
offence to due proportion and harmony, Our comprehension of its 
true office must be enriched by the apparent opposition of spirit- 
ual authority, or necessity. Liberty truly is God's pledge of son- 
ship ; but necessity supplies the conditions upon which conscious 
acCj^ptance with God may be a reality in our personal experience. 

" There is nothing new under the sun," not even General Mor- 
gan's statement, that " discipline is much milder than formerly." 
The teachers of today were the pupils of the last generation ; 
they are the product of its discipline. Is it not too soon to say, 
granting the above statement, that the pupils of today are proving 
themselves more worthy of citizenship under the " milder disci- 
pline" of their sires? — sires who forget the mother and source 
of their own freedom in the vain hope of buying for their off- 
spring some easy road to the knowledge of themselves and of 
their obligations to society. 



104 EDUCATION. [October, 

In all time and in all conditions of society discipline has made 
men teachers and has delegat<;d them the guides of inexperience. 
To be sure we are all sons of God ; but only by self-conquest are 
we conscious of that fact, however. As children are not full 
grown at birth, so wisdom is not always justified at the hand of 
her unconscious offspring. 

There is a common error of our day that children have but to 
be told the truth of experience to do it, sometliing analogous is 
that common error of the past that among children there were no 
seeds of righteousness — no, not one. Let it be observed in cor- 
rection of both these extremes, that in the neglect of any factor 
of human development for the purpose of emphasizing another 
possibly equally important, but not more essential, the abnormal 
"swing of the pendulum" is inevitable. Let it be further ob- 
served that in the normal development of the perfect man there is 
no need of the " swing of the pendulum." That is merely the 
corrective of human limitation and perversion. 

Self-control as the result of conscious knowledge of divine rela- 
tions is the authority for and the secret of all control over others. 
This admirable quality is the child of a discipline that has over- 
come the world bv an intellectual conquest of the reaso7i for the 
world's opposition to human desire. 

When children not exercised in this school of discipline shall 
come to protect the souls committed to their charge, shall find 
human nature stubborn, shall find in their own experience no 
solution for this new trouble, we may expect a return to blows 
from the beautiful product of mildness, instead of progress toward 
perfection. 

Man's growth is an intensifying of the knowledge of the ever- 
present, ever-perfect activity of God. Man in his personal sq^a- 
tion sees a progress from outline insight to immortal vital partici- 
pation. The procession is due to our ability to review the suc- 
cessive stages of that one experience. There is an apparent 
progress from imperfection to perfection of insight. Because of 
obedience and an acceptance of the suggestions of discipline, God 
is making His reflection of Himself in the world better for this 
particular servant now blossoming into sonship and conscious im- 
mortality. That son mistakes the teaching of his own experience 
not to recognize that God's way has been perfect from all eternity, 
today as yesterday the same, that there is no growth in the divine 



1888.1 DISCIPLINE THE PBICE OF FREEDOM. 106 

economy, that God is process^ not progress^ and that man in the full 
knowledge of his privilege is like Him, hence immortal. 

In any broad philosophic estimate of human experience, there 
is place neither for universal pessimism nor for universal optimism. 
There is a chance for either in that at will we may be demon or 
like God, as a matter of personal experience. But the privilege 
of self-mastery or the contrary as a decision based on personal dis- 
position to know and be free or to act blindly and be a slave is no 
prejudice to the perfect adjustment of the divine activity. " All 
things work together for good." Even the wrath of wilful imper- 
fection is made to praise this perfection. Not that God forcibly 
restrains and thus relieves human responsibility — God does not. 
But it is in the nature of man as God's image that wilful and 
abnormal perversion shall fail of its purpose and produce its cor- 
rection. Out of man's wilful imperfection and self-correction 
grows God's perfection. Otherwise, spiritual darkness as a mat- 
ter of disposition, i. e., eternal death — " Who hath not eternal 
life, hath eternal death already." 

As before suggested, normal growth is not a "swing of the 
pendulum," but the straight and narrow way that grows brighter 
until the perfect day. Man's self-revelation is from God as a cen- 
tre in all directions. That God is the spirit of which all the ob- 
jects that appear to imperfect activity in man are the manifesta- 
tions. In the conquest of the significance of these symbols of 
the richness of the Divine nature, we become in tnith what we 
are, in fact, whether conscious of it or not, the divine activity^ 
sons of God, spirits like unto himself, privileged to be conscious of 
God's immortal life, like Him in fullness as we have been like 
Him in kind from all eternity. And this the only complete answer, 
and God's own answer, to the niystery of our nature. 

But our equality of privilege with God is not an equality of 
" rights " without conquest. So far as we are not perfect we are 
subordinate to the " perfect law of liberty," and this law is neces- 
sary. No fondness or indulgence of teachers can pervert the 
divine economy. Wherein the inclinations of the child controvert 
the experience of the teacher their gratification is a violation of a 
sacred trust that shall reap condemnation and disrespect when 
mature manhood has revealed the truth. 

There is the rankest heresy in the indiscriminate allowance of 
choice in matters of which the child has but the slightest concep- 

t ' 



106 EDUCATION. [October, 

tion. As men of mature yeare we see no kindness in the per- 
mission tliat encouraged us blindly to make mistakes that the 
consensn4s of the ages had judged inevitable. We now love the 
teachers who encouraged us never to make a specialty of any 
particular aptitude before we were conscious of ability to grasp 
the whole, without a knowledge of which we could have, in our- 
selves, no adequate criterion of the value of our special work. 

Many of us go farther, and declare that the educational spirit 
of the times is deficient and a discouragement to honest endeavor 
to develop well-rounded manhood as the necessary basis for any 
particular duties in life whatsoever. We call upon the profession 
in general and on all who have been subject to educational influ- 
ences in particular, if we have heard as much as we ought about 
making specialties of our weak members and letting the apt ones 
lend a helping hand ; the rather abnormal proclivities are encour- 
aged to assert their authority for the purpose of perverting the 
normal development of the divine image and establishing a tem- 
poral monstrosity, notorious for the proclamation of mistakes long 
since known to be inaccuracies of ignorance, as though original 
wisdom and genius. 

We can predict in advance the absolute success of the noble 
spirit that will study his own weakness and that, too, discovered 
as such by his fellows; and then without proclaiming himself 
shall face all discouragements, and scoffs, and suggestions, and 
rebuffs from narrow-minded specialists in our colleges and uni- 
versities, and make this special weakness the crowning factor in a 
well-rounded manhood. 

Such an one can never be surprised ; he is fitted for any emer- 
gency that the providence of God may present. That man pos- 
sesses the key to the solution of every industrial and social prob- 
lem so far as it applies to his own experience. That man has as 
the reward of the bitter, cruel discipline of distrust — from those 
who, had they been truly wdse, would have detected the pearl — 
the wonderful freedom of the divme approval and guidance. 
That man is the product of a self discipline that should have been 
encouraged and suggested by those to whom in all respect and 
modesty he was looking for assistance, only to be cruelly disap- 
pointed. Such an one, however, dwells "in the secret place of 
the Most High " ; he abides " under the shadow of the Almighty." 

We have no desire to specify any particular form of discipline^ 



1888.] DISCIPLmE THE PBICS OF FREEDOM. 107 

only to impress that liberty as usually understood is not sufficient 
to ensure freedom. Legislation that makes the attempt infringes 
upon the proper authority of the teacher. Neither would we 
return or advance to any particular aspect of the term dUciplhie. 
We may say in passing, however, that there never had been the 
** rod " without the occasion for it. And whether the exercise be 
vested in the teacher or in the civil police, there are always pres- 
ent with us elements of character calling for the supremacy of 
physical suffering to correct the cruelty and ignorance of blind 
physical self-assertion. 

We contend that discipline be adequate to its purpose. What 
that discipline shall be, the wise teacher sets not in specific rules 
to be misconstrued, but determines on occasion as cool judgment 
may suggest. To handicap the teacher by legal enactment is to 
discredit the judgment of tlie profession and to provoke pupils so 
inclined to insubordination in the very particular in which the 
teacher is powerless. 

The teacher should suffer the consequences of a lack of judg- 
ment in correction as a member of society, but should not other- 
wise have his authority restricted. Education is primarily a dis- 
cipline and to place restrictions on discipline means in some cases 
a necessary failure of the object of education. 

Expulsion from school, for example, may have a moral effect on 
those who remain, but it is not a correction for physical insubordi- 
nation in the individual ; and the discipline, so far as society as a 
whole is concerned, is simply transferred from the teacher to the 
police, with far less likelihood that the corrective be accepted as a 
lesson. 

God-likeness is the only door to personal freedom. Any grant- 
ing of privileges to those who do not accept that as the goal of 
human striving, is a license for which succeeding generations 
must suffer. " The government of the people by the people " in 
form merely, we have learned to our sorrow as a nation, may sig- 
nify a perversion of proper government as abhorrent as absolute 
despotism. We ask the pertinent question. If children are capa- 
ble of personal freedom, why from birth to maturity not give them 
the franchise ? 

The fact stares us in the face that formal emancipation is not 
freedom without the free act and effort of personal individual 
experience. There are kings and princes of character under every 



108 EDUCATION. [October, 

form of government. This does not alter that other truth, that 
with equally favorable opportunities some exercise their right as 
free men but as the license of slaves. 

We do not deny the privilege of any to be sons of God, but we 
do assert the impossibility of a person who has not earned the 
right of freedom by self-conquest and discipline making anything 
but license of a formal removal of restrictions. 

Much of the discussion concerning autonomy might be omitted 
as irrelevant, by mere recognition that autonomy is not by exter- 
nal removal of restriction, but by a law as eternal as God himself. 
We are masters by being like God, nothing short. There is no 
such experience as freedom without the conscious authority to sub- 
ordinate imperfection to discipline. 

It is not, however, as some think, a question of dismembering 
man. We have no more right to emphasize authority than liberty. 
One is as essential as the other. Without faith to act we should 
never know the opposition of perfect law. Without faith in our 
ability to discover the teaching of opposition we should never 
know freedom. Authority and liberty are members of the same 
organism. 

The lesson of these particular times is that lack of discipline 
incapacitates citizens for distinguishing practically liberty from 
license. Who are not a law to themselves have not the discern- 
ment to govern. Their " freedom " is self-destruction. Children 
do not see the necessity of obedience, unless by experience they 
know the healthy thrill of self-conquest and consequent useful- 
ness. 

As the world reads God's dispensations and discipline, " Whom 
God loveth He chasteneth " ; nevertheless, such is the road to free- 
dom and consciousness of sonship. Compulsion is for ignorance ; 
for knowledge that very compulsion is a privilege willingly exer- 
cised as the highest freedom. 



A man conscious of enthusiasm for worthy aims, is sustained 
under petty hostilities by the memory of great workers who had to 
fight their way not without wounds, and who hover in his mind 
as patron saints, invisibly helping. Geokge Eliot. 



1888.] THE RENAISSAXCE AND THE REFORMATION. 109 



OUTLINE NOTES ON THE RENAISSANCE AND 

THE REFORMATION^ 

BY IDA M. GARDNER. 

[These outlines are based apon notes on lectures delivered before the Rhode Island 
State Normal School by the late Prof. J. Lewis Dlman, D. D., of Brown University. No 
attempt has been made to develop them into anything more than a connected whole. 
Such as they are, they embody the permanent Impression made by the lectures upon a 
comparatively immature mind ; and may therefore serve to illustrate Professor Diman's 
clear presentation of a subject, and its careful analysis. It is believed that the notes 
will be helpful to teachers, not only in the lines of study suggested, but in presenting to 
classes a short, concise statement of this interesting period of modern history.] 

II. — THE REFORMATION. 

IV. 

"TTXHILE the Lutheran movement was going on in Germany, 
▼ V another movement was going on in Switzerland, which 
led to different results ; though both were movements toward reli- 
gious reform. To understand the Swiss movement, we must think 
of the difference between Germany and Switzerland. Germany 
was a plain, open to invasion, cut up into political states. Switz- 
erland was a land of mountains, where the states were formed by 
nature. While in Germany the Feudal System prevailed, Switz- 
erland was comparatively free. When Germany had grown into 
an empire of four hundred states under one Emperor, Switzerland 
was only a collection of cantons, held very loosely together. Ger- 
many was a feudal aristocracy ; Switzerland, a republic and free. 
But political circumstances made changes. Charles the Bold, 
Duke of Burgundy, was more wealthy and powerful than Louis 
XL of whom he held his fief. Louis occasioned a quarrel between 
Charles and the Swiss, in the hope that both would become ex- 
hausted. It ended in the death and overthrow of Charles. The 
Swiss became famous soldiers. When Louis found he could not 
exterminate them, he took them into his pay, and formed the 
famous Swiss guard. The Pope saw the advantage, so he had 
Swiss soldiers too. This led to unexpected results. The Swiss 
had been good Catholics, noted for their piety; but the young 
men after serving in the army, came home with very different 

^ Copyright, 1888, by Ida H. Gardner. 



110 EDUCATJOX. [October, 

ideas, obtained at the French court with its vices, and with an 
independent way of thinking. Those who served in Italy, came 
home still worse. Under Julius II. they had lost their old rever- 
ence for the Pope. Thus at the beginning of the Reformation, 
Switzerland was the reverse of religious. The French, to get 
hold of the Swiss, paid more ; but the Church gave ecclesiastical 
indulgences. Thus Switzerland became worldly and profligate, 
and free from ecclesiastical control. 

In 1484, Ulrich Zwingle was born at St. Gall. He was high- 
spirited, proud, truthful. He was sent to Zurich where the 
humanistic studies were taught. Erasmus was there. Zwingle 
caught the inspiration, and became a fine classical scholar. Zwin- 
gle was a minister, and early took high grounds for personal 
morals. He opposed the foreign service of his countrymen. He 
touched no doctrine of the Church ; but as a teacher of morals 
insisted on a higher code of morals, and denounced the vices of 
the times. Zwingle had good qualities for a leader. He was 
high in favor with the ecclesiastical authorities ; a very fine, noble- 
hearted, brave man. 

When Zwingle heard of Luther's preacliing against the sale of 
indulgences, he gave his assent, but did not deny the authority of 
the Church. He was in high favor long after he was known as an 
opposer of indulgences, and was promoted to Zurich, one of the 
most important positions in Switzerland. He made vigorous ef- 
forts to reform the Cathedral system, and compelled the lazy 
canons to preach a course of sermons. He boldly denounced all 
sorts of profligacy. He was a moral, rather than a theological, 
reformer. So far Zwingle was wholly independent of Luther. 

Thus things went on until all Germany was in an uproar, and 
all Europe divided; until the time had come when every man 
must choose the side on which he would stand. Zwingle did not 
hesitate, but came out as a bold reformer. He was a classical 
scholar, but he coupled the Scriptures with the classics. As he 
lectured on the Bible, liis views began to diverge from the Catho- 
lic standard. So he moved off on to a new platform, until at last 
he stood side by side with Luther. The two movements had dif- 
ferent origins, under different circumstances, and were carried on 
in a different spiiit. Luther's theology lay in the doctrine — 
"The just shall live by faith." Zwingle did not lay stress upon 
any particular doctrine, but inclined toward Luther. 



1888.] THE BEXAISSAXCE AND THE REFOBMATION. Ill 

Soon after, Zwingle fell in battle, for he believed that the 
Protestant cantons must assert their rights by force of arms. His 
movement did not stop. The followers of Zwingle put forth 
views which Luther rejected, and this led to a split between the 
two parties. Luther was still two-thirds Catholic ; he changed 
only specific points. He was a conservative ; had been forced 
into a position he did not choose. He never designed that the 
movement should take a political tendency. His maxim was, 
" Cut out the rotten and leave the rest." The Lutheran Church 
was much like the Catholic in its service. Two years after the 
Diet of Worms, Luther opposed the Revolt of the Peasants. He 
said the people had no right to change matters. Changes should 
be made by authority. But he could not stay the movement. 

Zwingle with his well-balanced mind had a clearer understand- 
ing, and went farther. He attacked the mass. The Roman Cath- 
olic Communion is not a mere commemoration. The Catholics be- 
lieve that they partake literally of the body and blood of Christ, into 
which the bread and wine are miraculoiLsly changed with the eleva- 
tion of the Host. Luther could not get over this idea. He believed 
that we must literally partake of the body and blood of Christ. 
Zwingle was not a scholastic. He had a ''harder head" than Lu- 
ther. He denied the miracle in the mass, and believed that the 
Communion was simply symbolical. Luther flew into a passion, 
and said that Zwingle was cutting at the very roots of faith. The 
discussion over this question waxed deep and strong. At last Lu- 
ther said, if he could not have transubstantiation, he would have 
consubstantiation. The doctrine of Luther adopted by the Diet of 
Augsburg was this doctrine of consubsttmtiation.^ But the Swiss 
and others, twenty years later, adopted the Heidelberg confession, 
which embodied Zwingle's idea. This caused a division in the 
reformed party. When this schism in the reformed churches took 
place, the Reformation stopped. 

V. 

A great error, into which most historians fall, is that of suppos- 
ing that the Reformation was a movement which took place simply 
on the part of those who came out of the Church. There was a 

1 " Luther maiDtained the real and substantial presence of the body and blood of 
Christ, taking place, not by u transmutation of the external elements, but by a super- 
natural and Inconceivable union of the body and blood of Christ with the consecrated 
breaAland wine." • 



112 EDUCATION. [October, 

great reform in the Church. There was a more complete trans- 
formation in the Church of Rome than in any other. From the 
time of Julius II. and Leo X., down to the Council of Trent, the 
Romish Church was perhai)s more changed than the Protestant. 
The prevailing temper in the time of Leo X. was indifference, 
utter and entire. Never had there been such neglect and denial 
and utter indifference on the part of the ministers, as in the time 
of Alexander VI. and Leo X. Look ahead fifty years, and we see 
the Church transformed. We find it full of zeal, producing con- 
fessors and missionaries in great numbers. Not since the time of 
Benedict had there been such a missionary spirit. Alissionaries 
were sent into every part of the world. The Popes were full of 
zeal. The Inquisition was revived. Heretical books were sup- 
pressed. All this, Protestants are apt to overlook. Their move- 
ment reacted on the Chuich, yet the reform was not wholly a 
reaction. It took a tremendous impulse from Luther and Zwingle ; 
but there was a genuine religious life in the Church, independent 
of the Lutlieran movement. Before Luther began to preach, a 
very singular religious movement had broken out in Italy, caused 
by a reaction against the excessive vice of Alexander VI., and the 
worldliness of JuliiLS II. 

In the Italian Renaissance, certain societies called Academies 
had been formed, for the discussion of matters literary and classi- 
cal. These Academies suggested another movement. Religious 
societies were formed on the same plan, called Oratories. (This 
term was often applied to a private chapel ; but, originally, to an 
association, not a room.) The most famous Oratory was one of 
seventy members. They met in the evening to disciLS topics of 
religion, usually mattei*s of personal experience. There was noth- 
ing ecclesiastical about it. All were members of the Church. 
Laymen, clergy, and ecclesiastics were all on the same grade. 
Tliere was nothing antagonistic to the Church. 

The rise of Oratories was a significant feature in the religious 
history of this century. It roused a deep, religious feeling in 
Italy. The movement went on — Leo did not care — until Luther 
began to preach ; and his books got into circulation. They reached 
Italy, and attracted the attention of members of the Oratories. 
Tliey " believed just so." Strange to say, the doctrines of Luther 
had been widely discussed, before Luther liad been heard of. He 
had not then been excommunicated, but was giving great impulse 



1888.] THE RENAISSANCE AND THE REFORMATION 113 

to thought. While the Reformation was going on in Switzerland, 
in Rome, in Naples, and in Northern Italy a strong but quiet move- 
ment was going on, condemning Luther, yet claiming that his 
doctrines were substantially correct. In Spain, the more intelli- 
gent Catholics adopted the same views. There was great progress 
in religious feeling, and reform in the teacliings of the Cliurch. 

The Secretary of Charles V., Juan Valdez, was with Charles at 
the Diet of Worms, and became much interested in Luther. After 
this, Valdez went to Naples, and was naturally tlu-own much into 
high society. Here he commenced a singular career. He wrote 
a book on evangelical religion, which for a long time was supposed 
to be lost. About twenty-five years ago, a copy of it was found 
by an English gentleman, who had it translated and published. It 
is known as *'One Hundred and Ten Considerations." Valdez 
belonged to an Oratory in Naples, and wrote out these short ser- 
mons on personal religion, to be given there. It is a remarkable 
book, to be read with profit by any Christian of today ; a remarka- 
ble instance of lay influence. Valdez lived in the elegance and 
splendor of the best society in Naples, yet carried alxiut with him 
the earnest influence of a Christian man. His example exerted an 
immense influence. 

The regular meetings of the Oratories were something like our 
"Conference meetings." Members gave free expression to their 
personal convictions. In the citadel of Catholicism, views were 
held, differing from Luther's doctrine only " by the shadow of a 
shade." The movement went on to 1530. The way was prepared 
in the Church for the Reformation. Catholics were feeling that 
they must choose different Popes. In the next ten years the pa- 
pacy was gieatly changed. Popes had unexceptionable private 
characters. Now, the connection between profession and life was 
quite as respectable as in case of some of the reformers. 

The movement outside of the Church, culminated in the Peace 
of Augsburg, 1555; also in the Swiss Church, and the movement in 
England. That inside the Church was carried on by men just as 
pure and good. Melancthon and Cardinal Contarini, representa- 
tives of the two movements, were equally devout, equally sincere, 
equally anxious to have truth and religion settled on a proper 
basis. 

From 1530, the breach went on widening between northern and 
southern Europe; yet good men never ceased to pray that it might 



114 EDUCATION. [October, 

be healed. It continued to widen until 1541, when the Diet of 
Ratisbon met. • This was the last attempt to heal the breach. It 
almost succeeded. The two parties discussed doctrines, point by 
point, and found that they did not differ so verj^ much. They 
were on the verge of agreement, when it was blocked by two in- 
fluences. Luther had received so many hard knocks, that he had 
a spirit of controversy, and did not believe in the professions made. 
He used his influence against settlement. The other influence 
was that of Francis I., who was a genuine disciple of the Italian 
Renaissance. He had just about as much religion as Leo X. He 
stood by the faith that was best for the king. Had the Diet of 
Ratisbon succeeded, it would perhaps have led to an alliance of 
Charles V. and the Pope, to drive France out of Italy. Francis 
did not wish Charles to unite with the Pope. He therefore inter- 
fered privately, and Ratisbon failed of success. Reconciliation 
was never again attempted. 

VI. 

Why did the Reformation happen? The answer may be given 
in one sentence. It was due to the peculiar conjunction of cir- 
cumstances; the conjunction of a religious, spiritual movement, 
with political changes. The results were due to political influ- 
ences. The Renaissance gave to the Reformation its intellectual 
features. Other characteristics were stamped upon it, both on the 
Continent and in Pingland, by the personal views of the sovereigns 
of the period. 

Charles V., Emperor of Germany, was present at the Diet of 
Worms. He was then a mere lad ; but though young in years, he 
was mature, clear, profound, in his political ideas. He had the 
largest dominion ever inherited by a prince. He was the monarch 
of (Jermany, a large part of Italy, Spain, the Low Countries, 
and exclusive monarch of the New World. He had a great re- 
sponsibility, was closely connected with the Church. He was the 
head of Christendom, in liis own eyes and in those of his subjects. 
He was the vice-gerent of Clirist in temporal matters, as the Pope 
was in mattera spiritual. Charles felt this responsibility deeply. 
He was grave and serious, sometimes unjust and severe. He car- 
ried his Spanish gravity into all liis duties. He wished to guard 
the interests of Christendom. His position was complicated. No 
ruler ever stood in such a conflict of interests and responsibilities. 



1888.] THE BENAJSSANCE AND THE REFORMATION. 115 

Germany was composed of many states. All the great men of 
Germany were in Feudal relations to him. He was bound to 
guard their interests, and depended on them for support. Had 
there been only this, it had been an easy matter. There was a 
disposition on the part of the German princes, to oppose the 
Church; and Charles might have carried through the reform. 
Charles was also King of Spain, where he ruled, not by Feudal 
relations, but as a proper monarch. Public sentiment here was 
just the reverse of that in Germany. The Spaniards were most 
bigoted Catholics, and rebellion was easily brought about. 
Charles's position was a delicate one. In the Low Countries^ 
the wealthiest part of Europe, he inherited patrimonial estates, 
and ruled by an independent title. In Italy he inherited from 
the Aragonese, Naples and Sicily, and had claims on Milan. It 
was necessary to be on the Pope's side, or he might be stripped of 
his Italian possessions. 

Charles V. is harshly judged ; is acciLsed of vacillation, of hav- 
ing no clear political principles. This is, in the main, unjust. We 
must bear in mind the complexity of his position. He could not 
move without alienating somebody. The invasion of Italy by 
Charles VIII. had accomplished nothing permanent, but entailed 
great consequences on Europe. It created an antagonism be- 
tween Gennany and France, through the union of Germany and 
Spain. The old sore wiis still open. The rivalry created by 
Charles VIII. is, in a political sense, the clue to the Reformation. 

The whole movement aft^r the Diet of Worms was an antago- 
nism between Charles V. and Francis I. The contrast between 
the two men is marked — Charles, grave and serioiLs, with a high- 
toned honor ; Francis, of the House of Valois, a type of the Ren- 
aissance period, excelling in every accomplishment and in every 
vice ; a patron of art, in hearty sympathy with the Art movement, 
but with no moral tone whatever. He was called the ''Most 
Catholic King," yet the whole policy of Francis was free from any 
religious tone or tendency. While professing loyalty to the 
Church, he cared nothing for it. His dominions, though not so 
extensive as those of Charles, were more closely compacted. 
Louis XI. had made France the most consolidated, best organized 
government in Europe. 

To the Turks, or rather to their Sultan, Solyman the Magnifi- 
cent, we owe much. The Turks took Constantinople in 1453, and 



116 EDUCATION. [October, 

the same dynasty had ruled ever since. When they first came 
into Europe they were war-like, full of enterprise and intellectual 
spirit, though differing from the Europeans, with whom they came 
little in contact. The Turkish power came to be well established. 
At the time of the Reformation, the prince on the Turkish throne 
differed from his predecessors. Solyman was well educated, 
versed in European history, and in the relations of European states. 
The Danube was the key to the river-system of Europe. To one 
holding Constantinople, it gave access to Central Europe. In 
case of the advance of the Turks, the first state to oppose them 
was Hungary, then the hereditary states of Austria. It was sim- 
ply the Duchy of Austria under the Hapsburg family. Vienna was 
the objective point to the Turks ; but as long as the Turks did not 
advance, it was no matter. 

Solyman was ambitious of military gloiy. He had the finest 
military power in Europe, a well-disciplined army against which 
no state could stand. As Solyman sat in his capital, dreaming of 
extending his frontiers, he heard the mutters of trouble in Ger- 
many. He learned how the German princes were disposed; how 
Germany was in danger of a split. He saw it all, and framed his 
policy. The Reformation was his opportunity. His first great 
invasion was in 1522. He overran Hungary. Europe cared little 
for the loss of Constantinople ; but this was another thing when 
the Turks came up the Danube, and occupied nearly all of Hun- 
gary. The first person to suffer was Charles himself. Defence 
must be immediately prepared. Austria could not do it. The 
only way was to secure the support of Germany, and especially of 
the towns. Money and ammunitions were to be found there. 
But in the towns the new doctrines had made most progress. All 
the cities favored the Reformation, hence Charles must show the 
reform party some favor. From 1522 onward, whenever the Turks 
were victorious, the Protestants flourished. This was kept up all 
through the early years of the Reformation. We owe to Solyman 
a great deal of the religious liberty of Europe. Charles V., Fran- 
cis I., and Solyman played a three-cornered game. Francis was in 
secret alliance with Solyman, urging him to push up the Danube. 
This kept the Reformation moving on. But for this conjunction, 
Luther might have been silenced; and Germany might have taken 
another direction. By 1531 the Reformation was so far along, 
that it was impossible to effect a settlement. Charles, up to this 



1888,] 



CHILD SPEECH. 



117 



time, had tried to preserve the unity of Christendom; but he was 
willing to make concessions. If his policy seemed vacillating, the 
underlying motives must command respect. Francis did nothing 
worthy of approbation. 

Had Europe been as it was three centuries before, the Reforma- 
tion could not have taken place. Also had the rulers been less 
powerful, or the Turks been other than they were. 

The last days of Luther, though happy in his domestic life, were 
full of sadness. The wars of religion that deluged Germany with 
blood for a hundred years, had already begun. He died in 1546. 
In 1555, by the Peace of Augsburg, the German states obtained 
permission to choose their own form of worship ; and the perma- 
nent division of the Church was accomplished. 



CHILD SPEECH, AND THE LAW OF MISPRONUN- 

CIA TION, 

BY EDMUND NOBLE, BOSTON. 
II. 

IN the formation of certain nouns and pronouns strongly per- 
gonal in their character, there is a striking recurrence of the 
same consonantal elements, and this similarity may be observed in 
languages widely separated from each other. It is further note- 
worthy that the recurrence is always of easy, never of difficult, 
sounds. The first personal pronoun I, for example, is compounded 
in a large number of tongues with the labial consonant M (inter- 
changeable with N), as shown in the following list : — 



Language. 


Word 
for " I." 


Language. 


Word 
for " I.»» 


Basque, 


Ni. 


Votyak, 


Mon. 


Georgian, 


Me. 


Zamnea, 


Nu. 


Korean, 


Nai. 


Aymara, 


Na. 


Mpougwe, 


M', mi, or mie. 


Chiquita, 


Ni. 


Fiunish, 


Mina. 


Mandan, 


Mi. 


Mordv, 


Mon. 


Greek, 


Me. 


Ostiak, 


Ma. 


Latin, 


Me. 


Sirjan, 


Me. 


French, 


Moi. 


Cheremiss, 


Min. 


English, 


Me. 


Chavach, 


Maninn. 


German, 


Mich.i 


Vogul, 


Am. 







1 The accasatlve of the personal prononn is older than the nominative. The human 
body is a ** me," or ** it," — a thing acted upon— before it becomes an ** I," a subject, or 
aotiiig and thinking personality. 



118 EDUCATION. [October, 

There is a not less striking recurrence of the same consonants 
in the names given by different races to personalities of the fami- 
ly, such as *' father," "mother." Herr Buschmann found the 
sounds PA and TA (AP and AT) to predominate as names for 
" father " in a large number of languages examined by him, wliile 
the forms for "mother" were in the largest proportion of the 
cases MA and NA (AM and AN). 

Let us turn now to child speech, especially to the earlier sounds 
made in infant attempts to imitate spoken words, or even to the 
incoherent prattling into which all imperfect child language has 
a perj^etual tendency to degenerate. Here there will be found a 
remarkable and unquestionable resemblance between racial and 
individual recurrence of sound. Preyer cites from Air. Darwin 
a record of child speech in which the sound SHU-MUM (with the 
sense of "eatables") is mentioned, and goes on to say that his 
own infant frequently uttered the syllable MOMM to indicate 
that it was hungry. Vierordt heard a child in its third and fourth 
month repeat frequently the syllables and dysyllables MAM, 
AMMA, FU, PFU, etc. Preyer records of a Thuringian child 
that its first utterances were MA, BA, BU, APPA, AUGE, etc. 
Sigismund, another observer, mentions a child that utters its earli- 
est sounds as follows: BA, FBU, FU, BABABA, DADADA, 
also ADA!) and EDEI). Amongst the meaningless sounds re- 
peated frequently by a child of sixteen months, were : PU JEH, 
TUPE, AMMAM, ATTA. Sigismund and Preyer give the fol- 
lowing as names applied to father and mother at successive periods 
by a child in its second year : — 



Vater, 


atte. 


Mutter, 


amme. 


Vater, 


atte. 


Mutter, 


amme. 


Vater, 


tate. 


Mutter, 


ammam. 


Vater, 


fatte. 


Mutter, 


matte. 



If we now place in juxtaposition some of the more suggestive 
of the sounds, as on the one hand heard in child speech, and as on 
the other actually existing in names taken from languages with 
which neither German nor English has any sort of aifinitj'^ what- 
soever, the result will be, to say the least, striking. Thus : — 

Cbild Sounds. Actual Names. 

APPA. APPA.i 

(Dravidian for " Father.") 

i M. A. de la Calle mentions in Iiis La Glosaologrie that his child's first pronunciation 
of '* Papa *' was APPA. 



1888.] CHILD SPEECH, 119 

Child Sounds. Actual Names. 

PAPA. 
(Indo-European for ** Father.") 
ATTA. ATYA. 

(Hungarian for '* Father.") 
MAM. MAMAN (French), Mama. 

AMME. AMMA (Dravidian), Mother. 

MA. AMA (Mongol), Father. 

MAMMA. EME (Mongol), Mother. 

BA. BAB A (Carih), Father. 

BABABA. BIBI (Carih), Mother. 

ADAI). DADA (English), Father. 

DADADA. TYATYA (Russian), Father. 

The conclusion that generic names given to parents arise in the 
more or less imperfect language of children themselves thus seems 
unavoidable. Infants utter earliest and. oftenest those sounds 
which, being finally modified, by the lips or in the anterior part of 
the mouth, are the easiest to imitate and. to pronounce. And it is 
of this class of sounds that almost all names of ''father" and 
" mother " are made up. For such names as these, therefore, and 
above all for their recurrence amongst so many different races, 
there is a simple, and, I believe, a true explanation. The firat 
sounds uttered by an infant being the easiest — that is to say, of 
P, D, T, M, N, — it is these sounds, or some of them, that the child 
will apply or seem to apply to one of its parents, or to both. The 
parents, or one of them, will naturally note any striking iteration 
of a particular sound, and will thereupon begin to lay emphasis 
upon it by repeating it themselves, and further, by applying it to 
one or other of the parents. One sound may be chosen to repre- 
sent '* father," another to mean " mother." From merely uttering 
the sounds at random, the cliild, led by its parents, comes to attach 
meanings at first vague, afterwards clear, to particular sounds, and 
at last associates its father with one utterance, its mother with 
another. The association thus set uj) establishes the names of the 
parents, who employ them in self-designation, and transmit them 
to a succeeding generation. Children go on babbling the same 
-consonants from age to age, but after the names io% '* father " and 
" mother " have once arisen in the natural way described — or in 
jsome way closely resembling it — they are simply inherited as part 
of the lingual property of each race. Why, amongst some peo- 
ple, B, and amongst others P, should be selected — why the choice 



120 EDUCATION. [October, 

should at times fall upon D, and at others upon T — why in some 
cases M should be used for a particular name, and in others N — 
all this is determined by some accidental circumstance out of a 
complex of circumstances which affects the choice at the time it is 
made. If a child is in the habit, at intervals, of uttering all these 
sounds, there will be abundant scope for any one of them to be 
selected as the predominant sound of a name rather than any 
other. It is the particular circumstances of each case that deter- 
mine which of the easy consonantal sounds shall bs chosen. It is 
the general law of preference for easy sounds which determines 
that the selection shall be made from those sounds, and from no 
others. And the explanation thus offered of the recurrence of 
the same sounds in the words for " father " and " mother " applies 
with equal validity to the case of recurrent M (N) sounds in the 
first personal pronouns of so many languages. This M in all 
probability indicates the objective relation in which the child stood 
towards its parents, to whom it wotild be — to coin a dissyllable — 
the EMMer (the MOer, MAer or MEer, that is to say, the maker 
or utterer of the M sound). That the P and B were not em- 
ployed to describe the objective relation of the child to its parents 
may be attributed to the fact that the other sounds had already 
acquired definite associations. Or some, in view of the insepara- 
bleness of mother and child, may prefer to regard the personal 
ME sound as a sort of polarized differentiation of the generic 
sound heard in " Mamma," ** Mother." That the ME word was 
invented (or applied) by parents, and the I word originated by 
the individual himself, seems at least probable. 

It must be admitted that there are races whose speech is more 
or less wanting in labial or easy sounds. The Hurons, for exam- 
ple, have no B, F, M, P, or V. The sounds of B, D, F, G, S, and 
X are said to be absent from the tongue spoken by the natives of 
Peru. That the Chinese have no B, D, S, and Z is notorious. 
The language of the Indians of British Columbia is wanting in B, 
D, F, J, P, V, and X sounds. Yet it would be much easier to 
exaggerate than to underestimate the importance of these deficien- 
cies. Compar^ with the number of languages in which the easy 
sounds are represented, the few exceptions cited sink into insig- 
nificance. Moreover, to show that a particular consonantal sound 
does not occur in an alphabet is by no means to prove that such a 



1888.] CHILD SPEECH, ' 121 

sound may not exist in the form of a combination.^ Granted that 
all the sounds named are actually absent as stated, the fact estab- 
lishes nothing more than that whatever the tendencies of infant 
speech may be, children learn languages as they have been formed 
by habit. It is notable, moreover, and proves the existence of law 
even in apparent exceptions to its operation, that the exceptions 
go in classes, no easy sound and no difficult sound being absent 
alone. This may be seen from the following arrangement : — 

Race. Easy Sounds. Dlfflcult Sounds. 

Hurons, No B, F, M, P, V, N. 

Peruvians, No B, D, F, S. No G, X. 

Chinese, No B, D, S, Z. 

B. C. Indians, No B, D, F, V, P. No J, X. 

The alliance of sounds in classes is further shown by the fact 
that in the Polynesian dialects no distinction is made between the 
sounds of P and B, of T and D, of G and K. That the Chinese^ 
turn R into L, and the Japanese, L into R, is notorious. Indeed, 
the confusion of these two letters took place in ancient Egyptian, 
and is said to have been also characteristic of early Aryan speech. 
Professor Sayce, judging by its alphabet, is of opinion that Sans- 
crit once confounded B and V, and mentions that in Assyrian, M 
and V are written with the same character. 



Forenoon and afternoon and night; 
Forenoon and afternoon and night; 
Forenoon and afternoon, — the empty rhyme 
Repeats itself . No more? Yes; this is life. 
Make this forenoon sublime, this afternoon 
A psalm, this night a prayer, and life 
Is conquered, and thy crown is won. 

£. R. Sill. 

1 It may be truly said, for example, that there Is no B and no D In New Greek. It is 
none the less true that the B sound appears In the MP sound, while D acquires phonic 
existence in the combination NT. When preceded by N, the Romaic T takes the sound 
of D. 

> The Chinese pronounce Christ as '* Kilissetu." 



122 EDUCATION, [October. 



THE GLACIER STREAM. 

BT MISS EMMA SHAW. 
[Written at tho foot of the Glacier, Glacier House. British Columbia.] 

rapid river racing down 

From yonder glacier's snowy crown, 

Entranced, I watch thee hurry by 

With spray and foam-wreatlis tossing high ! 

I, listening, try to catch some word 

Or message, and my heart is stirred. 

Wliat old-time secrets thou could'st tell 

Yon icy heights have guarded well, 

As, year on year, the frozen tide 

Has crowded down the mountain side. 

Held by a strong, relentless will — 

A wondrous ice-field white and still; 

Now, now, from its stern thraldom free, 

Resistlessly thou seek'st the sea, 

A glacial torrent wildly glad 

To leave the peaks all snowy^ clad. 

Naught save the whisper of the trees 

Touched gently by the summer breeze, 

And the glad music of thy tide 

Comes to me through the forest wide ; 

Each passing wave in spmy laughs out, 

Each tiny wavelet seems to shout 

A pagan of joy, "We're free ! We're free! 

We 're hasting on to join the sea ! " 

And see ! afar a silver gleam 

Points out a hurrying sister stream 

That, from yon adamantine wall, 

Has heard thy gleeful waters call. 

And, downwara through a dark ravine, 

Where sunny gleams are rarely seen, 

With Titan force it cleaves the way. 

Nor rock, nor tree its force can stay ; 

And, where its waves thy volum'b swell, 

1 waft to thee a fond " Farewell I " 

Augu%t 23, 1888. 



1888.] EDITORIAL, 123 



EDITORIAL. 

JUST what Professor Charles Eliot Norton meant by his sweep- 
ing assertion, at the late dinner of the Sanderson Academy at 
Ashfield, Mass., that '*the aid of the imagination in New England 
education had been overlooked," it is not quite safe to guess. 
For, just now, a class of educational critics in the higher walks of 
literature, journalism, and divinity seem moved to utterances, 
sometimes so wide of the mark that we ask. Where has this man 
lived that he should stumble upon such misleading or even gro- 
tesque conceits on matters open to e very-day observation? Of 
course, from the high ground of ideal education. New England is 
lacking, in all ways, in its practical handling of school life. But, 
surely, the education of a regime that, up to the present day, has 
led the western continent on every line of production fairly in- 
cluded in Imagination cannot be so far defective. The leading 
poets and novelists, the most accomplished orators, the foremost art- 
ists, and a very large proportion of the most distinguished inventors 
of the country are the product of New England education. The 
instruction in music in the common schools was a "Yankee 
notion " years before it was adopted beyond New England. Mas- 
sachusetts led the way in the introduction of di*awing in the 
public schools ; and the Normal Art School, with the School of 
Technology and the Normal and High Schools are sending forth 
men like Ordway, the Woodwards, and scores beside as leaders, 
to all portions of the Union. It was a New Hamj)shire graduate 
of Dartmouth that inaugurated tree planting and the celebration 
of Authors' Days in the West. The village improvement move- 
ment began in Massachusetts, and its apostle to the nation is from 
Connecticut. For combined economy and beauty, Wellesley Col- 
lege for Girls is unsurpassed. The New England Conservatory 
of Music, with its 2,500 students, is a national institution. In short, 
tliis dry and dusty skeleton that figures in the imagination of the 
Cambridge Professor turns out to be a creature of altogether dif- 
ferent style. Much doubtless remains to be achieved ; but New 
England, like Old England, is many-sided, and not only leads in 
the realm of the practical intellect, but of the philosophic reason 



124 EDUCATIOy. [October, 

and poetic imagination as well. By the way, — why is it that, 
along with a good deal that is elevating and suggestive, a larger 
number of absurd and incorrect statements have been made con- 
cerning popular education at the annual Sanderson Academy din- 
ner than on any similar occasion in the country ? 

PRESIDENT PAYNE, of the Peabody Normal School at Na^h- 
ville, Tenn., has again put on record his disapproval of the 
practise department of the State Normal and City Training School 
for Teachei's, which he styles, '* experimental schools where chil- 
dren are to be practised upon by novices/' If President Payne 
refers to a certain class of tmining schools where a lot of green 
girls are placed in charge of a building, on half or quarter salary, 
with the expectation that the principal shall not only supervise in 
school hours, but give pedagogic instruction at intervals, there may 
be a ground for this characterization.. But even this is a long step 
ahead of the state of tilings in nine-tenths of the public and too 
many even famous private schools, w^hich are '' prtictised upon " 
and often superintended by untrained young persons who never 
gave a month's study to their profession and whose work must be 
emphatically "experimenting upon" children and youth. But 
how can a man of the reputation of Professor Payne use such lan- 
guage concerning the practise department, as it is now found in 
connection with all but a vanishing minority of the Normal and 
Training schools of our own and all civilized countries ? To speak 
of the work done by pupil teachers who liave abeady had and are 
still receiving instruction in the art of teaching, under the con- 
stant supervision of experts, the whole work subject to a daily 
searching criticism, in such contemptuous terms, seems to us wide 
of the mark. So far from the children in a genuine practise school 
being at a disadvantage, there is probably no class of pupils in 
elementary schools under such favorable conditions or so well off 
as they. One of the amazing things about the Academical and 
College mind is its insistence on special training, illustrated by the 
largest field of observation and experiment, in every profession 
and department of the higher culture w^hile holding that a " good 
general education," w4th, possibly, the addition of a course of lec- 
tures and lessons from a Professor, is the best furnishing for the 
science and practise of pedagogy, — the most profound science and 
difficult profession of all. 



1888.] EDITORIAL. 126 

A GOOD deal of the talk so abundant among the Industrial 
Education fraternity, concerning the feasibility of keeping 
up the standard of common school acquirement with a variety of 
manual occupations thrown in, leaves out of account the capacity 
of the average child, under twelve or fourteen, for concentrated 
work. Certainly, a trained mind could do this work better in one- 
fourth of the time. But this is just what an elementary school is : 
an arrangement for training the average child, who is " all afloat," 
into some orderly and persistent use of his faculties ; training him 
in that cautious, gentle, and inevitable way that will save him from 
over-weariness, confusion, or a sense of huriy and worry. Now, 
it is possible that the mass of childi-en, as is affirmed, can do their 
present school work, with the addition of a new and trying disci- 
pline, of a kind that thousands of them have in too great abund- 
ance at home. But let us remember that children must have " a 
longer rope " than college students ; must be favored and worked 
with by all the devices that patient skill can employ ; and that 
whatever is done in this new department must be so handled as 
to avoid that rage for getting a man's and woman's work out of a 
child which is alike the insanity of an ignorant parent and an edu- 
cational crank. 

"VTT'E expect, of course, that the average politician and journal- 
V V ist will be found incapable of considering toth sides of any 
question of national importance. But, when the great statesman 
from Texas, and a journal like the New York Nation, are found 
together, reiterating the stupid misapprehension or misrepresenta- 
tion, that the Blair Educational Bill is ''a movement towards 
concentrating the whole common school system of the country in 
the executive branch of the national government," we are re- 
minded of the solemn warning of Scripture not to put our trust 
in the high and mighty ones of the land. A more absurd misstate- 
ment of the whole scope, intention, and application of this meas- 
ure, can hardly be conceived. The controversy now concerning 
National Aid to Education seems to be, — How long can ignorant 
or mischievous misrepresentation outside, and the shameless pack- 
ing of committees inside Congress, hold back the people of the 
United States from giving the New South the same lielping hand 
in behalf of the children as, for the past half century, has been 
extended, with such boundless liberality and blessed result, to the 
New Northwest ? 



I 



126 EDUCATION, [October, 



MIS CELL ANT. 

THREE Removes but No Fire. — This office was moved 
from 3 Somerset street to 50 Bromfield street, December 
Ist, 1886. We first secured room No. 10, the smallest of all the 
rooms on the floor. Nine months later No. 10 was exchanged for 
No. 14, which was much larger. This office from time to time, 
as the number of clerks and desks increased, appeared to grow 
smaller. The editor and one clerk did all the business at first in 
No. 10. Then a second clerk, or bookkeeper, was needed, then a 
proofreader, a little later a subscription clerk, then the Teachers' 
Agency required a manager, an office boy was a necessity, and 
finally a business manager was indispensable. The business hav- 
ing entirely outgrown the capacity of No. 14, that office had to be 
abandoned and larger accommodations must be sought. But No. 
60 Bromfield street is too good a location, the building is too 
choice a one, the landlord is too obliging, the tenants too good 
neighbors, to make a remove from tliis location at all agreeable to 
think of. No. 14 has kept us as long as it was possible for us to 
stay without overflowing, by either an occupancy of the adjoining 
hall or hanging out of the windows. 

But patient waiting has had its reward. Mr. Holt's Normal 
Music Hall, No. 8, was the largest room upon the floor, and that, 
being vacated for more commodious quarters elsewhere, has been 
thoroughly fitted up to accommodate the growing business of the 
Eastern Educational Bureau. No. 8 has now been divided into 
three rooms, with a large space for merchandise and packing. 
The main office is large, airy, and convenient. It has a cheerful 
lobby cut off from the counting-room by a rail and gate, a counter, 
large bins for books, and a roomy closet for maps and charts. 
The main office, or counting-room, has six desks, a Caligraph and 
a Remington type-writer, a long table for the display of our books 
and magazines, a reading desk filled with our educational ex- 
changes, and a large, handsome case for samples of our wall 
maps. Space will permit only a brief mention of the editor's 
room and a consultation room for the Teachers' Agency, with 



1888.] MISCELLANY, 127 

large book-cases filled with the choicest educational literature, 
reference books, atlases, etc. We shall be glad to show our new 
quarters, with all their attractions and conveniences, to every one 
of our subscribers. 

Here we shall have better accommodations for the easy and 
rapid transaction of our business than have been hitherto enjoyed. 
With six other educational establishments in the same building 
this may very properly be considered, what many now regard it, 
the ^^Educational Headquarter%^^ of this city. 

Thanking our numerous patrons for past favors and respectfully 
soliciting their patronage for the future, it will be our determin- 
ation to furnish to teachers and educators of all grades the best 
aids and the most important means of improving the teaching in 
our schools possible. 

THE attention of teachers is hereby called to the Bibliography 
of Current Periodical Literature in each month's issue of 
Education. It is probably safe to say that never before was so 
much space in general periodical literature devoted to educational 
topics as at the present time. Of the one hundred and seventeen 
articles mentioned in our bibliography this month, a large number 
treat of strictly educational topics. Many others, though nomi- 
nally upon other subjects, contain much of interest and value to 
teachers. The aim is to have this bibliography mention, in addi- 
tion to strictly educational articles, the most important articles 
upon Psychology, the science upon which the art of teaching is 
based ; upon Political Economy and Sociology, sciences in which 
every philanthropic and patriotic teacher should he interested ; 
upon Literature, of which every teacher must know something ; 
and also upon topics of general interest in Science, Philosophy, 
Ethics, and the like. 

It is hoped that such a bibliography will be of use to many teach- 
ers and pupils. Most good teachers have some subject in which 
they are especially interested, and desire to see the latest words 
written upon the subject. But few teachers have access to the 
large number of periodicals that our bibliographer considts each 
month. Yet if they only know just where a particular subject is 
treated, it is an easy matter to order from some bookseller a single 
number of the periodical containing the desired article. Some of 



128 EDUCATION, [October. 

the best educational articles are found in out-of-the-way places, 
and even if teachers have access to large libi-aries, they often lack 
the time needed to hunt through a list of magazines. Again, in 
academies and high schools, teachers are often besieged by pupils 
preparing for compositions or debates who inquire where informa- 
tion upon this subject or that can be found. In many cases the 
pupils may find assistance by turning to the files of Education 
and consulting this department. This bibliography is the most 
expensive part of this magazine, but the editor desires to keep it 
up, provided it is properly appreciated and proves useful. He 
will be pleased to hear from any who find it of value. 

THE Final Report of the Royal Commission on Education in Eng- 
land has been made and published. This report is from the Com- 
missioners appointed to examine into the sj'stem upon which Elementary 
Education is conducted in that country*. There was a majority and a 
minority report. The question of religious instruction receives s|>ecial 
attention. They very strongl}' commend **the religion which our Lord 
Jesus Christ has taught the world *' as the only safe foundation on which 
to construct a theory of morals, or to secure high moral conduct, and 
they look to the Bible as the '' inspired source for the sanctions by which 
men may be led to practise what is there taught, and for instruction con- 
cerning the help b}' which they ma}' be enabled to do what they have 
learned to be right." They say, *' In some board schools the provision 
for religious training is very meagre, but in very few is Christianity ex- 
cluded altogether. A great increase is noted in the number of voluntary 
schools in which the whole basis of education is religious." 

The system of payment by results seems to give them much trouble. 
It would seem that great efforts have been made, especially b}' the teach- 
ers, to do awa}' with this miserable plan, but hitherto without avail. 
Mr. George Givling, formerly president of the National Union of Ele- 
mentar}'^ Teachers, writes a bright letter to the Morning Post, London, 
of late date, in which he says : — 

*' For years the teachers of the country have been ])ointing out the defects 
of the system of payment by results as applied to children, and have shown 
how destructive the system i? to the best development of the intelligence of 
the children in our elenientjiry schools. The National Union of Elementary 
Teachers, which comprises 14,000 of the most earnest teachers in the country, 
have tried every possible means to get this system changed. Petitions have 
been sent to the Houses of Parliament, IVcsldents and Vice-Presidents of the 
Committee of Council have been approached, members of Parliament have 
heew interviewed, public meetings have been held, literature on the subject has 
been spread broadcast through the land, evidence has been given before the 
Ro3'al Commission on Education, and yet the wretched system seems as vigor- 



1888.] MISCELLANY. 129 

ous as ever. It is exceedingly ungenerous to make a cast-iron, irrational sys- 
tem, compel the teachers to work in it, and then turn round and say the teach- 
ers are incapable. The teachers of the country, feeling keenly the importance 
of their work, and realizing intensely the truth of this axiom, ^ O'est le peuple 
qui a les raeilleures ecoles qui est le premier peuple : sUl ne Test pas aujourdhui, 
il le sera demain ' have done all they could through their organizations to bring 
about a better state of things. They have sent some of their number to study 
continental systems, and their representatives have come to the same conclusion 
that Mr. Matthew Arnold did when he made a similar Inquiry on behalf of the 
Government — viz., that continental systems are more rational than ours. De- 
velopment of intelligence Is the main thing considered, and not the securing 
of accurate but mechanical results. The teachers of England and Wales are so 
deadly in earnest in wishing for an improved educational system that they have 
agreed to raise a fund to try and place a practical teacher In the House of Com- 
mons, with the view of helping to influence legislation In favor of a more 
rational scheme.'* 

Another topic which this writer discusses with much ability is the 
special training of teachers. His ringing words should have great weight, 
not only in that country^, but also in this : — 

^^ It is also worth while considering whether the State Is doing sufficient in 
the training of teachers for our elementary schools. There are a number of 
training colleges under private control, but subsidized by the State. Nearly 
fifty per cent, of our teachers never enter these colleges. Every year the 
Government, b}' means of an examination, admits a large number of teachers 
who have never been to college, and whose educational qualifications cannot 
be of such a high order as If they had spent two or more years In special study 
for their profession. Many managers of schools, driven by the poverty of the 
school funds, secure these teachers at a lower rate. This has been going on to 
such an extent that it Is exceedingly difficult to place the trained teachers when 
they leave college. In fact, the better you are qualified for your work educa- 
tionally the more dlfiicult does It become to obtain work. On the Continent 
the greatest possible care Is taken to train teachers. In this country In many 
cases It Is, How shall we secure the cheapest teacher? Thus, there are 3,000 
teachers In this country who get less than £50 a year. On the Continent inspec- 
tors are educators cooperating with the teachers. Here the Inspectors are 
merely critics. On the Continent Inspectors have been teachers ; In England 
they are gentlemen of birth and position, who have never entered an elementa- 
ry school until they Inspect one. Many of them are amiable and accomplished 
gentlemen, but the system is frequently as bad for them as the teachers. 
They are grant assessors and not educators. Reports on schools by men who 
have never taught must necessarily at times be taken cum grano. The conten- 
tion of the teachers for a long time has been this: ^ Train us well for the 
work, give us a rational system and fair-play, and we will make the education 
of this country second to none In the world.' " 

The general principles of education are the same in both countries. 
We may learn some practical lessons from such a sharp discussion of 
these important topics. Competent teachers, well paid in schools entirel}' 
free, will inevitably produce good results. But the moral teaching should 
have a high place. 



130 ED UCA TIOX, [October, 



REPORT OF THE UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER 

OF EDUCATION FOR 1886-' 87, 

THE annual report of the United States Commissioner of Education 
Is the most comprehensive work of the kind published in the 
world. To its exhibit of home conditions a summary of foreign statis- 
tics is added, and as the main features have been continued for above 
fifteen years, the series of reports forms the most valuable and complete 
reference book upon the subject treated and is so regarded wherever that 
subject excites attention. Great exertions have been made to bring the 
publication as near as |)ossible to the date of the information. The 
report for the year ending June 30, 1887, is alreadj' in print, although its 
general circulation must be deferred for some time. 80 far as regards 
the work of the office, greater promptness can hardl}' be expected in 
view of the immense amount of information to be reduced to intelligent 
and systematic representation. 

STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

The fullness and precision of the statistical exhibit of our public school 
systems in the rei)ort in question leave no chance for any misunderstand- 
ing either of the facts or of their bearings. Perhaps the most impress- 
ive lesson to be drawn from them is the fallacy* of totals ; it is certainl}' to 
be hoped that the orators who love to conjure with these deceptive quan- 
tities will heed the warnings direct and indirect, b}* which the faithful 
statistician has endeavored to keep his figures from degenerating into 
rhetorical flourishes. 

For example: Table 17 shows conclusively that the increase in the 
school population of the United States during the last decade has been 
surpassed b}' the increase in public school enrolment, and that the latter 
has been greatly exceeded by the increase in expenditures. Neverthe- 
less the very particulars from which this conclusion is derived suggest 
the possibility of decadence in the most flourishing centres of the sys- 
tem ; for while there has been an absolute increase of enrolment in every 
section, when enrolment is compared with the i)opulation six to fourteen 
years of age, decrease is found in the North Atlantic, the North Central 
and the Western Divisions. 

The table indicated is indeed one of the most valuable contributions 
that has ever been made to the statistics of education. It is the result 
of a searching analysis of the ten years* record and a dispassionate state- 



1888.] BEPOBT OF U, S. COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 131 



ment of what is thereby disclosed. The following brief summary it is 
hoped will excite in every reader a desire to know the full particulars : 



■ Estimated Popu- 
! lation 6 to 14. 
! Percentage of 
I Increase in ten 
: years. 



North Atlantic Division 

South Atlantic Division.... 



South Central Division 
North Central Division 



Western Division 



United States 




Enrolment Per- Expenditure Per> 



centage of in- 
crease in ten 
years. 



centage of in- 
crease in ten 
years. 



21.7 
50.4 
65.4 
51.1 
75.9 
41.1 



The comparison of the first and second columns in the foregoing table 
gives the following ratio of increase or of decrease in the number of chil- 
dren enrolled to ever}' one hundred children 6 to 14 years of age. 

Per Cent. 

North Atlantic Division Decrease, 9.3 

South Atlantic Division Increase, 25.3 

South Central Division Inirrease, 34.1 

North Central Division Decrease, 1.7 

Western Division Decrease, 8.0 

The United States Increase, 1.6 

The phenomenal increase in school enrolment in the Southern States 
is due to the fact that the public school system is of recent adoption in 
that section. As stated in the report, '*The actual proiK)rtion of chil- 
dren enrolled in the public schools is still at the present time less in the 
South than in the North. If the extension of the public school system 
in the South, however, should continue at the marvelous and unpre- 
cedented rate it has exhibited during the past decade, the two sections 
would be placed nearly on an equal footing in this respect (though not 
in regard to length of school term)." 

Such continuance is of course dependent upon the growth in material 
prosperity. The slight decrease in the expenditure per capita of enrol- 
ment in the two Southern divisions shows how heavily* the school burden 
already presses upon the tax payers. The child population here, it must 
be remembered, bears a much greater ratio to the adult population than 
in the North and West, and the funds for educating both the whites and 
the colored people are, and for some time to come must be, supplied 
mainly by the whites. 



132 EDUCATIOX. [October, 

While the record of the decade has been thoroughly and impartially 
discussed in the report before us, the information for the current year 
will be found as exhaustive as in previous reports. We note in passing 
that the total public school enrolment, as made up from the latest data 
attainable, is 11,805,660. In respect to the proportion of children en- 
rolled, the North Central States take the lead, having 121 pupils in the 
public schools for every one hundred children 6 to 14 years of age. In 
the South Atlantic States the corresponding ratio is 89 and in the South 
Central States, 79. 

The total average attendance for the United States is 7,571,416. 
This is emphatically one of the totals which has little meaning apart 
fh)m the particulars on account of the varying average of the several 
States and the causes of such variance. As compared with 1885-86, 
the greatest increase in average attendance is obser>'able in the South. 
It is not only remarkably large, but exceeds the increase in enrolment, a 
very satisfactory evidence of the growing appreciation of public schools in 
southern communities. The total amount expended for common schools 
in the United States during the year 1886-87, was •115,103,886. This 
it is stated was equivalent "to an average expenditure of 81.99 per 
capita of total population ; $10.27 per capita of (X)pulation 6 to 14 years 
of age, and $15.40 per capita of average attendance. The schools were 
kept open a moan length of 135 da^'s so that each dollar expended fur- 
nished about nine days' schooling on an average. 

PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS FOR SECONDARY AND SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

The great activity at the present time in all classes of private and 
endowed institutions gives especial interest to the chapters of the rei>ort 
in which these are treated. It is indeed a fortunate circumstance that 
the official report as originally developed by General Eaton included in 
its scope all scholastic agencies. Meagre and defective and incongruous 
as the information supplied by individual institutions has often been, the 
persistent call for it has brought about a fair degree of order, uniformity, 
and significance in its tabulation. Many a private-venture school has 
been saved from utter confhsion as to its own status by the mere act of 
reporting, while the relation between steady patronage and unwavering 
standards on the one hand and financial soundness on the other has been 
demonstrated in the continued record of endowed secondary and superior 
schools. Eighteen private secondar}* schools for boys and 107 for both 
sexes report endowment funds ranging from $1,500 to $800,000, twenty- 
one of the number being above 850,000 each. 

There are eight endowments which upon a five per cent, investment 
would vield as rich an income as the fund which the lamented Edward 
Thwing found at his disi)osal for the development of *' Uppingham" and 



1888.] REPORT OF U. S. COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATIOX. 133 

seven, whose incomes would bear comparison with those of the famous 
" nine public schools of England." 

The varied outcome of these endowments is well shown in the Com- 
missioner's report by the classification of pupils with respect to certain 
leading studies. Of the seven schools having largest endowments, one 
is essentially "classical"; one, essentially ''modern"; one has an 
English division and a classical division about equal in vigor, while io 
the remaining four, the division is between a classical course and a sci- 
entific course with French and German. These are free schools in the 
highest scholastic sense of the word. 

The representation of the superior institutions of learning in the United 
States forms as usual one of the most impressive features of the annual 
report. Under this general head arc included colleges, schools of sci- 
ence, professional schools, and universities. The experiment made in 
1885-'86 of giving separate tabulation to the foundations particularly 
distinguished by university features, or which have been organized and 
maintained as State universities, is here carried into full effect. This is 
an arrangement of double advantage ; it facilitates the study of the 
foundations specified and prevents the reduplication of particulars. 

The comparative view of the undergraduate work of colleges, Table 46, 
shows that for the country at large, sixty per cent, of college students 
are in degree courses, the remainder being in normal, business, partial, 
and special courses. Of the students in degree courses, sixty-two per 
cent, are in the classical course ; twenty-two per cent, in the scientific 
course ; eight per cent, in combined classical and scientific courses ; and 
eight per cent, in other first degree courses. With the present status of 
the work thus clearly defined, it will be comparatively easy in the fUture 
to measure the force and rapidity of the movement away fh)m the tra- 
ditional curriculum. 

The statistical exhibit includes also the results of an important study, 
showing the ratio of attendance upon colleges and scientific schools as 
compared with population in 1875-76 and in 1885-*86. 

The populations have been estimated f^om the data fhmished by the 
census of 1870 and of 1880, and the attendance from the reports of the 
office. Students in preparatory courses have not been included. 

As regards the institutions involved in the discussion, there was a 
decrease of nine in the number of colleges from 1875-76 to 1885-'86, 
and an increase of ten in the number of scientific schools. The attend- 
ance upon the smaller number of colleges in 1885-86 exceeded the 
attendance in 1875-'76 by 7,072, or twenty-seven per cent. ; the attend- 
ance upon both colleges and scientific schools increased by 8,950, or 
twenty-eight per cent. ; whilst the increase in the estimated population 



184 EDUCATIOX, [October, 

was 11,355,972, or twenty-five per cent. In other words, as compared 
with the increase of population, college attendance showed the slight 
excess of 1.52 per cent., and attendance upon both colleges and scien- 
tific schools an excess equivalent to 2.4 per cent. 

The statistics are given in full for each State in the table before us, 
and are placed in comparison with a similar showing published in Doc- 
tor Bow's review in 1857. 

ALASKA. 

The limits of this article preclude further attention to the details of 
the Commissioner's report. In his general statement Colonel Dawson 
presents the results of his personal inspection of the educational wants 
and prospects of Alaska, tc^ether with an interesting account of its 
physical and social aspects. 

The plan devised by him for the establishment and conduct of Alaskan 
schools and adopted by Secretary Lamar is given in Chapter III. of the 
current report. This, with the Commissioner's tour of observation, has 
inspired new hope io the devoted friends of education in that distant 
Territory. a. t. s 



THE TEACHER* S INDEPENDENT STUDY OF 

HISTORY. 

THE successAil teacher of history, doubtless, should do much origi- 
nal investigation. He who receives the statements of the ordi- 
nary school textbook and relies implicitly upon them without fhrther 
study and a carefbl comparison of authors and authorities will scarcely 
be expected to awaken much enthusiasm in the minds of his pupils in 
the study, or to stimulate in their minds an}' great degree of interest in 
the investigation of the annals of the past for the purpose of determin- 
ing what is truth. The great good that will come f^om the discussion 
of Mr. Travis's teaching concerning Tetzel's indulgences will be a truer 
and more just appreciation of the real facts of the history of the reforma- 
tion by the whole community. 

But it is the duty of the teacher to study with care and to weigh with 
accurate appreciation the various data upon which the verdict of history 
is made up. Especially is this true of the history of our country. No 
nation of the wide world has more romance connected with its past record 
than the United States of America. No section of the whole earth has 
more marvelous adventures bound up in its history than North America. 
In the records of no other nation in modern times, or ancient, can be 



I 



1888.] THE TEACHERS STUDY OF HISTORY. 135 

found more true heroism, more skillful diplomacy, a wiser statesmanship, 
or more rapid and astonishing progress. 

Until recently it has been more difficult than is desirable to get at the 
sources of information sufficiently to enable the ordinary teacher to make 
up his mind intelligently in reference to some of the great questions that 
have agitated our country in the past. It is not a little remarkable that * 
the best history of our American Revolution was written by an Italian.'^ 

Another of the most accurate and reliable histories of this eventful 
period was written from Roxbury, Mass., in a series of letters to friends 
in Great Britain, by an English clergyman, during the progress of the 
war.^ 

The origin and development of our Federal Constitution is a study of 
the most vivid interest and of the first importance, but how few have 
access to the necessary books, or even know what they are. I have no 
hesitation in saying that every teacher of our government ought to have 
at his side a copy of " Towle's Analysis of the Constitution," of '* P^Ui- 
ott's Debates " on the Federal Constitution, in five volumes, and a copy 
of the Revised Statutes of the United States. 

It is, however, only of late that the most valuable work for all teach- 
ers and students of the history of our country has been placed before the 
public. Indeed, it is not yet completed. Six volumes are now out, the 
first and the eighth yet remaining to be published. I refer to Justin t^ 
Winsor's '* Narrative and Critical History of America. "^ 

The seventh volume of this most valuable work is just published, and 
forms part second of the history of the United States. It treats of (1) 
The Political Struggle and Relations with Europe, by Edward J. Lowell, 
(2) The Peace Negotiations (1782-3) by Hon. John Jay, (3) The Con- 
federation, by the Editor, (4) The Constitution of the United States, by 
George Ticknor Curtis, (5) The History of Political Parties, by Pro- 
fessor Alexaader Johnston, (6) The Wars of the United States, by 
James Russell Foley, and (7) The Diplomacy of the United States, by 
Pres. James B. Angell. Each one of these divisions of the work is sup- 
plemented by editorial notes or a critical essay upon sources of informa- 
tion, by the editor, and in an appendix the editor and Professor Chan- 
ning discuss The Territorial Acquisitions and Divisions. 

1 History of the War of the Independence of the United States of America. By Charles 
Botta. Translated from the Italian by George Alexander Otis. PhUadelphia : Printed 
for the Translator. 1820. SvoIh. Octavo. Scarce. 

* The History of the Bise, Progress, and Establishment of the Independence of the 
United States of America; Including an account of the late war and of the Thirteen 
Colonies, ftom their origin to that period. By William Gordon, D. D. New York: 
Printed by Hodge, Allen & Campbell, and sold at their respective bookstores. 1789. 
3 volumes. Scarce. 

> Narrative and Critical History of America, edited by Justin Winsor, Librarian of 
Harvard University. Eight volumes. Boston: Houghton, MifHin & Co. Vol.YII. The 
United Stetes of North America. Part IE. Pp. 610. Price, $5JM) a volume. • 



136 EDUCATION. [October, 

Altogether this volume probably sheds more light upon the important 
portions of our history than any other within my knowledge. It is im- 
mensely enriched by the editor's almost exhaustless references to authori- 
ties. As an illustration, on opening to a single page relating to the 
wars of the United States, more than eighty references to historical au- 
thorities are found, many of them referring not merely to the book but 
the page. Probably these references to authorities arc more exhaustive 
than can be found elsewhere. Still another feature of great value is the 
almost endless illustrations by copies of maps and engravings, and these 
from almost all sorts of sources ; e. g., from old books, newspapers, 
manuscripts, foreign sources, and in all respects exhibiting a familiarity 
with original sources of information startlingly surprising. 

Perhaps the most exhaustive and valuable of the many excellent papers 
of this volume is that by Hon. John Jay upon '* The Peace Negotiations 
of 1782-3." 

It may be doubted whether any treat}" of peace was ever signed by 
the representatives of two nations involving greater interests, or sur- 
rounded with greater difficulties and exhibiting greater diplomatic 
skill. The distinguished men who represented our government in this 
transaction were John Adams, John Jay, and Benjamin Franklin. The 
question whether the proper balance of credit to the three has been pre- 
served, we may not yet be able to determine. Some will be disposed to 
believe that Franklin's giant intellect, entire familiarity with the subject 
in hand, and his long acquaintance with the peculiarities of the French 
and the Spanish would incline him to seize upon their covert plans against 
our interests more readily and with more tenacity than Mr. Jay exhibits 
to us in this article. Indeed, many previous accounts have given more 
credit to Doctor Franklin than is here done. It would seem, perhaps, 
as is indicated by Theodore Lyman in his first volume on ^^The Diplo- 
macy of the United States," pp. 118-123, that Doctor Franklin earlier 
came to see the true position of France and Spain in regard to our west- 
ern boundaries than Mr. Jay indicates. Mr. Lyman gives, page 121, 
the incident of Jay's breaking his pipe as having reference to the begin- 
ning of the understanding between Franklin and Jay that they should 
treat with Mr. Oswold concerning the boundaries without the knowledge 
of the French government, and that this proposition came from Doctor 
Franklin. 

At all events, this discussion of the treaty of peace is a masterly pre- 
sentation of the facts of that important matter, and displays in a singu- 
larly clear manner the distinguished ability of our diplomatists. I cannot 
do less than to commend most heartily this book to the careful study of 
all teachers and students of the history of our country. 

W. A. MOWRT. 



1888.] 



BIBLIOORAPHT. 



137 



BIBLIOGRAPHT OF CURRENT PERIODICAL LIT- 
ERATURE UPON EDUCATION. 



The following bibliography of current periodical literature includes articles upon 
education and other subjects calculated to interest teachers. Only articles from peri- 
odicals not nominally educational are mentioned. Articles of special importance to 
teachers will, as a rule, be mentioned in notes. 



AeschyluR, The Prometheus of. 
Part II. William Cranston Lawton. 
Atlantic Monthly^ September. 

Alcohol Habit, Increase of the. Dr. 
E. C. Spitzka. Forum, September. 

America, Some Recent Crititiism of. 
Theodore Roosevelt. Murray* s Maga- 
zine, September. 

Animal and Plant Lore. II. Mrs. 
Fanny D. Bergen. Popular Science 
Monthly, September. 

Arnold, Matthew, The Poetry of. 
Miss Vida D. Scudder. Andover Be- 
view, September. 

A valuable criticism. 

Art. A Letter to a Young Gentle- 
man who Proposes to Embrace the Ca- 
reer of Art. Robert Louis Stevenson. 
A Letter to the Same Young Gentle- 
man. Will. H. Low. Scribner's, Sep- 
tember. 

Art Education. W. J. Stillman. 
Century, September. 

An '' Open Letter." 

Art, The American School of. J. 
Duraud. New Princeton Beview, Sep- 
tember. 

Association, Proceedings of the 
American. Science, August 31. 

A report in the Physics Section con- 
tains many recommendations in re- 
gard to the teaching of Physics. 

Astronomy. Sidereal, Old and New. 
II. Edwards. Holden. Century, Sep- 
tember. 

Australian Lesson, An. Edward 
Pulsford. Nineteenth Century, Sep- 
tember. 

Belief and Conduct. Leslie Stephen. 
Nineteenth Century, September. 

Bologna University, The Centenary 
of. Professor Holland. Macmillan's, 
September. 

Boston Mobs before the Revolution. 
Andrew Preston Peabody. Atlantic, 
September. 

Byron. Professor C. T. Winches- 
ter. Methodist Beview^ September. 



Chamisso ais Naturforscher, Adel- 
bert von. E. du Bois-Reymond. 
Deutsche Bundschau, September. 

Chaucer and the Italian Renaissance. 
Francis Turner Palgrove. Nineteenth 
Century, September. 

Children, The Rights of. Mary C. 
Tabor. Contemporary Beview, Sep- 
tember. 

A forcible argument for better laws 
in England for the protection of chil- 
dren. The writer says : *' Under re- 
cent legislation, a horse or dog has 
better legal safeguards against his 
owner's neglect or cruelty, than can 
be claimed for the little child who is 
born into the ^ custody * of drunken, 
dissolute, or brutal parents." 

China: A New Departure. R. S. 
Gundry. Westminster Beview, Sep- 
tember. 

An account of the memorial of the 
present Cabinet of China advising the 
introduction of ^^Mathematics" into 
the competitive examinations, with an 
examination of the claim that Western 
science had its root in Chinese astron- 
omy. 

Cincinnati, A Literary Symposium 
on. M. F. Force, W. H. Venable, et 
al. New England Magazine, Septem- 
ber. 

College Fraternities. John Addison 
Porter. Century, September. 

Collegiate Education, Modem. Cen- 
tury, September. 

Common School Education* Prob- 
lems in. Andover Beview, September. 

An editorial discussion of the report 
of the Royal Commission which has 
recently examined the workings of 
public and private schools in England. 

Compromise. Is there ^^ No Reason 
for a Compromise? " Rev. Patrick F. 
McSweeney. Catholic World, Septem- 
ber. 

Answer to an article in the Christian 



138 



EDUCATIOX. 



[October. 



Union in regard to religion in the pub- 
lic pchools. 

Conscience, The New. II. D. Lloyd. 
North American Reviexc^ September. 

An appeal for the laborer. 

Continental Cougreps. First Year of 
the. John Fiske. Atlantic Monthly^ 
September. 

Cooperative Stores for Ireland. Hor- 
ace Curzon Plunkett. Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, September. 

Democracy, President Eliot on 
American. Our Day^ August. 

From Phi Beta Kappa Address, Har- 
vard University, June 29, 1888. 

Descartes. Prof. J. P. Gordy. Meth- 
odist Review J September. 

DiHlcctique sociale, I>a (fin). G. 
Tarde. Revue Philosophiqne^ August. 

Dichtung, Eine Geschichte der 
roiniftchen. Ivo Bruns. Preussische 
JahrbUcher^ August. 

A review of the first volume of Otto 
Ribbeck*s Geschichte. 

Drawbaugh, Daniel. H. C. Merwin. 
Atlantic Monthly^ September. 

Eighteenth Century Abbe, An. E. 
Lynn Linton. Fortnightly Review^ 
September. 

Empfindung. Ueber Begriff und 
Elgenschaften der Empfindung. I. 
A. Weinong. VierteljahrsschrQt fur 
Wissenschaftliche Philosophies Drittes 
Heft. 

Etat, 'L, moderne et scs fonctions. 
I. Paul Ijcroy-Beaulieu. Revue des 
Deux Mondes^ 15 August. 

Explanation: A Ix)gica1 Study. 
Borden P. Bowne. Methodist Review^ 
September. 

Eye-Mindedness and Ear-Minded- 
ness. Prof. Joseph Jastrou. Popular 
Science Monthly^ September. 

Suggestive to teachers. 

Factory Life, Studies of: Among 
the Women. Lillie B. Chace Wyman. 
Atlantic Monthly y September. 

Fiction, The Fall of. Fortnightly 
Review^ September. 

Finalite, La, com me propricte des 
^I6ments psychiques. Fr. Paulhan. 
Revue Philosphique^ August. 

Forestry School in Spain, The. Na- 
ture^ September 6. 

Geldstrofe, Die. Amtsrichter 
Schmdlder. Preussische Johrbucher^ 
August. 

Geography. Applied Geography. 
J. Scott Keltie. Contemporary Review^ 
September. 

Points out some of the ways in 
which geographical knowledge may 
be applied with practical results. 



Gladstone-Ingersoll Controversy, 
The: The Church its Own Witness. 
Cardinal Manning. North American 
RerietCy September. 

Greeki», 'J'he Modern. 'lliomaB D. 
Seymour. tScribner's^ September. 

ilygieue. La dys[>ep8ie des gens 
d' esprit. M. Jalva. Revue Scifntif- 
iquf^ 18 August. 

Immigration, Control of. III. Prof. 
Kichmond M. Smith. Political Science 
Quarterly, September. 

Individuality in Teaching. Century^ 
September. 

Industrial Idea in Education, The. 
Charles M. Carter. Century ^ Septem- 
ber. 

Contains an account of the method 
employed in manual exercises at Quin- 
cy, Mass. 

Jesuitirtm and our Public Schools. 
Prof. L. T. Townsend. Our Day ^ Au- 
gust. 

Knights of Labor, The. Francis A. 
Walker. New Princeton Review^ Sep- 
tember. 

Korperschonheit, Bemerkungen 
iil>er. Fr. Merkel. Deutsche Rund- 
schauy September. 

Kunsthandwerk, Das deutsche, auf 
der nationalen Ausstellung zu MUn- 
chen, 1888. II. E. von Berlepsch. 
Unsere Zeit^ Neuntes Heft. 

I^ndwirthschaft, Zwichenhandel, 
und Consum. Heinrich Adler. Un- 
sere Zeity Neuntes Heft. 

Literary Anodynes. Andrew Long. 
A>ir Princeton Review^ September. 

Literary Immortality. Prof. J. R. 
Seeley. Contemporary Review^ Sep- 
tember. 

Marriage. Mona Caird. Westmin- 
ster Review. 

Marriage Rejection and Marriage 
Reform. Elizabeth Rachel Chapman. 
Westminster Review, September. 

Master. An Old. Woodrow Wilson. 
New Princeton Review. September. 

A study of Adam Smith. 

Medical School and University, Some 
of the Advantages of the Union of. 
William H. Welch, M. D. Yale Re- 
view, September. 

Memories of Some Contemporaries. 
Hugh McCullo<;h. Scribner^s^ Septem- 
ber. 

Mental Science. The Effect of Prac- 
tice upon Reading. /Science^ Septem- 
ber 7. 

Mental Traits in the Poultry Yard. 
Benjamin Karr. Popular Science 
Monthly^ September. 

Metaphysique. La haute m^tftphys- 



1888.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



139 



ique con temporal De. E. Clay et Tol- 
stoi. La morale neobouddhique, la 
carite absolue. Renouvier. Critique 
PhUosophique^ Jul)'. 

Military Genius. General Wolseley. 
Fortnightly Beview^ September. 

Millet, Jean-Fran9ois. Mrs. Henry 
Ady. Nineteenth Century^ September. 

Moglichkeit. Ueber den Begriffder 
objectiven Mogliohkeit und einlge An- 
wendungen desselben. II. J. V. 
Kries. Vierteljahrsschrift fur Wissen- 
•schoftliche Philosophies Drittes Heft. 

More, Henry, The Platonlst. Ar- 
thur Benson. Contemporary Beview^ 
September. 

Music, The Place of Music in Cul- 
ture. J. F. Rowbotham. National 
Beview. September. 

Neuthomismus, Der, und die neuere 
Wissenschaft. K. Eucken. Philo- 
^ophische Monatshefte^ Heft^ u. 10. 

Nom. Remarques sur V Evolution 
logique des differentes categories du 
nom. Paul Regnaud. Bevue Philo- 
^ophique, August. 

Opera. Can a National School of 
Opera Exist? Florence Lane-Fox. Na- 
tional Beview^ September. 

Painters. Boston Painters and 
Paintings. III. Wm. Howe Downes. 
Atlantic Monthly^ September, 

Papier, Le. Ses Materiaux et ses 
Emplois. Edouard Lullin. Biblio- 
theque Universelle et Bevue Suifise^ Au- 
gust. 

Pensee, L'organlsme et la (fin). J. 
Oardair. Philosophie Chreienne^ Au- 
gust. 

Pessimism and Recent Victorian 
Poetry. Henry F. Randolph. New 
Princeton Beview^ September. 

Pessimisme Phllosophicjue, Le, et 
V optimisme Chretien. Leo Quesnel. 
Bihliotheque Universelle et Bevue 
Suisse^ September. 

Pontes contemporains de la France. 
Iveeonte de Lisle. Edouard Rod. Bih- 
liotheque Universelle et Bevue Suisse^ 
September. 

Progress from Poverty. Edward 
Atkinson. Forum^ September. 

Psychologic. Somnambulisme pro- 
voque a distance. M. Dufay. Bevue 
JScientidque^ 25 August. 

Psychologic der Komlk. II. Th. 
Lipps. Philosophische Monatshefte^ 
Heft 9 u. 10. 

Psychology, The New. J. H. Hys- 
lop. New Princeton Beview^ September. 

Public Schools. What Shall The 
Public Schools Teach? Prof . H. H. 
Boyesen. Forum^ September. 



It is the writer's " conviction that 
our public-school system will sooner 
or later have to be radically remod- 
eled.^' It is academic. It should be 
industrial. ^^It kindles an ambition 
in them which, in nine cases out of 
ten. is destined to be disappointed, and 
engenders, as a consequence, discon- 
tent and disaffection toward the state 
which fails to satisfy the expectations 
it has aided in arousing.'* 

Punjab University, The. Moulvi 
Abd-ur-rashtd. Asiatic Quarterly Be- 
vieWj July. 

Puritanism. The Historic Forces 
which gave rise to Puritanism. Will- 
iam L. Kingsley. 

Rabelais, sa vie et son OBuvre. Paul 
Stapfer. II. Bihliotheque Universelle 
et Bevue Suisse^ August. 
• Raumfrage, Zur. I. G. Heymans. 
Vierteljahrsschri/t fur Wissensch<{fU 
liche Philosophies Drittes Heft. 

Redstart, Home Life of the. Olive 
Thorne Miller. Atlantic Monthly^ 
September. 

Many teachers may find this delight- 
ful sketch of bird life valuable In their 
reading classes. 

Religion's Gain from Science. Dr. 
T. T. Munger. Forum^ September. 

A valuable article. The writer 
maintains: that ^^ science has deep- 
ened reverence " ; that it " has taught 
religion to think according to cause 
and effect " ; that it *• has delivered re- 
ligion from its heaviest incubus, su- 
perstition " ; that it ^^ has put religion 
upon the track of the important truth 
that moral laws are natural laws"; 
that it ^Ms delivering religion from 
the miserable habit of defending doc- 
trines and supposed truths because of 
their apparent usefulness." 

Rhetorical Pessimism. Prof. C. C. 
Everett. Forum^ September. 

Roman Catholic Parochial Schools. 
Joseph Cook. Our Day^ August. 

Prelude to a Boston Monday Lec- 
ture. 

School Attendance in the United 
States. Science^ August 24. 

From the report (now In press) of 
the Commissioner of Education. 

Sensation, The Objective Cause of. 
III. The Sense of Smell. Prof. John 
Berry Haycroft. Brain^ July. 

Shakespeare's Wisdom of Life. 
Prof. E. Dowden. Fortnightly Beview, 
September. 

Sill, Edward Rowland. Elizabeth 
Stuart Phelps. Century^ September. 

Simplicity as a Test of Truth. Her- 



140 



EDUCATION. 



[October, 



bert Patnam. Unitarian Beviete^ Sep- 
tember. 

Social and Political Mirages. James 
PartOD. Forum^ September. 

Social Discontent, Causes of. F. D. 
HuDtinffton. Forum^ September. 

Socialism through American Spec- 
tacles. Gen. Lloyd S. Bryce. iV7ne- 
teenth Century^ September. 

Socialisme d* Auguste BlanquI, Le. 
(suite et fln;. F. Pillon. Critique 
Fhilo8ophiqtte^ August. 

Spanish Novel, The Modern. Paul 
Sylvester. National Beview^ Septem- 
ber. 

States, Inequality of the. William 
A. Dunning. Political Science Quar- 
terly^ September. 

State Socialism. John Rae. Con- 
temporary Beview^ September. 

Stigmatization. lie v. Richard Wheats 
ley. Popular Science Monthly^ Sep- 
tember. 

Story-Telling in the East. Profess- 
or I^yce. National Beview^ Septem- 
ber. 

Technical College. The Glasgow 
and West of Scotland Technical Col- 
lege. Henry Dyer. Nature, August 
30. 

Technical Education, Lord Arm- 
strong and. Sir Lyon PI ay fair. JVtn«- 
teenth Century^ September. 

Tolstoi. Count Tolstoi's Life and 
Works. Westminster Beview, Septem- 
ber. 

Trusts, Economic Aspects of. 
Greorge Gunton. Political Science 
Quarterly, September. 

University and the Bible, The. T. 
T. Munger. Century, Septembf^r. 

An argument for biblical instruction 
in the colleges. 

Uppingham. An Ancient School 
worked on Modern Ideas. George R. 
Parkin. Century, September. 



*^ Justice, then, which means ade- 
quate individual training for each boy, 
is the central idea of Uppingham, and 
all the arrangements and inachinerv 
of the school are directed to this eiid.^* 

Volante. Quelques remarques sur 
la theorie de la volante, de M. W. 
James. Renouvier. Critique Philo- 
sophique, August. 

Wales, A Week in. Julia C. R. 
Dorr. Atlantic Monthly, September. 

West, Studies of the Great West. 
III. Memphis and Little Rock. 
Charles Dudley Warner. Harper^s, 
September. 

Mr. Warner gives account of edu- 
cational institutions in places that he 
visits, and sometimes makes valuable 
suggestions. In regard to education 
of the colored people, he says: 
" Whatever may be the opinion about 
the propriety of attaching industrial 
training to public schools generally, 
there is no doubt that this sort of 
training is indispensable to the colored 
people of the South, whose children 
do not at present receive the needed 
domestic training at home, and whose 
education must contribute to their 
ability to earn a living." 

Wieland's "Goldener Spiegel." 
Gustav Breucker. Preussische Jahr- 
hiicher, August. 

Women, The Social Status of, in In- 
dia. L. R. de Fonblanque. Fort- 
nightly Beview, September. 

Women who go to College. Arthur 
Gilman. Century^ September. 

Work-Girl's Diary, Pages from a. 
Miss Beatrice Potter. Nineteenth Cen- 
tury^ September. 

Writing Machines for the Blind. 
Arthur Good. Popular Science Month- 
ly, September. 



1888.] AMONG THE BPOKS. 141 



AMONG THE BOOKS. 

Live Topics in Education. No. 1. Ought Textbooks to be supplied flnra- 
tuitously to all Children in the Public Schools. By Uomer B. Sprague. Chi- 
cago : 8. R. VVinchell & Co. Price, 10 cents. 

Colonel Sprague gave an address ten years ago upon this topic before the 
Massachusetts Teachers' Association, and another last July before the National 
Educational Association. They arc both in this little pamphlet. The address 
at San Francisco has the ring of a polished orator and a sound educator. 

A History of the United States and its People. For the Use of 
Schools. By Edward Eggleston. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1888. 
Pp. 398. 

The schools owe much to the publishers for the attractiveness of textbooks. 
It is a question whether we are not putting upon them too lavish a finish, 
and spending too much money in their make-up. But it is certain that some 
of them are simply sumptuous. Among such must surely be reckoned 
this new applicant for the favor of the public. Text and type, illustrations 
and colored plates, maps and portraits, paper and printing — all are superb. 

But it is in the author^s work after all, that the book excels. In clearness of 
style and vivacious interest it is superior, yet the chief charm of the book is 
in its contents. The great facts upon which our success as a nation has de- 
pended form the skeleton, but the flesh and blood are the graphic portrayal of 
the manners and habits and customs of the people, so skilfully and enticingly 
displayed. The arrangement of topics so as to keep the student^s attention 
and exhibit cause and effect and the progress of civilization is admirable. The 
history and development of civilization are kept constantly before the pupil. 
The invention of the steamboat, railroads, the telegraph, the telephone, the 
growth and expansion of our country, the increase in the comfort of our peo- 
ple, the uses of labor-saving machinery, all are topics so admirably brought 
out as to interest and instruct the pupil to a far greater extent than would be 
possible with the most graphic accounts of the battles of Palo Alto and Cerro 
Gordo. It is eminently a teaching book and its maps are numerous, well exe- 
cuted and admirably calculated to give ^^ a geographical body to an historical 
Boul.^' The illustrations are part and parcel of the teaching apparatus. Illus- 
trations of cojstumes, manners. Implements, arms, jewels, vehicles, and inven- 
tions are valuable in proportion to their truthfulness. Doubtless these have 
cost the author quite as much labor and study and research as the text itself. 
The study of our institutions, our government, the Constitution, Is made promi- 
nent. The biographical sketches placed In separate type in the body of the 
page are vastly more important and useful than if put in a subordinate posi- 
tion at the bottom of the page. This book is strongly to be commended to all 
teachers of American history. 

The Congregational Year Book. 1888. Congregational Publishing So- 
ciety. 

This large octavo, containing 403 pages, is full of what Robert B. Thomas's 



142 EDUCATION. [October, 

Almanac used to call (as read by an old farmer ) '* New, Useful, and Everlast- 
ing (entertaining) Matter/' It gives an account of over four thousand churches, 
and ministers, with nearly half a million members, representing more than two 
hundred and fifty thousand families. It is a handy bdols to have around the 
house. 

Potter's New Elementary Geography. Designed for Primary and In- 
termediate Classes. By Eliza II. Morton. Teachers' edition. 126 pp.. Quarto. 
Philadelphia : John £. Potter & Co. 1888. 

Of making new geographies there ^^seemeth to be no end.*' This one 
is another ^^new departure." It has a teacher's edition and a pupil's edition. 
The teacher's edition tells ^^Just what objects to employ in connection with 
each lesson," by which to illustrate that specific lesson. The teacher is 
evidently to do much of the preliminary work in getting the pupil interested 
in the subject. The physical side is made prominent. ^^ The pupil is taught 
to outline each lesson by topics and to recite from the same. This gives em- 
ployment and increases the power of thought." 

Cassell & Co. have lately published in their National Library Series the fol- 
lowing books: No. 122. Coriolanus. By William Shakespeare. No. 123. 
Areopagitica. Letter on Education, Sonnets and Psalms, by John Milton. 
No. 124. Essays on Goethe. By Thomas Carlyle. No. 125. King Richard II. 
By William Shakespeare. No. 126. Plato's Crito and Phaedo. Dialogues of 
Socrates before his deatli. No. 127. The Victories of Love, and other Poems. 
By Coventry Patmore. No. 128. First Part of King Henry IV. By William 
Shakespeare. No. 129. The Old English Baron. By Clara Reeve. No. 130. 
The Diary of Samuel Pepys, from November, 1668, to end of Diary. No. 131. 
Plutarch's Lives of Pyrrhus, Camillus, Pelopidas, and Marcellus. No. 132. 
Essays and Tales. By Joseph Addison. No. 133. Lives of the English 
Poets, Addison, Savage, Swift. By Samuel Johnson, LL. D. No. 134. Sec- 
ond Part of King Henry IV. By William Shakespeare. No. 135. Essays and 
Tales. By Richard Steele. No. 136. Marmion; A Tale of Flodden Field. By 
Sir Walter Scott. No. 138. The Merry Wives of Windsor. By William 
Shakespeare. These volumes are 10 cents a number, and the subscription 
price per year is $5.00. 

My Aunt's Matchmaking, and other stories by popular authors. CasselTs 
" Rainbow Series," New York ; Cassell & Co. For sale by De Wolfe, Fiske 
& Co. Price, 25 cents. 

This book under the title of ^* My Aunt's Matchmaking,'' contains sixteen 
interesting, bright and crisp stories. ITie book is one which will be valued as 
a recreation for many weary moments, and can be picked up and a story read 
at any time. The stories are wholesome as well as attractive. They are writ- 
ten by popular authors and well deserve a place in such a book and such a 
series of '* original novels " as are found in the " Rainbow Series." 

Semi-Centennial Celebration op Mt. IIolyoke Seminary, South Had- 
ley, Mass. 1837-1887. Edited by Mrs. Sarah Locke Stow, of '59. Published 
by the Seminary. 1888. Pp. 155. 

Mount Holyoke Seminary, or college, which is to be, is a noble institution, 
and has been in many ways specially fortunate. If one wishes to know what 
the higher education has accomplished for American women, let him read this 



1888.] AMONG THE BOOKS. 143 

interesting account of what Mt. Holyoke has done in fifty years. The hi(>tory 
of education in America would be far from complete without important refer- 
ences to what this volume treats of. Above all, the reader will be surprised, 
whoever he is, at the long list of distinguished women who have graduated 
at this institution. The young women of today are to be congratulated upon 
their educational advantages, so far superior to what wasofiered their grand- 
mothers fifty years ago. But one is tempted to ask the question, Is woman 
yet equal before the law, in social life and educational opportunities^ to man? 

Physical Development ; or the Laws Governing the Human System. 
By Nathan Allen, M. D., LL. D. Pp. 348. Boston : Lee & Shepard. 1888. 

Doctor Allen has won a high reputation as a writer upon the proper devel- 
opment of the human body and the laws that govern the human system. 
Among the man}' good things in this book the attention of teachers should be 
called to the following chapters : ^^ Early Education,^' ^' Education of Girls,** 
*'True Basis of Education," "College Sports," and '*The New England Fam- 
ily." Doctor Allen wisely says, '*One of the chief causes of failure in educa- 
tion is the want of fixed principles as guides,*' and discusses elaborately the 
injuries that result from "treating all children as though their organizations 
were precisely alike." , 

Talks on Psychology Applied to Teaching. For Teachers and Normal 
Institutes. By A. L. Welch, LL. D., Ex-President of Iowa Agricultural Col- 
lege. New York and Chicago : E. L. Kellogg & Co. Price, 60 cents. 

This little book of one hundred and thirty-six pages solely aims to help the 
teacher in the active work of the schoolroom. Most works on mental science 
simply propose to aid in getting some knowledge of the subject as a science, 
and do not aim at practical teaching. We feel certain this book has a mission 
among the elementary teachers. The questions that follow each chapter will 
prove of real service. The type is large, and printing and binding (cloth) 
plain but elegant. 

Lays of Ancient Rome. By T. B. Macaulay. Edited with notes by Wil- 
liam J. Kolfe, litt. d., and John C. Rolfe, Ph. D. New York: Harper ifc 
Brothers. 1888. Pp. 199. 

Few poems are so well adapted for school study, especially for the study of 
boys, as the ** Lays of Rome." The full notes of the editors will be found of 
great value to the schools. They are eminently accurate, critical, scholarly 
and of the highest practical type. 

Aristotle and the Christian Church. An Essay. By Brother Azarlas. 
London : Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. 1888. Pp. 141. 

This essay was read at the Concord School of Philosophy in 1887. It discu<»se8 
the relation of this great philosopher to the Christian church. It shows very 
clearly how, and in what, Christianity rises higher than philosophy. "Specu- 
lation may console a few philosophers, but the soothing hand of Christian 
charity, nerved by the love of God and of man ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ can revive expiring 
hopes, calm the troubled mind, and raise a soul out of despondency" into 
individual perfection and sanctification. 

Civics for Young Americans, or First Lessons in Government. By 
William N. Gritfln, A. M. New York : A. Lovell & Co. 1888. Pp. 119. 

It is an interesting and gratifying fact that so many books are now being 



144 EDUCATION. [October, 

placed before the American public designed to maice us more familiar with the 
principles of our government, and especially for use in the suhools. Mr. Grif- 
fin is a successful teacher of experience, and in this little book he gives. In 
plain and simple language, easy to be understood by school children, an inter- 
esting account of the fundamental principles of our national government. 

GiNX & Co., Boston, are beating their own record in the number and quality 

of new liDoks issued for both teachers and the schools. We have lately received 

from this enterprising hou^e the following: — 

Introduction to the Study of the Middle Ages. From the Battle of 
Adrianople to the death of Charlemagne (a. d., 378-814). By Ephraim Emer- 
ton, Professor of History in Harvard University. 

'iliis work gives in simple narrative form, an account of the settlement of 
the Germanic peoples on Roman soil, the gradual rise of the Prankish suprem- 
acy, the growth of the Christian Church and its expression in the monastic 
life and in the Koman Papacy, and finally the culmination of all in the Empire 
of Charlemagne. The text is supplemented by maps, lists of works for refer- 
ence, accounts of the contemporaneous material on which the narrative is 
based, and suggestions to teachers upon topics and methods of special study. 
It will be of great service to teachers of history. 

CiGSAR*s Army. A study of the military art of the Romans in the last days 
of the Republic. By Harry Pratt Judson, Professor of History, University of 
Minnesota. Price, 91-10. 

This work will prove useful to students of Caesar, and to those interested in 
military science. Each point is presented in the light of the established facts 
and of the inferences of leading specialists, and is illustrated by comparison 
with parallel military method:) in modern armies. There is also a large num- 
ber of cuts and diagrams. In this way a clear picture of a Roman army is 
presented so that the evolutions of Ca)«^r*s wars may have a definite and intel- 
ligible meaning. Professor Judson has evidently devoted a greac deal of time 
to the study of this subject. 

Ancient History for Colleges and High Schools. By William F. Al- 
len and P. V. N. Myers. 1888. Pp. 601). 31.25. 

This is a beautiful book, finely illustrated by maps and numerous cuts, throw- 
ing light upon the various parts of the history treated. The treatment is suf- 
ficiently full and appears to be accurate. 

Entrance Examination Paters. Compiled by Dr. John S. White, Head 

Master of tiie Berkeley School of New York City. Price to teachers, post 
paid, 91.25. 

These papers contain analyzed sets of recent examinations presented by 

Harvard, Yale, Columbia, and Princeton Colleges; together with suggestions 

regarding preparation for their respective examinations. The book is evidently 

intended, not merely for the use of the teacher, but also quite as much for the 

pupil. It will thus be found suitable as a textbook in the upper classes of all 

schools that prepare for college. 

I.ESSONS IN English, adapted to the study of American Classics. A text- 
bonk for High Schools and Academies, liy Sara E. H. l^ockwoud. 1888. 
Pp.403. Price, ai. 25. 

Here is presented to the American teacher one of the best books for practi- 
cal use in schools as an introduction to the study and use of good literature. 
It is a complete textbook on rhetoric, composition writing, and the history of 
English literature, it has grown out of the best work in the schoolroom and 



1888.] AMONG THE BOOKS. 146 

Is written by one who knows both how to teach and how to write. Let every 

teacher of this subject get a copy of this boolc. 

Bench Work ik Wood. A Course of Study and Practice, designed for the 
use of schools and colleges. By W. F. M. Goss. Pp. 161. Price, 75 cents. 

The constantly increasing interest in manual training has made necessary 

new textbootcs upon the use of tools. This little book by Professsor Goss, of 

Perdue University, has grown out of his own experience and needs in the 

class room and at the bench. The book is well written, admirably illustrated, 

and will prove of great utility. 

Political Science Quarterly. Edited by the Faculty of Political Sci- 
ence of Columbia College. Vol. 3, No. 3. September, 1888. Pp. 164. Single 
copies, 75 cents ; price per year, $3.00. 

This number contains five valuable articles, including an interesting histori- 
cal article by S. 6. Fisher, on ^^ The Suspension of Habeas Corpus during the 
War of the Rebellion. This article discusses the right of the President to 
suspend the Habeas Corpus privilege, and will be found a valuable discussion 
to all teachers of the United States Constitution. 

Glnn & Co. have added three valuable volumes to their series of ** Classics 
for Children." They are "Arabian Nights," edited by Edward Everett Hale, 
pp. 366, price, 50 cents; "Benjamin Franklin*s Autobiography," edited for 
school use with notes and a continuation of his life by D. H. Montgomery, 
pp. 311, price, 50 cents; and ^^ Selections from Kuskln, on Reading and other 
subjects,^' by Edwin Ginn, with notes and a sketch of Ruskin's life, by D. H. 
M.. pp. 148. These books are remarkably cheap, well printed, well edited, and 
should have an extended use. 

Among the most enterprising and successful publishers of school books for 
teachers are D. C. Heath & Co., Boston. Like Ginn & Co., with whom Mr. 
Heath was formerly associated, this young firm are outdoing themselves the 
present season in the number and quality of books issued. From among those 
recently published we find the following upon our table: — 

Seaside and Wayside. No. 2. By Julia McNair Wright. Illustrated. 
Pp. 175. 

This second number in the series of ^^ Nature Readers ^' takes the little ones 

along the seaside and by the wayside, soniAimes upon the hills, sometimes 

upon the marshes, sometimes upon the white, hard beach. It tells the children 

of the ant, the worm, the fly, the beetle, the barnacle, the starfish, and the 

dragon-fly. ITiese stories are well written, interesting, and of great value to 

the children. The b4||k is beautiful, well printed, and well illustrated. 

Exercises in Enoush Accidence, Syntax, and Style. By H. I. Strang, 
Ontario. 

This book consists of a great variety of exercises in English for criticism 
and correction. Its design is to drill the pupils orall}- as well as in writing in 
correct forms of speech, culling their attention tu common errors and enlist- 
ing both ear and eye in the cause of good English. The book contains nearly 
fifC}' exercises and several thousand quotations. 

Another of Mr. Heath's republications is entitled Composition and Rhet- 
oric by Practice, with exercises adapted for use in High Schools and Col- 
leges. By William Williams B. A. Pp. 238. 

This is, on the face of it, a practical book ; not that it excludes theory, but 
that it gives prominence to practice. It combines with the theory much prac- 



146 EDUCATION. [October, 

tical work by the pupil, well arranged and systematized with safficient explana- 
tion for the clear understanding of what is needful and what is aimed at. 

Ten Years of Massachusetts. By Raymond L. Bridgham. Pp. 1:27. 

This singular little book discusses in a trenchant manner such subjects as 
•» Public Administration," ** Public Morals," '' Religious Advance," ** Educa- 
tion," ^^ Society." The treatment of these various subjects is brief and pointed. 
The author sums up the progress made in the Commonwealth during the last 
ten years and points out its dangers. His conclusion is, that *^ with these dan- 
gers to its children and to its adults, it promises to be in the future the chief 
concern and pressing problem of the State how to raise men." 

Selected PoKMS FROM Premieres et Nouvelles Meditations. Edited 
by George O. Curme, A. M., Iowa. Pp. 179. Price, 75 cents. 

A capital selection of French poems for school reading, with full notes and a 

very interesting biographical sketch of M. Lamartine. 

CoLLOQi'iA Latina. Adapted to the beglnner*s books of Jones, Leighton, 
Collar and Daniell. By Benjamin L. D*Ooge, M. A., Michigan Normal School. 
Pp. 81. Price, 30 cents. 

The aim of this book is twofold, first to inspire enthusiasm at a time when it 
is most needed, and second, to insure increased thoroughness. The plan of 
the book is to present to the pupil Latin sentences under the guise of question 
and answer in such a way as constantly to increase the pupil*s vocabulary and 
his knowledge of Latin construction. All needed help is given by means of 
notes and questions, llie book is original in design and will surely prove suc- 
cessful in practice. 

The Civil Service Question Book. Syracuse : C. W. Bardeen. 1888. 
Pp. 282. Price, $1.60. 

The extension of the Civil Service System till it has become the only avenue 
of entrance to more than forty thousand positions, has made necessary a col- 
lection of questions that shall enable the candidate to judge beforehand of his 
fitness to enter its examinations. None of the many *^ Question Books " hith- 
erto published serves this purpose. This book will be found throughout some- 
thing more than a 4;ollection of questions. The four hundred classified exer- 
cises in English Syntax will pr<^e a profitable drill for any one, and the tables 
in American History and in Civil Government are of value in every school. 
This book Is an adequate preparation for Civil Service examinations held any- 
where in this country. 

Ix)ngmans' School Geography. By George C. ClAholm. M. A., Fellow 
of the Koyal Geographical and Statistical Societies. London : Longmans, 
Green & Co. 

This book undoubtedly embodies a greater variety and larger amount of relia- 
ble information relating to the geography of the whole world than can else- 
where be found in the same space. It is a most valuable reference book for 
every teacher of geography, and contains just the Information which every 
wide-awake teacher needs to supplement the material usually found in the text- 
books. Especially does it give valuable information concerning the relations 
of our country to Europe. For example: *'From one-half to two-thirds of the 
wheat, fiour, maize, raw cotton, and live cattle, and nearly four-fifths of the 
meat imported into the United Kingdom came from the United States.^' We 
commend tliis book to the careful attention of our American teachers. 



1888.] AMONG THE BOOKS. 147 

Longmans' School Grammar. By David Salmon. London and New York : 
Longmans, Green & Co. 1888. Pp. 264. 

Several prominent writers have lately made comparisons between the meth- 
ods of education in this country and in Europe, not always altogether in our 
favor. If they are correct, it were well for our teachers to examine carefully 
foreign textbooks, and if our ambitious authors before taking up their pens 
would give critical study to the textbooks of Great Britain, it wQuld doubtless 
be for our beneflt. Longmans^ School Grammar is not an old-fashioned gram- 
mar, but it is a grammar^ and it embodies the latest principles of teaching and 
the truest methods of presentation. The parts of speech are first considered 
with an immense amount of practice. Classiflcatlon and Inflection constitute 
Part 2. Part 3 treats of the Analysis of Sentences, and Part 4 of History and 
Derivation. Longmans' New York ofllce is at 15 E. 16th Street. 

Numbers Symbolized; an Elementary Algebra. By David M. Sensenig, 
M. S., Professor of Mathematics, State Normal School, West Chester, Pa. 
New York, Boston and Chicago : D. Appleton & Co. 1888. Pp. 315. 

Some of the special features of this new applicant for the teacher's favor 
may be mentioned : ^^ Easy transition from the elementary forms of reason- 
ing to pure mathematical demonstration.'* A large number of carefully se- 
lected and appropriate examples, both for oral and written work. A fairly 
extensive treatment of factoring; an early introduction of the equation, and a 
frequent return to it. The explanations of algebraic subtraction, or the subject 
of minus quantities, is a noticeable feature. It would be a very dull pupil who 
would not be able to understand, ^^Tell which of the following quantities are 
positive and which negative : John earns 910, spends $8, Ands ^9, loses $12, 
gives a poor man $5, receives a reward of $6." The above features are of such 
importance that the book will be found well worthy of a careful examination 
by any wide-awake teacher of Algebra. 

Academic Algebra, with numerous examples; College Algebra, with 
numerous examples. By Edward A. Bowser, LL. D., Professor of Mathemat- 
ics and Engineering In Rutger's College. New York : D. Van Nostrand, Pub- 
lisher, 23 Murray, and 27 Warren Streets. 1888. 

Doctor Bowser, in these two volumes, makes a valuable addition to his list 
of Mathematical Textbooks. His treatises in the higher mathematics are 
somewhat well known, and the appearance of these new books indicates that 
teachers will very soon have a better acquaintance with his methods. 
Among the features flrst noticed might be mentioned (1) A chapter of equa- 
tions and problems introduced before the subject of factoring, in order that 
the student may ^^ see and feel that he can use his knowledge to some practical 
end." (2) The attention given to factoring, with the special idea that *' the 
student^s flrst thought on looking at an equation shall be : can it be resolved 
into factors." (3) The large number of examples, carefully graded, and de- 
signed to give the teacher a chance to prevent the use of a student's note-book 
'* key." (4) The two books could be used in the same class, if it were of any 
advantage to do so, when, perhaps, some wished to pursue the course farther, 
while others must stop with the elementary part, the wordjng being exactly 
the same in the two, the dilference being simply in the amount of ground cov- 
ered. The question does arise, however, whether the same explanations are 
required for academic as for college pupils. The publishers are making no 
mistake in presenting this series to the educational world. 



148 EDUCATION. [October, 

Descriptive Geombtrt. By Lewis Faunce, AAsIstant Professor of Descrip- 
tive Geometry and Drawing in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Boston : Gin'n & Co. 1888. Price, 31.35. Pp. 54, with 16 plates. 

This will be found to be a practical book. This is the especial feature; many 
practical problems are given, and the principles of Descriptive Geometry are 
applied. The design is to furnish a work for draughtsmen as well as for stu- 
dents. 

« 

Chemical Problems. By J. P. Grabfleld, Ph. D., and P. S. Burns, B. S., 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. Boston: D. C. Heath 
&Co. 1888. 

The title of the work indicates the contents. Problems in Volumetric and 

Gravimetric computations and percentage composition, atomic weights (three 

methods), reaction, thermo-chemlstry, etc., take up the largest part of the 

book, while the rest of the space presents what teachers need, a quite complete 

list of ^^ Tech." examinations in chemistry. It ought to be in the hands of 

every teacher of chemistr}'. 

Popular Physics. By J. Dorman Steele, Ph. D., F. G. S., author of " Four- 
teen Weeks' Series " in Natural Science. Pp. 380. New York and Chicago : 
A. S. Barnes & Co. 

Teachers need no introduction to the ^^ Fourteen Weeks' Series,'" and all that 
can be said here must be to speak of the revision of the ^^ Fourteen Weeks in 
Natural Philosophy."' For this purpose, a few lines are taken from the Pub- 
lisher's Preface: ^* Shortly before his death, finding his health too feeble to 
permit of extra labor, the author requested Dr. W. Le C. Stevens, Professor 
of Physics in the Packer Collegiate Institute, Brooklyn, to revise the textbook 
in Physics, as important advances in this department of science had been made 
since the issue of the edition of 1878. In performing thia work, Professor 
Stevens has endeavored to impose the least possible modification upon the 
peculiar style of the author. Nevertheless, every chapter has received some 
alterations and slight enlargement." This book will receive, as it deserves, a 
very extended sale. Its statements are remarkably clear, and the book in the 
hands of the average High school teacher, for use with the average class of 
boys and girls, will give great satisfaction. 

GiNN & Company have issued a very neat and attractive catalogue and an- 
nouncement of their various and important publications. This enterprising 
house are publishing for teachers and the schools, almost daily, new books of 
rare value, and their prices are remarkably low. Their '* Classics for Children " 
hold a high place as supplementary readers. Good literature is the great ne- 
cessity for the public schools. 

The Massachusetts Society for Promoting Good Citizenship has ju<t issued a 
report of great value, upon *• Works on Civil Government.*' It gives a descrip- 
tive li:st of such works as are fitted for school use. It m ly be had by address- 
ing Kdwiu D. Mead, 71 Pinckney Street, Boston. 

The Eighth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Schools, Boston, 
has some interesting chapters, which are well worth a careful peiusal, especially 
Mr. Seaver's remarks upon Courses of Study and Promotions. 



AMONG THE BOOKS. 



AMONG THE BOOKS. 



Tbe folloniDj; five volumes are pub- ' 
llohed Id Caaeell's " Sunshine Series," 
Issued weekly by CaSHell & Co., 104 
and 108 Fourth Avenue, New York, 
and for siile In Busion by Clarbe & . 
Carruth. Price RO cents each. 
The Brown Stone Bov. By William ' 

Henry Bishop. 

This book contains eight stories de- 
Ruriplive of queer people, or taughnble 
Incidents or situations. The stories 
are out of the ordinnry run and are 
written Id an Interesting; and attrac- 
tive Myle. 
Bewitched: A Tale. By Louis Pen- 

This tale of the South haK an appro- 
priate title, and has for eharacters the 
native Southerner, the Spaniard, and 
the Nf);ro, plHylng on their supersti- 
tion" and well portraying their peculi- 
arities. Though right triumphs In the 
end. It is only by force of might and 
happy uoincidences. Two shorter arti- 
cles, '* Arladoe in the Wire Grass," and 
"'ilie Story of Black Dan," are ap- 
pended. 
No. 19 State Street. By David 

Orahnm Adee. 

Afew words taken from the Prologue 
may set befure the reader the nature, 
at least, of the story. '* The indorse- 
meot ran as follows : ' Full Statement 
of the Mysterious Discoveries and Ex- 
periences At No. is State Street, in the 
city iif New York.' Under this strange 
inscription was the date ' February 28, 
1IM5.' At the foot of the document, 
which seemed to my hasty scrutiny to 
cODtain a bulky consecutive recital, 
was inscribed the signature, 'John 
Andrew Cross,' in full. It is this 
quaintly-told tale, so startliug and 
pecniiar, which, without apology, is 



herein laid before the reader, with 
the single suggestion, — was John A. 
Cross ever crnzyF" 
Madame Silva. Bv M. G. McClel- 
land, author of '• Oblivion," " Prin- 
cess," and "Jean Montelth." Pp. 
320. 

This story, like so many modern sto- 
ries, is t. peering into the mysteries of 
what may be called, for lack of a better 
word, meeroerism. It is an account 
of an attempt to overcome tbe tnes- 
meric Influence that enchained a wife, 
and to make her what a wife ought to 
be, " a creature to love, and be loved 
by ; to be companion, friend, lover, 
comrade, conscience, aspiration, lit- 
erally part and parcel of her husband's 
being." Bound with this story, Is t, 
shorter one, entitled "The Ghost of 
Dred Power." 



This novel is not trashy, vulgar, or 
injurious. It is written ih an Interesting 
Btyleand gives some very good descrip- 
tions o( human character. 

AQNE3 SuRRiAOE. By Edwln Laa- 
aettlr Bvnner. Tlcknor >> Paper Se- 
ries." Boston :Tlcknor A Co. Price, 
GO cents. 

This work is undoubtedly one of the 
best portrayals of New England coloni- 
al life to be found In the form at a nov- 
el. I^tudents of early Americanhlstory 
are familiar with the romantic story 
upon which the book is founded, and 
will recognize many of the events as 
well-known historical facta. The au- 
thor has given a very striking and 
clear picture of New Enghind life, 
I of the quaint buildings, narrow 
I streets and lanes, of the spirit and 
of the people of a hundred 



150 



EDUCATION. 



[October, 



and fifty yearn ago. Very fascinating 
are the descriptions of the Puritan 
towns. 

Saint Peter and Tom: or, Two 
Unlikely Heroes. By Belle S. 
Cra^in. Pp.196. Price, «1.00. Bos- 
ton and Ciiica^o: Congregational 
Sunday-School and Publishing Soci- 
ety. 

It is not necessary to read these two 
boys^ stories to Itnow something about 
them. The titles and the name of the 
publishers would inform any discern- 
ing reader that the book was designed 
for Sunday-School Libraries. l*erhaps 
this is not a recommendation to most 
readers, still it ought to be. This 
boolc seems to belie the accusations so 
commonly made against stories of this 
class, and is very readable. The 
two boys are not saints, — Peter, too 
flery-tempered ; Tom, too dull, — but 
they won places for themselves, 
both in the good opinions and in the 
hearts of all their friends. It is a 
very boys' book, both to be appreciated 
by them and to do them good. 

Incidents in a Busy Life. An Au- 
tobiography by Asa BuUard. Bos- 
ton and Chiciigo: Congregational 
Sunday-School and Publishing So- 
ciety. 1888. Pp. 235. 

Xo Sunday-school worker can be 
found who does not know of the ven- 
erable Asa Bullard, and few who are 
not aware of the great good that he 
has done for the young. There could 
be no more fitting time for the publi- 
cation of his memoirs than the pres- 
ent, Just after his death, and while so 
many Sunday-schools are contributing 
to the ^* Asa Bullard Memorial Fund '' ; 
no more fitting publishers than the 



Congregational Sanday-School and 
Publishing Society, and all would 
prefer that the life should be written 
by Mr. Bullard himself. All will be 
pleased to find the autobiography pre- 
cedcHi by an introduction by Dr. Mc- 
Konzle of Cambridge, and followed 
by the memorial address of M. C. 
Hazard of Dorchester. 

Cookery for Beginners. By Mari- 
on Harland. Boston: D. Lothrop 
Co. Price, 75 cents. 

Any boi>k from the pen of Marion 
Harland, and particularly one on the 
subject of cookery, is aiways welcome 
to the American housewife. This 
book is perfectly adapted to the needs 
of those Just begluning to learn this 
valuable art, and will be found full of 
useful suggestions to those who are 
experts in this line. It contains just 
such instruction as every young house- 
wife requires when she finds herself 
obliged to depend upon her own re- 
sources. 

Looking Backward. By Edward 
Bellamy. Ticknor '* Paper Series." 
Boston : Ticknor & Co. Price, 50 
cents. 

This startling book has aroused in- 
tense interest among the people at 
large, and is read far and near. It is 
a book which thoughtful and serious- 
minded people are now reading and 
discussing. It is, in reality, a long 
look ahead, given under the fascinating 
aspect of a backward look from the 
year 2000, A. D. ITie social system 
of the present century is compared 
with that of the year 2000. People 
interested in the labor question will 
particularly enjoy this book. 



GbUeTATIOR 

DEVOTED TO THE SCIENCE, ART, PHILOSOPHY, AND 

LITERATURE OF EDUCATION. 



Vol. IX. NOVEMBER, 1888. No. 3. 

HOW THE FATHERS BUILDED IN OHIO. 

BY JAMES H. FAIRCHILD, D. D., PRESIDENT OBEKLIN COLLEGE. 

THE first movement toward the establishment of a college within 
the limits of our State was made by the Ohio Land Company^ 
organized in Boston for the purpose of purchasing lands in the 
Western Territory belonging to the United States, and of pro- 
moting a settlement in that country. In their contract with the 
general government in 1787, it was provided that two townshipa 
of land should be donated by the government for the establishment 
of a higher institution of learning, and its permanent endowment. 
This land was selected and definitely set apart to its uses in 1795^ 
eight years after the grant was made. Seven years later, in 1802^ 
an act was passed by the territorial legislature establishing the 
"American Western University," in the town of Athens. The 
following year the State government was organized, and, in 1804, 
the legislature of Ohio passed an act changing the name of the 
institution to ''Ohio University," and defining its object to be 
" the instruction of youth in all the various branches of the liberal 
arts and sciences, the promotion of good education, virtue, religion, 
and morality, and conferring all the degrees and literary honors 
granted in similar institutions." In 1809, twenty-one years after 
the grant was made by the general government, the first college 
instruction was given in the University of Ohio, and six years 
later, in 1815, the first degrees were conferred. Thus, almost a 
generation had passed before the hopes of the far-seeing men of 
the Ohio Company were realized. The task of settling the new 



152 ED VGA TION. [N ovember , 

country in those early years involved many more pressing labors 
than that of organizing and carrying forward a university. The 
forest, the wild beasts, and the savages must first be looked after. 
The land and the charters must bide their time. 

In the same year, 1787, in which the Ohio Company made their 
purchase and secured their grant from the general government, in 
the south-eastern portion of the State, John Cleves Symmes, chief- 
justice of New Jersey, descended the Ohio River as far as the 
great falls at Louisville, and was attracted by the fine country in 
the neighborhood of what was afterward Cincinnati. He con- 
tracted for the purchase of a million of acres from the general 
government, and in connection with the purchase provided for the 
grant of a township of land for the support of an academy or col- 
lege. This township was not finally selected and located until 
1803. A grammar school was opened upon the site of the con- 
templated college in 1818, but the Miami University was not 
organized until six years later, in 1824. Thus, the Miami Uni- 
versity at Oxford, like the Ohio University at Athens, was founded 
upon a grant of land given by the general government, and in- 
tended as a permanent endowment. In this way the southern 
part of the State was provided, in the earliest times, with its higher 
educational institutions. 

In 1824 the Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church at Gambier, in the central part of the State, was chartered 
by the legislature, and in 1826, two years later, by a second act, 
the professors of the Seminary were empowered to act as the fac- 
ulty of a college, under the name and style of the '" president and 
professors of Kenyon College." Two weeks after the date of the 
act incorporating Kenyon College, a charter was granted by the 
legislature to "Western Reserve College," at Hudson, in the north- 
ern part of the State. No other college charters were granted 
until 1832, when such a charter was granted to the "Granville 
Literary and Theological Institution," afterwards called Granville 
College, and later, Denison University. Oberlin College received 
its charter in 1834 ; Marietta College in 1835. Thus, within thirty- 
three years from the organization of the State, we find seven col- 
leges in existence, well distributed over the State. This would 
seem a reasonable, or at least a sufficient number, even for a State 
as large as Ohio ; and some of these seemed to crowd upon each 
other. Oberlin and Hudson were scarcely sixty miles apart; Ma- 



1888. J HOW THE FATHERS BUILDED. 153 

rietta and Athens about the same distance, and Granville and 
Gambier only forty miles. But the good people of the State were 
not able to content themselves with seven colleges. These col- 
leges were organized and managed by religious men, with special 
reference to a supply of preachers and pastors for the people, but 
not with any exclusive purpose of this kind. Their doors were 
freely open to all students without any discrimination, and no 
religious tests were provided, in their charters or articles of asso- 
ciation, for trustees or faculty. Kenyon College was an exception 
to this statement, being the outgrowth of the Theological Sem- 
inary of the "Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of 
Ohio." Granville College, although ''the child of the Ohio Bap- 
tist Education Society," was at the first without any denomina- 
tional limitation as to its management, but such limitations have 
been supplied in later years. But the remaining five, although 
free from any denominational, or even religious character, so far 
as charters and constitutions were concerned, were as a matter of 
fact under the controlling influence of certain denominations 
of Christians. 

The Ohio and Miami Universities were organized under Presby- 
terian auspices, and were thus controlled for many years. Western 
Reserve, and Oberlin, and Marietta, in a similar way sprung from 
the Presbyterian and Congregational churches, in the days of what 
was known as the "Plan of Union." Yet, I suppose that not one 
of these five institutions has ever had, in constitution or by-law, 
any religious test for trustees, or faculty, or students. But their 
origin and history brought them denominational support, and the 
denominations which sustained them received in return the benefit. 
This was an inevitable result. As other denominations attained 
a larger growth in the State, it was natural that they should feel 
the need of such advantages, and should found for themselves in- 
stitutions of higher education, where their children should be 
trained for the ministry of their churches, and for the learned pro- 
fessions generally. 

Thus, I believe, all our colleges founded since 1835, have come 
into existence under the impulse of denominational interest and 
need, except as local enterprise or individual ambition has operated 
here and there. The Ohio State University, founded on the Con- 
gressional land grant of 1862, and organized and controlled by the 
General Assembly of the State, is, of course, excepted in this state- 



154 EDUCATION. [November, 

ment. But these institutions, while under denominational influ- 
ence and control, cannot be regarded as sectarian, in any narrow 
sense. Their doors are freely open to students of all religious 
connections and of none, and the religious instruction and influ- 
ence brought to bear are rarely, if ever, characterized by sectarian 
narrowness. It would seem wiser, from a theoretical point of view, 
that the general interest should have been concentrated upon a 
smaller number of colleges, instead of being divided among twenty 
or more. It is easy to imagine that by such concentration a great 
institution might have arisen, of wide and commanding influence, 
but, practically, such concentration was impossible. The time for 
State universities had not arrived, and thus Oliio has today its 
twenty or more colleges, all doing, more or less successfully, the 
work of higher education. There is no occasion to look back with 
regret upon this apparent division of strength; what was possible, 
and in that sense what was best, was done. It is not clear that 
the people of Ohio have suffered in comparison with more recent 
States in the absence of a State university. There is ho evidence 
that a more imposing central school would have accomplished 
more for good education, morality, and religion among the people ; 
and this is the real test of what is best, in all arrangements for 
education. The American idea is diffusion rather than concen- 
tration. A great cathedral, centrally placed, would be imposing; 
but a thousand churches gathering their worshippers in every 
neighborhood would be more useful. At all events the educational 
machinery of the State cannot be reconstructed ; we must do the 
best we can with what we have, and that will not be doing badly. 
It is not improbable that the number of our colleges may be re- 
duced upon the principle of "the struggle for existence and the 
survival of the fittest," but there is no occasion to hasten such a 
result. 

The work of establishing and sustaining these colleges, in the 
comparative poverty of the people before the development of the 
resources of the State, has not been small. Each college has gath- 
ered about itself its benefactors and patrons, and the work involved 
years, and in some cases generations, of self-denying labor, on the 
part of trustees, and faculty, and friends. Back of every one of 
these institutions lies a history of patient toil and self-sacrifice 
which constitutes a precious endowment. It does not appear in 
the statistical tables of the State Commissioner, but it counts in 



1888.] HOW OUB FATHERS BUILDED. 155 

the forces which form the character of the people, and build up 
the State. The means for building and endowing these schools 
have come, in general, from the friends interested in each special 
enterprise. In a few instances help has been obtained from the 
older East, and in two instances, at least, — Kenyon and Oberlin, — 
from over the water. With the exception of the three schools 
which are called State institutions, all that the State government 
has done for these colleges is to give them their charters, and, with 
some limitation, to abstain from taxing their grounds, their build- 
ings, and their endowments. In the case of the three State schools, 
the State government became the trustee of the land grants from 
the general government upon which the institutions were founded. 
In the two earliest cases the administration of this trust has been 
matter of considerable criticism. In later y^ars some appropria- 
tions have been made by the State as a measure of compensation 
for unsuccessful administration of the trust. Moderate appropria- 
tions have also been made in recent years for the support of the 
Ohio State University founded on the Congressional land grant 
of 1852. With these exceptions the colleges of Ohio have re- 
ceived no help from the State. I mention this as an historical fact, 
and not as a matter of complaint. It is probable that nothing bet- 
ter, in this direction, could have been done. The relations of the 
State to the higher institutions of learning in this country are 
still in process of development. 

The higher education of the young women of Ohio, was at first 
provided for in the establishment of " female seminaries," after the 
model of similar institutions in the older states. The schools at 
Granville, at Steubenville, at Cincinnati, at Oxford, and at Paines- 
ville were among the earliest of these, which still hold on their 
way, doing their good work. At the establishment of Oberlin 
College the i^lan of co-education was introduced, and young women 
entered upon the collegiate course in 1837, and received the de- 
gree of A. B. in 1841, — the first instance, in this country, of de- 
grees being conferred upon young women. Since that time the 
method of co-education has been introduced into most of the col- 
leges and universities of the State, and into a large majority of 
those of the newer states of the West. The system has gone 
eastward as far as Boston, and is even making headway among 
the institutions of the Old World. If there is merit in the sys- 
tem, Ohio may properly claim the honor of its introduction. The 



156 EDUCATION. ' [November, 

large majority of the young women of Ohio, now in a course of 
higher education, are pursuing it under co-educational arrange- 
ments. 

The general course of study in the earlier colleges of Ohio was 
the same essentially as that found in the colleges of the older 
States. Yale, Harvard, Dartmouth, and Princeton were the mod- 
els after which our college took form. It was thought necessary 
that a student should be able to pass from his college in Ohio to 
one of the eastern colleges, entering ad euruJem^ and this was often 
accomplished. The material of the regular curriculum was the 
Latin and Greek classics, Mathematics, involving Physics and 
Astronomy, Chemistry and a touch of Natural Science, Psychology, 
Ethics, and English Literature, with a limited packing of History 
and other specialties. It was a good solid course, and it may very 
reasonably be questioned whether anything better has been discov- 
ered in our day. These studies are still the backbone in every 
well-ordered college, but the modern languages and the newer 
sciences have come in to claim their share of attention, and the 
old college course has become greatly diversified with optionals 
and electives. The colleges of Ohio have, according to their 
means, given the new ideas a hospitable reception, and the Ohio 
youth will not be obliged to go to Harvard to find a course suited 
to his natural gifts and aspirations. Meanwhile let us not forget 
that to multiply courses and electives is not the same thing as to 
elevate and improve the education of the individual student. The 
final test of all this multiplication of studies is found in the effect 
upon personal character and equipment. The college may be 
greatly enlarged and enriched in its furnishment for every branch 
of educational work, while the pupil in his personal work experi- 
ences no corresponding advantage. 

The colleges of Ohio have not beeh behind in introducing the 
new methods of instruction, involving laboratory work for the 
student in the sciences, and such use of the library as is a training 
for original investigation. Every improvement of this kind in- 
volves more extensive apparatus and increased endowments, and 
brings a new test to the feebler colleges, that are already struggling 
to maintain their position in the sisterhood. There is always 
ground to apprehend that an improvement of this kind will, in the 
fresh interest excited, be carried beyond reason ; and that it will 
prove simply a premature attempt to transform the college into a 



1888.] HOW OUB FATHEBS BUILDED. 157 

university, employing post-graduate methods where they do not 
belong. The watchful interest of the guardians of education will 
check the tendency in due time. 

A movement in the direction of industrial education or manual 
training is indicated in the attitude of the public mind ; and we 
shall doubtless soon be called to consider to what extent such 
training can be introduced into our system of college work. The 
experiment of what was known in its day as the manual labor 
system was tried in several of the earlier Ohio colleges, and was 
universally found impracticable. The idea in this experiment was 
to furnish the pupil with profitable employment, to which he should 
devote from two to four hours daily, thus securing wholesome exer- 
cise, as well as useful training in some manual employment, and 
by the profits of his labor defraying a considerable portion of the 
expense of his education. The idea was very inviting, but it 
proved utterly impracticable. No method could be devised by 
which the labor of an average company of students, working two 
or three hours a day, could be made profitable. A student, for his 
two hours' work, requires even more supervision than an ordinary 
laborer for his ten hours. His heart, too, is where his treasure is, 
with his studies, and there can be no successful labor which does 
not command the mind as well as the body. Still again, the plant 
required to supply labor to a given number of students cannot be 
essentially less than for the same number of regular laborers. The 
idea of securing any product by such fitful labor which shall com- 
pete in the market with the product of labor under ordinary con- 
ditions, is manifestly preposterous. Such was the result of every 
experiment of manual labor in connection with the college. It 
proved the most expensive department of the college, and the help 
afforded to the student was a very costly gift of the college. It 
would be a moderate statement to say that if the student were 
employed in farm work, which is the most obvious method of em- 
ploying student labor, every bushel of grain produced would cost 
twice the market price. The product of the shop, or the manu- 
factory, would be even more costly. From a somewhat extended 
experience and observation in efforts of this kind, I have been led 
to believe that whatever is paid to students for their labor in our 
modern agricultural colleges is essentially the gift of the college, 
and the true conception would be to regard the labor as a part of 
the student's insti-uction, for which he should no more receive 



158 EDUCATION, [November, 

compensation than for his work in the laboratory, or the observa- 
tory. This, I think, is the view and the practice in some of our 
agricultural colleges, but not in all. The modern idea of manual 
training for the student involves no thought of profit from the 
labor or of compensation for it. It is to be a part of the student's 
education for which the college is to provide, as for his other in- 
struction. It is thought that such training, regularly pursued, 
will afford the student needed and pleasant exercise, more inviting 
even than the ball-ground or the gymnasium, giving him at the 
same time a familiarity with tools, and \vith various manual opera- 
tions, and an experience of work in some of its forms, which no 
educated man can afford to be without. The view seems to have 
reason in it, and experiments in this direction liave already been 
made which are thought to prove the practicability of the scheme. 
It would not be strange if twenty years from now our colleges 
should generally be furnished with appliances for extending in 
this direction the culture afforded to their students. Such culture 
is desirable ; it ought not to be unattainable. 

The problem of the connection hettreen the public high school and 
the college has .thus far been but imperfectly solved. When the 
fii'st colleges of Ohio were established, there was no body of stu- 
dents prepared to enter upon proper college work. Each college 
found itself compelled to prepare its own students. Hence the 
preparatory departments of most of our colleges are older than 
the colleges themselves ; or rather the colleges began with the pre- 
paratory work, and have never reached the point where they could 
lay this work aside. It is an interesting inquiry whether we are 
approaching such a result. Are there indications that our colleges 
will soon be able to excuse themselves from this preparatory work, 
and give their entire energies to their own proper duties? It is 
generally conceded that such a result is desirable ; yet if a definite 
line of division be drawn between the two departments, each being 
provided with its own board of instructors, the coexistence of the 
two departments could scarcely be harmful. In some of our col- 
leges this division has been scrupulously maintained; but with our 
narrow endowments there is a constant temptation to load the 
college professor with preparatory work. This danger being 
guarded against, there are some manifest advantages in the ar- 
rangement which so generally exists. Perhai)s the most promi- 
nent of these is the force exerted by the college to draw the 



1888.] HOW OUB FATHEBS BUILDED. 159 

preparatory student on to the higher course. He is in danger of 
resting content with the preliminary course, or of finding in the 
academy or high school a course which shall satisfy liis aspirations. 
If the statistics were gathered in our most prosperous colleges 
having a preparatory school comiected, it would be found that a 
considerable portion of those who at length complete a successful 
course, entered the preparatory school with no thought beyond a 
year or two of elementary study. The presence of the college 
elevated their ideal of an education, and led them on to its attain- 
ment. But this advantage and various others which might be 
named would not be sufficient to justify these preparatory depart- 
ments in the colleges, if the same work could be as well done in 
the high school, which for the most part has taken the place of the 
academy of the last generation. It does not seem desirable to 
take the youth away from their homes at so early an age as the 
beginning of their special preparation for college. It would be 
better that the three years of their preparatory study should be 
spent at home, if their preparation could be thus secured. A few 
of our high schools meet this demand, and have done so for years, 
but there does not seem to be progress in that direction. There 
is, I think, more prospect that the colleges, in giving a greater 
variety of courses, will more nearly adjust themselves to the work 
of the liigh schools. The pupil will find his Latin and German 
preparation in the high school, with a good provision of elemen- 
tary mathematics, and the college will give him his Greek and 
French, by retaining so much of their preparatory work as shall 
serve this piu-pose. By some such adjustment the old-time chasm 
may be closed, and the preparatory work in connection with the 
college mostly dispensed with. 

The question, how the American college, as it has been and is, 
shall adjust itself to the American University which is coming to 
be, is soon to press upon us. As some of our academies grew into 
colleges by a natural evolution, so some of our colleges are grow- 
ing into universities, or rather are taking on university work in 
addition to their original college work. There is no supreme au- 
thority to determine where this university work shall be under- 
taken. The determination must depend upon inward impulses, 
and outward favoring conditions. The danger that there will be 
a waste of effort in this attempt at expansion is doubtless some- 
what pressing. It is more difficult to justify a large number of 



leO EDUCATIOy. [No¥ember, 

universities than of colleges, and a good college will prove more 
useful than a poor university. Let us hasten slowly. The prob- 
lem before us of harmonizing the university and the college is a 
new one. The American college does not correspond with any 
institution of the Old World. It is Avider in its aims and in its 
work than the great public schools of England or of Germany. 
It furnishes somewhat of the culture which in those countries is 
provided at the university. We can scarcely afford to cut down 
our colleges to make room for the Old World university, nor 
would it be wise to multiply universities in this country to dupli- 
cate the work already done by the colleges. The work of the 
American university will doubtless be to take the college gradu- 
ate, with such equipment as he has, and provide him with such 
special study and education as shall fit him for the higher pursuits 
of science and of literature, in all their branches, and for the dif- 
ferent learned professions. Where the college shall end and the 
university begin, those will better understand who shall gather at 
the next centennial. 



PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF 

HOLLAND, 

BY L. A. STAGER. POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

MTH. ZOBRIST, Professeur ^ T dcole cantonale, ^ Porren- 
• truy, Switzerland, who spent about ten years as teacher 
in Holland l)efore accepting a call to his present position in his 
native country, recently addressed a teachers' meeting on the 
Primary and Secondary Schools of Holland. His '* Rapport " is 
full of interesting points to any teacher. Permit me, therefore, 
to give you a short abstract of what struck me as being of especial 
value to American educatoi-s. 

Professor Zobrist chose the schools of Holland for his subject, 
because he thinks the contrast between the schools of this little 
Dutch-speaking country and those of his own so great, and be- 
cause comparison is more interesting when the things compared 
present less resemblance. 

The fii-st school in Holland was founded in 1290, in Dordrecht^ 
by one Count Floris. Lay-instructors were appointed by the civil 



1888.] PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF HOLLAND, 161 

authorities and received, besides free lodgings, a fixed salary. 
They were paid also for moving from one school to another, and re- 
ceived small fees from their students, and earned sometimes a 
spare penny by doing other little jobs in their leisure time. The 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were rather backward. The stu- 
dents whose ages were from six to eighteen, enjoyed mostly annoy- 
ing the quiet citizens of those good old times. Punishments 
were cruel and corporal. Children found doing wrong in the 
streets were brought to school to receive chastisement, though 
the parents often were dissatisfied, and took revenge upon the 
poor teacher. In those olden times, when the remainder of 
Europe knew but a few Convent schools, Holland boasted of insti- 
tutions of greatest fame. 1384 Cele founded one at ZwoUe,. 
which had sometimes over one thousand pupils ; 1498 about twen- 
ty-one hundred students went to school at Deventer under Hegius. 
In the sixteenth century the public schools were not numerous 
enough, and private schools were opened. Besides the mother- 
tongue, writing, reading, arithmetic, and French were taught at 
those schools. The girls were taught to write, to read, and some- 
times to sing. The teachers were, however, too often ignorant^ 
and the sons of the school janitors. 

A certain Valcoogh, among others, wrote a remarkable book in 
which he ridicules those schoolmasters, and speaks against cor- 
poral punishment, and states that the teachers ought to get better 
pay. From 1600 to 1800 the school is, as of the past, but the hum- 
ble servant of the church. 1619 the national synod decides on 
the branches to be taught. They are : Religion, printed and writ- 
ten texts, the psalms of David, and a little arithmetic. School- 
time from 8 to 11 A. m., and 1 to 4 p. M. Wednesday and Satur- 
day P. M., the students are free. In the great primary schools 
the following was taught during the week : Sunday, — sermon, the 
creed, the ten Commandments, the Lord's prayer, singing of 
psalms, and the catechism. The teacher had to accompany the 
students to church, and had to watch them there. He had free 
lodging, and, according to the law, was to be well paid, also, for 
the lessons he gave to the poor. The church had the superin- 
tendence of all schools. In spite of this fine programme the 
pupils of the sixteenth century were not better educated than 
those of the fifteenth. After leaving school, the gii-ls would 
learn household duties, but the boys would linger about and 



162 EDUCATION. [November, 

finish their education very often in the streets, where they fought 
with each other, because playing was little known at this epoch. 
The teachers were badly paid, and the law a dead letter. Old 
teachers, however, received a small pension. The schoolrooms 
were low and small, cellar like, or garrets, fitted up with old 
broken chairs and tables. The teacher sat upon a high cliair, 
vested in a long black garment, held together by a cord around 
the hips. He wore a turban. The classes were noisy, and the 
sole interruption was produced by the heavy slapping of the chair 
with the rod the teacher always held in his hand. The latter 
never explained anything, and all the pupils had to do was to 
read and to recite. The pupils were expected to follow all orders 
blindly. In 1630 the government wished to oblige all parents to 
send their cliildren to school, and thirty cents had to be paid as an 
annual school fee, for each child, whether he went to school or 
not. In the cities the Latin schools were in no way different from 
the primary schools, since they accepted their pupils at the age of 
eight years. The books in those schools were printed two col- 
umns, in Latin on one side, in Dutch on the other. Besides these 
two kinds of schools there were also French schools, where 
French was taught in addition to the other branches. In the 
seventeenth century these latter schools were so hea\dly fre- 
quented, that the Latin schools, too, had to introduce French. 
The ladies also studied the languages at those times, and many 
knew Latin, Greek, German, English, or Hebrew, besides Dutch. 
All public functionaries had to know French, and toward the end 
of 1700 it was good style to have a French tutor for the children. 
During the seventeenth century German schools were very few in 
number, but English book-keeping, geography, nautical instruc- 
tion, geometry, and surveying, were taught in the larger city 
schools. Another institution which reflects very favorably upon 
the Dutch of these times, was the Free City Schools for the poor. 
The first one of the kind was established in Flessing, 1586. 

The eighteenth century brought little change to the established 
order. The country schools were open only in winter. The pu- 
pils had to bring their own wood; the country school teachers 
received in this century about sixty doUai's a year and free lodg- 
ings, and could, besides, earn some little money by doing other 
work in the leisure hours. An old teacher received a pension and 
his widow was often allowed to di^aw her dead husband's salary 



1888.] PBIMABT AND SECOND ABY SCHOOLS OF HOLLAND. 163 

and have the work done by an under-paid assistant. 1750 the 
first " helping banks for widows " were established by the govern- 
ment. When a position was to be filled, it was natiiral that many 
competitors would offer themselves, and they all took part in an 
examination. This latter was held in church, after the service, 
and in presence of all church-members. It was very often long 
and difiicult, and mostly about religion, singing, and arithmetic, 
in which latter exercises the crowd was deeply interested. 

In this same time falls the founding of the first schools for 
little children. In the cities these schools for the little ones were 
kept by French or Dutch lady-teachers, who taught the alaphabet, 
the Sunday sermon, or the ten Commandments to children of the 
age of three or four. In the villages the wives of the school- 
masters would take charge of the little ones. Thus the Kinder- 
garten, as you see, is nothing so very new. 

In the eighteenth century the Society of Public Usefulness which 
was founded at Edam, and which in the shortest time spread its 
useful branches over the whole country, gave a new impulse to the 
teaching of primary schools. It created so-called Model or Nor- 
mal Schools, and had excellent schoolbooks, and readers written 
and compiled by the most learned men. But, as in politics, a new 
era was prep.aring itself ako for the schools about this time, and 
the wisest men wished for a radical change in the plan of instruc- 
tion, without being exactly aware of what they really wanted. 
They had a presentiment of a revolution, and every one desired 
it. '89 finally brought this unknown, and for a long time wished- 
for remedy. The old state of things was upset. The new minis- 
ter of public instruction, assisted by the Society of PubUc Useful- 
ness, worked out a law by which every community was obliged to 
provide for sufficient schoolrooms for all its children. The poorer 
communities would receive assistance from the government, in 
order to be able to pay the teacher's salary and lodging. With a 
great deal of common sense, the legislator ordered, that the chil- 
dren of all believers. Catholic, Protestant, Hebrew, should go to the 
same classes, and that their beliefs should be respected. Thus 
religious teaching was excluded from the school, and was in 
charge of the divines of the different religious bodies. Thirty- 
five inspectors had to watch the execution of this ordinance. 

In 1805, this law was replaced by the one which remained up to 
1858. In every large city the inspector received a board of assist- 



164 EDUCATION. [November, 

«nts. Henceforth nobody was allowed to teach or to open a 
school, who had not received the special permission to do so, or 
who was not in the possession of a diploma. 

These diplomas were of four kinds. In order to obtain the 
fourth the three R's were required and a certain aptitude for 
teaching; for the third, grammar and pedagogj' in addition were 
required; for the second, geography and history; for the first 
natural science and mathematics. Only the first and second 
diplomas were admitted all over the kingdom. 

The schools which received aid from the government were 
named the public schools. In classes of more than sixty, the 
teacher was seconded by an assistant teacher of the third or fourth 
^ade (diploma). For the ladies there was but one diploma. 

Corporal punishment was not prohibited, but the teachers were 
advised to use it soberly and with precaution, and were obliged 
to inform the board every time they had to resort to beating a 
•child. 

The teacher had the sole right to sell school material; book- 
sellers and stationers gave him ten per cent., and thus he was en- 
abled to enlarge his sometimes very small salary, for the law pro- 
vided only for a maximum of salary, but never spoke of any 
minimum, while the authorities more generally held fast to the 
latter. 

On the whole, the French domination was a misfortune for Hol- 
land. It filled the heads of the people with wrong ideas of 
liberty, equality, and fraternity, emptied the public treasury and 
the purses of the people and left no other equality but that of 
misery and of the hatred of all that was French. No wonder that 
the Dutch were among the foremost in 1815, in Waterloo, to con- 
tribute to Napoleon's downfall. 

Free again, the kingdom of the Netherlands took up its old 
school law anew. But, wanting to introduce it in Belgium, it met 
with such ignorance, opposition, and prejudice, that it would lead 
us too far to enumerate all these difficulties which the govern- 
ment of William I. encountered, though it would prove again the 
excellence of the old law. But in spite of the opposition of the 
patricians, the Dutch government had built, from 1817 to 1828, 
1146 schools and founded several normal schools, so that Belgium? 
which under the French rule had but a few schools for the patric- 
ians, in 1829 had 4046. But this result made the partisans of 



1888.] PBIMABT AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF HOLLAND. 165 

ignorance, who were encouraged by the French, very uneasy, and 
they planned a great revolution. Belgium regained her independ- 
ence with her sweet ignorance, and today she has not entirely 
recovered from her fall. Holland, on the contrary, marched 
always ahead, changed her laws as the necessity of the day would 
require it, and today she is one of the most advanced countries 
in this respect. In 1820 the teachers constituted a society, meet- 
ing once a year, and publishing a well-written journal. They 
established a savings bank and a fund for the widows. 

The law of 1857 fixed the salary of teachers at 800 francs, with 
house and all accessories ; the assistant received 400 francs. 

In the lower primarj^ schools, grammar, writing, arithmetic, a 
little practical geometry, geography, history, natural sciences, and 
singing is taught. In the higher primary schools, German, French, 
English, mathematics, agriculture, drawing, gymnastics, and, for 
the girls, needlework, were added. This programme, which was 
slightly changed in 1878, is still followed. Manual training for 
the boys is not compulsory, and religious instruction is entirely 
abandoned to the clergy of the different religious bodies. 

In 1863, a part of the higher primary schools were changed 
into secondary schools. 

At the present time, primary instruction is given by the teach- 
ers and their assistants. There are now but two kinds of diplo- 
mas. In order to obtain the one for assistant teacher, the candi- 
date must have successfully passed the normal school course, and 
be eighteen years of age. For the diploma as teacher, he must 
be twenty-three years old, and must have taught under a teacher 
for at least three years. The examinations for the assistants cor- 
respond to the examination required of the Swiss teachers on 
leaving the normal school. The examination for the teacher's 
diploma is, of course, much more difficult, and the knowledge of 
a second modern language is generally required. The examina- 
tions for the lady teachers differ very little from those of the 
gentlemen. 

This last law of 1878 changed the body of teachers consider- 
ably; but, while it makes larger demands, it gives also larger 
salaries than our Swiss teachers get. 

In the larger cities like Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, 
they vary from 3600 francs to 4000 francs, besides a dwelling 
apartment. In Leyden, Utrecht, Deventer, 2600 to 3600 francs, 



160 EDUCATIOX, [November, 

with apartment. In the smaller cities and towns, the teacher gets 
from 2000 francs to 2600 francs, with house and garden. The 
assistant from 1000 to 1500 francs, of course without dwelling 
place. 

For many years already there is such an abundance of teachers 
that the owner of a simple diploma, who knows but one modern 
language has no chance to be placed at the head of any school, 
and must remain simple assistant for a life time. 

Materially, the position of a school-teacher in Holland is a very 
enviable one, only he does not enjoy so much consideration as 
is the case in Switzerland. His wife has no right to the title of 
"Mevrouw" (madam), she is simply called "JufFrouw" (Miss), 
like the wife of a peasant. As a rule, when the people speak of 
the schoolmaster, they call him by the name of " de school-vos '* 
(the school-fox), and according to a Dutch saying, ninety-nine out 
of one hundred teachers are fook. 

It is probable that these flatteries are remnants of former centu- 
ries, when the schoolmaster was a little '* funny," and the terror 
of the youths. He was saturated with pride, thought he knew 
everytliing, and even amidst a large crowd was easily recog- 
nizable by his gestures, bearing, walk, and talk. 

As to the school-houses, what difference we perceive ! No more 
cellars and garrets, but palaces I In the villages, the schoolhouse 
is a building with large, green entrance doors, and windows of no 
common height, protected by blinds. All classrooms are on the 
first story ; therefore no stairs to climb. The noise made by the 
scholars mounting and coming down is thus abolished, and in case 
of fire, the work of saving offers no diflBculties. The school fur- 
niture is the best of its kind, the walls ornamented with maps and 
drawings ; but rarely will you find a desk or table for the master, 
who is required to be on his feet constantly. With much com- 
mon sense the Dutch pretend that a desk is only a couch for the 
instructors. 

While teaching, the master has no book in his hand, he must 
know everything by heart, like his pupils. The way of teaching 
is more animated, and the lesson never sinks down to mere read- 
ing. On this point the examiners exercise a very severe observ- 
ance. 

The programme of studies is about the same as with us, only 
more attention is paid to arithmetic and mental calculus. This 



1888.] PRIMAET AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF HOLLAND. 167 

latter branch especially is the object of particular attention. 
Nowhere have I found examples in arithmetic better calculated to 
develop reasoning than in Holland. 

In villages situated near the sea, the teacher must also give in- 
struction in nautical science and maritime geography. 

Drawing, too, receives particular attention, but they draw more 
from nature than with us, and the collections of casts and models 
of papier-mach<3 and wire are very extensive. The Dutch, as a 
rule, do not like to draw from copies, and call it childish work. 

Calisthenics, on the contrary, are not liked by the country 
school teachei^s, because they represent an increase of work. The 
teachers are opposed to it, as were our teachers twenty years 
ago, and as they still are to manual training. 

In the Netherlands manual training is facultative, the lessons 
are given Wednesday and Saturday afternoons (half holidays), 
by teachers who received special training at the Central School of 
Amsterdam, or by artisans appointed by the board. 

The results are, however, not brilliant. The director of a large 
primary school, formerly an ardent advocate of manual training, 
expresses himself as follows : — 

'* Manual training is no longer in favor with us, except in smaller 
places, where a great champion of this new branch yet succeeds 
in keeping up an artificial enthusiasm for it, but it will never be- 
come stable in the kingdom. After a trial of three years we had 
to give it up. The only ones profiting by it were the teachers, to 
whom the government increased the salary largely." 

A few steps from the schoolhouse, and in the same enclosure, 
is a pretty little one-story villa, with six or eight rooms, large 
windows, and green blinds. Tliis is the dwelling given to every 
teacher by the government. There he lives like a landlord. The 
main work is done by the assistant; the teacher giving only those 
lessons he likes best and watehing the work of his subordinates. 

In the cities the primary schools are great structures, admirably 
managed; the teachers, who cannot be accommodated within, 
receive large indemnities. 

All cliildren must go to school from twelve to fourteen years, 
and pay a yearly sum of from six to twelve francs. The poor pay 
nothing. In the cities there are special schools for those, called 
" Schools for the Poor I " 

As was already mentioned, the law of 1805 excluded all religion 



168 EDUCATION. [November, 

from the schools, and everybody was glad of it and satisfied. 
About ten years ago some High Church Protestants, however, tried 
to have this law changed, and demanded in loud voices the rein- 
troduction of the Bible into the classrooms. They found, of 
course, adlierents enough, but the government could not consider 
their wishes. The school must remaui neutral in a country where 
so many forms of worship prevail. What did the people now? 
They went begging from house to house for funds to erect schools 
according to their wishes. At the beginning they succeeded but 
too well, but today the funds are lacking and the parents who saw 
that their children did not become any better in this famous school 
with the Bible, stopj>ed paying their contributions, and sent their 
childi'en again into the public schools. 

Afraid of a financial collapse, these worthies petitioned the 
Chambei-s last spring to reintroduce religious instruction into 
tho primary schools. They have made some headway since, but, 
at this moment, no one can as yet foi-see the issue of this cam- 
paign in which orthodox ProtesUints and Catholics join hands. 

So much for the primary schools in Holland. The secondary 
schools are not inferior, and are of two kinds: the properly so- 
called secondary schools and the gymnasium. I pass over the com- 
mercial or business colleges, as well as over the agricultural and 
marine schools, etc., which are special schools not found in Switz- 
erland. I shall not speak either of the private institute, for- 
merly very well patronized by the patricians because of the instruc- 
tion given there in the modern languages, the calculus, and 
religion, and which became a source of great income to their 
owners. Year by year, however, their number decreases, and 
very soon all that remains of them will be — un souvenir. 

The secondary schools or "hoogere burgensehoolen " are nu- 
merous, there are some in every town. Some have five, others only 
three classes. All of them are phaced in real palaces, and their 
students are admitted at the age of twelve. 

What strikes one most on looking over the programme of a sec- 
ondjiry school, is the absence of instruction in religion and sing- 
ing, while daily lessons are given in both in our schools of the 
same grade. The modern languages, too, play a more important 
part than in our schools, for boys and girls must study Dutch, 
French, German, and English, while with us only French and 
German are required, and sometimes English. We Swiss also 



1888.] PBIMART AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF HOLLAND. 



169 



think that we give our young people the best instruction to be- 
come '*free citizens," and still, in the Canton of Berne, for ex- 
ample, political economy and civil laws are not taught, which lack 
is incomprehensible. In these points we can learn another lesson 
from Holland, which gives two hours of instruction to each 
branch mentioned. 

Strange to say, with us these things are taught in the primary 
schools but neglected in the secondary schools. We may say 
here, however, that this will be changed with the plan of instruc- 
tion now under consideration before the Executive Council of the 
Canton of Berne. 

PLAN OF STUDIES FOR THE SFX^ONDARY SCHOOLS WITH FIVE CLASSED. 



STUDIES. CLASSES : I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


Mathematics, 


6 


6 


7 


5 


2 


Mechanics, 


— 


— 


— 


2 


3 


Natural history, 


— 


— 


2 


2 


4 


Botany and Zoology, 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


Geology and Mineralogy, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Chemistry, 


— 


— 


2 


2 


2 


Practical Chemistry, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


Technology, 


— 


— 




— 


1 


Cosmography, 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


Civil laws, 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


Political Economy, 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


Geography, 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


History, 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


Dutch language and literature, 


4 


3 


3 


2 


2 


French '• " " 


4 


5 


3 


2 


2 


English '' " '* 


— 


4 


3 


2 


2 


German " »' " 


4 


4 


3 


2 


2 


Bookkeeping. 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


Drawing (Free-hand), 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


" (Mechanical), 


— 


— 


— 


2 


2 


Caligraphy, 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Calisthenics, 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 



32 



34 



34 



34 



36 



Total of weekly hours : 

These studies are all compulsory for all students. The lessons 
are given Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 9 
to noon, and 1 to 4 P. M. ; on Wednesdays and Saturdays from 
9 A. M. to 1 p. M. During these two afternoons, the students of 
the four lower classes are free, but those of the fifth or highest 
class have to follow a course in practical chemistry from 2 to 4 
p. M. Calisthenics are given out of the regular school hours. 



170 EDUCATION. [November, 

A part of the last half of the third year is given up to a general 
review of what has been taught during the first three years. 
The Dutch gj^mnasium has a pro-gjinnasium of four classes, and 
a higher gymnasium of six classes. Students are admitted at the 
age of twelve. The compulsory studies are the following: 



STUDIES TAUGHT. 


CLAS^SKS : 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


Latin, 




8 


6 


^ 
< 


7 


7 


8 


Greek, 




— 


1 


6 


8 


7 


8 


Hebrew (for the ITieology), 


— 


— 






2 


2 


Dutch language and literature. 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


French, " " 


(( 


4 


4 


2 


2 


I 


I 


English, " " 


(k 






3 


3 


2 


1 


German. *' " 


(k 




3 


2 


2 


2 


1 


History and civics. 




4 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


Mathematics, 




4 


3 


3 


3 


5 


5 


Physics, 




— 




— 


— 


2 


2 


Chemistry, 




— 






— 


1 


1 


Geography, 




3 


2 


2 


I 


1 


1 


Natural History, 






2 


— 


— 


2 


2 


Calisthenics, 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 



As this plan shows, the languages have the most prominent 
place, the mathematics ccnning second. It is forbidden to let more 
than twenty-four pupils enter the same class, for fifty students 
three parallel classes have to be formed. 

This plan having been carried out for a number of years pro- 
voked a great deal of discontent among the parents, who thought 
their sons overworked. The matter was investigated, and from 
January 1st, next, the maximum numlx^r of weekly lessons will be 
reduced to thirty, the minimum for the future jurists and physi- 
cians is fixed at twenty-six hours per week in the fifth and sixth 
classes. 

The time allotted to Greek and Latin is very properly reduced. 
For the diploma of maturity (A. B.) dramatic Greek prose, and 
the more difficult Latin prose and poetry is no longer required. 
The director luvs, however, the right to demand of candidates 
coming from other places to pjvss in these requirement, and also 
in cjise he doubts the ability of a student. The study of math- 
ematics has also been simplified, but the natural sciences and 
chemistrv have received more attention. 

In the future those students who enter ui)Ou the study of law, 
theology, or letters, may be excused from the study of mathemat- 
ics, natural history, and chemistry in the fifth and sixth classes ; 



1888.] PBIMABT AND SECOND ABY SCHOOLS OF HOLLAND. 171 

those preparing for medicine or sciences, may leave off Latin, 
Greek, and history. 

This is certainly a radical reform; and still Holland is, with 
Germany, the land where Greek and Latin are the most honored. 

Thus is the Dutch system of instruction, showing that it is as 
excellent as ours and that it pays even more attention to the 
study of languages than we do. 

The system of assistant teachers presents great advantages too. 
When a young teacher leaves the normal school, he enters prac- 
tice under the management of an experienced teacher. To con- 
fide to such a man, only eighteen or twenty years old, the entire 
school of a town or village, seems to me as daring as if we were 
to promote a law student to the attorneyship, without his having 
passed any time in an office. 

Besides, the second examination which an assistant has to pass 
in order to become independent is a great stimulant; he has to 
study a good deal to get the diploma, and the lazy one remains 
assistant for ten years and more. After this time, no school would 
any more employ them, and their chances would be to go back to 
the plough or to their trade, which they never ought to have left. 
Thanks to this rigorous organization, the Dutch corps of instruc- 
tors forms a small army of model Elites. 

So far Professor Zobrist. I might add, that the Swiss schools are, 
as a whole, considered of the very best, and that only the best in 
New England and other states can compare with them. The 
Swiss, however, are not conservative in those matters, and the 
Republican Government, i. e., the people, as well as their servants, 
the teachers and other school officers, do their best in constantly 
studying, introducing, and advocating the latest improvements. 
Might we not follow them? 



On the outside of a humble cottage, appeared the following 
inscription : " A seminary for young ladies." This was, perhaps, 
too abstruse for the villager, as underneath was added, in rude 
characters: "Notey beney — allso, a galls skool." More com- 
prehensive was the curious inscription at one time to be seen over 
a door in a village in Somersetshire : " Petticoats mended ; chil- 
dren taught reading, writing, and dancing; grown-up people 
taught to spin ; roses distilled and made into a proper resistance 
with water ; also old shoes bought and sold." 

Chamber's Journal. 



172 EDUCATION, [Norember, 



THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS,^ 

III. 

TEACHING ALGEBRA TO BEGIXNEKS. — I. 
BY JOHN F. CASEY, ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL, BOSTON. 

IT is said that instructors in colleges and scientific schools find 
pupils, as they come to them, better prepared in geometry 
than in algebra or arithmetic. Probably their complaints as to 
deficiencies in preparation in mathematical branches increase in 
inverse ratio to the order in which these branches are studied, 
being least severe upon the acquirements in geometr}^ and most 
upon those in arithmetic. 

There is little doubt that, with the same pupils and the same 
instruction, better results can be obtained in geometry than in 
algebra, and perhaps the same would hold true in regard to geom- 
etry and arithmetic. It is, however, not so easy to compare the 
two latter, as they are not usually studied at the same time. This 
may be because geometrj^ is in itself less difficult than the other 
two studies, or because, having had the advantage of the training 
and drill on arithmetic and algebra, pupils come to the study of 
geometry with their minds better prepared to accept its facts. It 
is very probable that both these reasons are true. Geometry is 
more objective, the figures being present before the mind ; the eye, 
without any effort on the part of the pupil, comes to the assistance 
of the reasoning power and shows the course to be pursued. 

As to the intrinsic difficulty of the tlii'ce elementary mathemati- 
cal branches, geometry is the least difficult and algebra the most. 

That so important a study as algebiJi, uninteresting and difficult 
to many minds, is often made more difficult by poor textbooks and 
poor instruction, will be readily admitted by all who have any 
experience in teaching this subject. Just as an excellent scholar 
may not be a good teacher, so a complete and systematic treatise 
may not be so arranged as to make the student's progress regular, 
gradual, and easy, and his acquirements complete. 

^Copyright, 1888, by Eastern Educational Bureau. 



1888. J THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS, 173 

In order to obtain good results from the whole class in any 
mathematical study, it is first of all essential that some attempt 
should be made to grade according to mathematical ability and 
attainments. The effort to keep with the class a few backward 
pupils, who for any cause, find the pace too fast for them, often 
entails upon the teacher an amount of work which, in a large 
school, he cannot find time to do. Idleness, inattention, and other 
causes will produce in a short time such a variation in the attain- 
ments of a well graded class as to take all a teacher's spare time 
to keep the class in condition to receive the same class instruction. 
Dull pupils require not only more instruction, but also instruction 
of a different kind from that given to the brighter scholars, and 
the brighter pupils lose interest in the repetition and constant drill 
on details which the less gifted or lazier pupil requires. 

If for the benefit of the able pupils, you omit this drill and 
detailed explanation, then you do the dull pupil an injustice. 
Another wrong, perhaps greater than that of forcing them beyond 
their ability, is done to the dull pupils by considering them dunces 
and treating them according to their supposed merits and neglect- 
ing them. Either course generally results in a misunderstanding on 
both sides and consequent poor results. An attempt to regulate 
the work according to the average ability of the class is at best a 
compromise generally unsatisfactory. 

Again, as part of mathematical teaching has for its end the 
training of the mind and the sharpening of the wits and is a kind 
of mental gymnastics, with an able class it is sometimes desirable 
to place obstacles in the way, whereas such a coui-se would only 
be folly with a class who find the smoothest path only too rugged. 

The statement that the dull pupils are helped and encouraged 
by the bright ones is often incorrect. Very dull pupils are dis- 
couraged by seeing able scholars do well with little effort that 
which they are unable to do at all, or only poorly with great effort. 
They are inclined to draw the conclusion that their minds are dif- 
ferently constituted and accept the situation. 

This grading of a class on a mathematical basis may cause some 
disturbance in the teaching of other branches, as the best mathema- 
ticians are sometimes, though not as a rule, quite poor in other 
departments. 

But this disturbance is not sufficiently great to offset the gain 
in mathematics, for the other branches of study are not so pro- 



174 EDUCATION. [November, 

gressive, so that a complete understanding of any particular point 
does not depend so closely upon the preceding. 

Another more serious objection to grading is that there must 
necessarily be a bottom grade and that pupils as well as parents 
may object to a class made up of the poorest material. I am aware 
that there are some whose views I cannot but respect who hold 
quite different opinions, but, speaking from the standpoint of my 
experience as a teacher of mathematics, I hold that the grading 
should be made, and the teaching should be adapted to the grade, 
and that such pupils as object should be convinced by satisfactory 
arguments as to what is best for them, or, remaining uncon- 
vinced, their importunities should be witlistood even at the risk of 
losing them as pupils. 

I have seen the following methods adopted in grading a class of 
three hundred or more boys. First, the class divided into divis- 
ions of about forty each, in such a manner that the bottom boy in 
the first division was just a little ahead of the first boy of division 
two, and so on through the class. 

Again, forty boys in one division taken from the top and forty 
boys in another taken from the bottom, while the rest of the class 
was divided alphabetically, without regard to rank ; and thirdly, 
a bottom division made according to rank, and the rest of the class 
divided alphabetically. 

While the first arrangement possesses some advantages, such as 
that of competition, when pupils are moved from one division to 
another as they rise or fall in rank, it has disadvantages and does 
not seem to me a good one. The second, while better than the 
first, and having in common with it this peculiarity, that there is 
always one room into which it is safe to introduce visitors and 
where it is possible to make a favorable im[)ression as to the qual- 
ity of work done in the school, yet it, in practice, does not seem to 
me so good as the third. For while very able lx)ys discourage 
rather than encourage very dull ones, yet they do exert a stimu- 
lating influence upon a fairly good division, and by their example 
and assistance raise the standard of the quality of work done by 
the whole division. So all the divisions, except the bottom, stim- 
ulated by the presence of the smart Iniys and by the absence of 
the dull ones, are fairly good. Neither, under the third arrange- 
ment, should the teacher despair of his bottom division. Excel- 
lent results may be obtained, only the nite of progress must be 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS, 175 

slow, the total amount accomplished much less than in the other 
divisions, and the kind of work done and the kind of teaching 
must be specially adapted to the requirements of this division. A 
very dull pupil will do a great amount of work if it is not beyond 
his comprehension, and a very lazy one often finds it harder to do 
nothing than to do easy work. 

It is impossible to get mathematical work from pupils who do 
not understand the objects to be obtained or the means for obtain- 
ing them, and this is exactly the condition in which a pupil finds 
himself when he once falls behind his class. 

The question now arises. Is there such a difference in the abili- 
ties and acquirements of pupils when they begin the study of 
algebra as to call for such special treatment? My experience as 
teacher of mathematics for twenty years, most of that time in a 
very large school, leads me to believe that there is ; that with all 
the care a teacher can take, at the end of three months from the 
time of beginning the study of algebra, about one pupil in five is 
so far beyond his depth that a great part of the class instruction 
is of little value to him, and that the farther he goes the farther 
he drops behind. The question now to be solved by the teacher is 
what is the best thing to be done with such pupils ? the best thing 
for them, for the teacher, and for the rest of the class? 

The best thing for the pupil who has dropped behind his class is 
private instruction, which will adapt itself to his special needs and 
will generally soon place liim in condition to receive class instruc- 
tion with the rest of his class. But in a large school where there 
are many in this condition, the teacher cannot find time to attend 
to them all unless they are classed together and such special in- 
struction be made a part of his regular work. It is of little use 
to detain such delinquent pupils and require them to study after 
school. They do not know how to study, and require in most cases, 
not driving, but encouragement and assistance and lessons adapted 
to their ability. The questions asked by such pupils not only show 
what are theii* views of the subject under consideration, but often 
when carefully considered reveal omissions in the teaching. How- 
ever foolish they may appear, they should never be treated lightly. 

The next thing to be considered is, what is the best order of 
topics and the best method of presenting them to a class of begin- 
ners? 

That order is the best which the mind of itself follows in obtain- 



176 ED UCA TlOy, [ Xo veraber, 

ing information ; that is to proceed from special cases to generaliza- 
tions, from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the 
abstract. The same principles should be applied to the details of 
any particular branch that we are forced to recognize in general 
between the different branches. And when any method is followed 
which does not make the complete assimilation of any one step 
comparatively easy, while it thoroughly prepares the way for more 
complex consequences, and so on till the whole subject is mastered, 
the result will be failure and perhaps even worse ; for the pupil 
may become so disgusted as to be unfit for teaching of a better 
kind. 

Whenever a class or a large part of it, does not clearly under- 
stand at any particular point the condition of affairs and the way 
to the next step, or when most of the pupils in it cannot be induced, 
by a few leading questions or a few directions, to take the next 
step and reason out the cause for it and the effect of it, then that 
class is not mature enough for the subject being studied or the 
subject has been badly placed before them or in a wrong order. 
And that part of the study will be of no practical use to any ex- 
cept such pupils as are sufficiently intelligent or, being impelled 
by special motives, are sufficiently diligent to search out the bot- 
tom facts by their own ingenuity and efforts. 

For the first few months the textbook, if used at all, should l)e 
used as a storehouse of problems, simply to save the pupils from 
copying from dictation ; and the instruction should be free from 
all definitions, technical terms, and rules. I would not even un- 
dertake to define what algebra is or what it is like. Pupils ought 
soon to find out what it is like and to be able to make their own 
definition as soon as they need one. Conventionalities, of course, 
must be explained as it becomes necessary to use them. 

When pupils begin the study of algebra, they are old enough to 
begin to lose their implicit confidence in the wisdom of their eldei's 
and to goveiTi their actions by their own opinions ; owing to want 
of mature judgment, sufficient knowledge, and often to bad advice 
from friends,^ these opinions are frequently far from correct. 
Especially is tliis apt to be the case, when the subject of those 
opinions is the relative values of different branches of study. 

*NoTE. — I once received a letter from an Intellij^ent gentleman, written In answer to 
one from me, notifying him that his son was doing poorly in my department, in which 
be said that fifteen per cent, was all he expected or desired his son tf) get In algebra. 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS. 177 

It is difficult for a teacher to arouse enthusiasm in a pupil who 
has made up his mind that the branch which is being studied is of 
no benefit to him. This condition of mind the instructor should 
strive indirectly to change. I say indirectly, because if the teacher 
can so illustrate the subject that the pupil, from the new light he 
has on it, will draw the conclusion that there is some advantage 
even to him in learning the study, he will accept and be guided 
more by his own conclusions than by direct arguments bearing on 
the subject. 

Algebra furnishes a means for illustrating and generalizing the 
processes of arithmetic and for solving more readily and systemati- 
cally arithmetical problems. And by reference to arithmetic a 
skilful teacher can find material to convince the doubter that alge- 
bra, aside from being one of the indispensable steps of a mathe- 
matical series, has practical uses in itself. 

The symbolism of algebra has, in fact, two advantages : first, it 
abbreviates, and so saves time; secondly, it systematizes the argu- 
ment, dividing it into steps which are exhibited in a tabulated 
form and in their necessary sequence. The advantages of such 
abbreviation and ariangement will appeal to the pupil's sense of 
the practical. 

Begin algebra with the solution of the easiest problems, so sim- 
ple that any student can readily solve them by the aid of his 
knowledge of arithmetic and occasionally a little guidance from 
the teacher. 

The boy who can see that if two pounds of sugar cost sixteen 
cents, one pound must cost eight cents, is prepared to make and 
solve an algebraic equation, and this is the kind of algebraic work 
with which he should begin. But we must not be surprised if 
some fail to make and solve equations, even after being shown how 
to do them. 

Even the simple abbreviations of algebra are strange to the 
beginner, and it is not impossible that, on being put to work at 
solving equations, he may become immediately confused amid the 
difficulties of a language unknown to him. The easiest problems 
when looked at from a new point of view will present some diffi- 
culty to some pupils, and in all mathematical teaching there is no 
more common error than a failure on the part of the teacher to 
lower himself to the pupil's standpoint. 

Things which to the teacher seem to be intuitive, may have been 



1 78 ED UCA TJOy. [November, 

in 'his own case acquired only by study and as the result of good 
teaching, and he must remember that the pupil cannot have that 
light on any new subject, simple or complex, which he has. It 
will not pay to neglect the most elementary steps because they 
seem to the teacher self-evident, nor to neglect the dull pupil who 
fails to understand explanations after hearing them once. 

Your backward pupil is probably not a fool, he may be uninter- 
ested and uninteresting, dull, idle, and inattentive, but with proper 
handling he may yet enter Harvard College with credit. So much 
the more credit then for awakening his dormant energies. Almost 
any one who understands his subject can teach bright pupils, but it 
requires experience, method, and perhaps talent to succeed with 
dull ones. 



T//£ TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

AND LITERATURE,'' 

II. 

METHODS OF 8TUI)Y IN ENCiLLSH LITERATURE. — II. 

BY H. £. SHEPHERD, LL. D. 
PreHdent of CharleBton College, Charleiton, S. C. 

THE same faculty of discrimination is requisite to fix the rela- 
tive merits, the relative greatness of authors. The classical 
and the commonplace are ofttimes not accurately distinguished. 
Our manuals blend all in an indiscriminate mass of names, dates, 
and details. It is for the most part the typical authors of the 
leading periods in our literary evolution who should be the sub- 
jects of special treatment in our ordinary schemes of instruction, 
— the men who embody the purest aspiration, the intensest life 
of an age. Cromwell, for example, is to the political history of 
the first half of the seventeenth century the correlate of Milton, 
viewed from the standpoint of literary development. The minor 
authors, however attractive they may prove from the attitude of 
strictly philological study, should as a general rule be reserved for 
the maturer period of special investigation. 

To apply our theory in the concrete : During the fourteenth cen- 

* Cop3'rigbt. 1888, by Eastern Educational Burean. 



1888.] THE TEACHIXO OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 179 

tury Langley, Wickliffe, and Chaucer require minute study as illus- 
trating in their respective spheres the deepest and purest moral, so- 
cial, and intellectual life of their time, and the two last, as being in 
large measure the framers and fashioners of our biblical and literary 
dialect. The fifteenth century may be passed over with but scant re- 
gard by the student of literature, though from the philologist's view- 
point it has much to commend it. The Renaissance in Italy, and 
its gradual diffusion over Europe, its naturalization in England, 
the introduction of purely Italian influences, as seen in the adop- 
tion of blank verse and the sonnet by Surrey and Wyatt, the 
various translations of the classics that tended to the Latinizing 
of the vocabulary, its expansion under influences already pointed 
out. The development of the drama, the classic and domestic ele- 
ments which contributed to its growth, the MiiTor for Magistrates, 
a work of extraordinary vigor and beauty, preluding the splendor 
of the incoming era, the multiform agencies by which the discord- 
ant and unregulated English that prevailed at the beginning of 
Elizabeth's reign was transformed into the rich and luxuriant 
speech wliich became so powerful an instrument in the hands of 
Marlowe and Shakespeare, the heroic spirit of the age following the 
English Salamis, its decline during the ignoble reigns of the two 
first Stuarts. The expansion of the critical temper, and the action 
of that temper as reflected in the transition to our Augustan 
epoch. The forces that moulded it, its perfected development 
under the guidance of Pope and Addison, the rise of periodical 
literature, and its development into the modern novel of life and 
character, in which is conserved the intellectual force formerly 
applied in the production of the drama, the rise of romanticism 
in Europe coincident with the advent of the first French revolu- 
tion, and the incoming of another great day of creative power. 
The era of Scott, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, Keats, 
the reversion to prose under the leadership of Macaulay, De Quin- 
cey, Carlyle, and Newman. The marked expansion of physical 
science and scientific literature, and the tapplication of the scientific 
spirit in all forms of modern activity, the ornate school of art 
transmitted from Shelley and Keats, and elaborated in the poetry 
of Tennyson, the natural type of Wordsworth, as preserved in a 
number of secondary poets. The decline of artistic prose since 
the death of Macaulay and De Quincey. The resistless advance 
of the Baconian spirit and the leveling processes of modern so- 



180 EDUCATIOX. [November, 

ciety as traced in current literature — such are some of the spe- 
cific topics in a thoroughly defined course of study, assuming it to 
begin with the age of Chaucer, the founder of our literary speech, 
•*' the finder of our fair language." 

The outline here given is capable of indefinite extension ; it is 
proposed merely to suggest and invite amplification or elaboration. 
Again, it should be the constant endeavor of the t^aclier to infuse 
into the pupil the moral and aesthetic culture, which it is the high 
function of literary training to impart. Lexical or philological 
criticism, verbal details, historical and comparative grammar, have 
their recognized position as well as tlieir educative power. Still, 
the literary phase of study should not be confounded with them, 
or subordinated to them. Let each be supreme in its own sphere, 
and let their spheres be accurately differentiated. Tlie relation of 
times, the coincidence of events, the harmony of development, as 
illustrated in the evolution of literature, will, if thoughtfully in- 
terpreted and expounded, convey many lessons of moral, as well 
as intellectual wisdom, by sliowing in all its phases the reign of 
law, the evidence of design, the unity of movement, the hand of 
God. 

Illustration after illustration may be cited in proof of this gen- 
eral proposition. Note for example, the concurrence of events in 
various critical epoclis of history, and mark with what exquisite 
harmony the great moulding influences and the great moulding 
agents, all come in their fulness of time, in their appointed season, 
circumstances and causes the most remote and unrelated, when 
viewed from the standpoint of tlie casual reader, jiU tending to 
the same result. To select at random : — 

Sir Isaac Newton is lx)rn in the same year in which Galileo dies, 
1642. Richelieu, the great apostle of absolutism in France, dies in 
1642, and the civil war in England, which was a struggle against 
advancing absolutism, begins in 1642. Shakespeare and Galileo, 
representing two great phases of intellectual life, the dramatic and 
the philosophic, are born in 1564. Michael Angelo and Calvin 
died in 1564. Raphael and T^uther are born in 1488 ; Pope, the 
typical poet of the critical age in England, is born in 1688, the 
year of the Revolution, which was itself a critical or regulative 
movement, in the sphere of constitutional growth. Currier, Goethe, 
and Sir Walter Scott all die in the same year, 1832, the year that 
saw the passage of the great lieform liill. Hallam, De Quincey, 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 181 

Irving, Prescott, and Macaulay, die in 1859. Milton was born in 
1608, the year in which appeared John Smith's History of Vir- 
ginia, the first American book. Longfellow, Whittier, and Agas- 
fiiz were born in the same year, 1807, Tennyson in 1810, and Poe 
in 1809. Jeremy Taylor died in 1667. Tlie first edition of Para- 
dise Lost appeared in 1667. Swift was born in the same year, and 
Dryden's Annus Mirabilis waii published. Addison died in 1719. 
De Foe's Robinson Crusoe appears in 1719. Longfellow, Emei-son, 
and Darwin all died in 1882, and at short intervals. Spenser, and 
his patron. Sir Walter Kaleigh, were born in 1552. Cromwell and 
Blake were born in 1599, the death year of Spenser. Milton 
began the composition of Paradise Lost in 1658. Cromwell, liis 
" chief of men," dies in this year. Ben Jonson dies in 1637. Mil- 
ton's Lycidas, the first of our three great '' In Memoriam " poems, 
is issued in 1637. Sir Walter Raleigh was executed in 1618. 
The Thirty Ye\rs' War begin.s in 1618 and endi in 1618, the year 
of the death of Charles I ., reckoning by the ancient calendar. Dante 
was born in 1265. Simon de Montfort completed the formation of 
the English Parliament in 1265. Burns was born in 1759, the 
year of the capture of Quebec by Wolfe, which established the 
supremacy of the English race and the English tongue upon this 
continent. 

The list is capable of indefinite extension, but these exam- 
ples will suffice to make plam the general proposition. The 
typical authors of each period should be illustrated by means of 
judicious and discriminating selections, such admirable aids as 
Ward's English Poets, Morris's Chaucer, Palgrave's Golden Treas- 
ury, Minto's or Saintsbury's Prose, Mark Pattison's editions of the 
Satires and Epistles of Pope, being always accessible for this pur- 
pose. Adams's Dictionary of English Literature, Morley's First 
Sketch of English Literature, Masson's Life and Times of John 
Milton, Halliwell-Phillipps's Outlines of a Life of Shakespeare will 
furnish accurate and detailed information in regard to every point. 

Shairp's Studies in Poetry, Aspects of Poetry, and Poetic Inter- 
pretation of Nature, are entertaining and suggestive in the high- 
est degree. To these may be added Morley's English Men of 
Letters, and Brewer's English Studies. As a means of illustrating 
the relation between history and literature. Bishop Stubbs's Lec- 
tures upon Modern and Media3val History, especially the Lectures 
upon Learnmg and Literature at the Court of Henry IL, should 



182 EDUCATIOX. [November, 

be diligently studied. Valuable suggestions may be gathered from 
Ten Brink's Early English Literature, and from Freeman's Nor- 
man Conquest of England, Vol. V., Chap. XXV. 

Boswell, Lockhart, and Trevelyan, the supreme masters of En- 
glish biographical style, are indispensable in any consistent scheme 
of literary instruction. Let the •teacher strive in every possible 
way to render the study of English literature a vital quickening 
power; not a merely abstract or dissertative procedure, but an 
effective instrument in developing aesthetic taste and sensibility, in 
expanding and ennobling the spiritual as well as the mental life. 

It has been our aim in these papers, briefly to indicate some of the 
means by whose discriminating employment this high and holy end 
may be accomplished. After all, as intimated in the beginning, 
the result must be determined by the inspiration and culture of 
the teacher, rather than by the excellence or efficiency of the 
method. The fundamental principles of the Novum Organum 
when applied in the region of the mental or the spiritual, have 
resulted in blighting empiricism and premature decay. The po- 
tentialities of English lit<3rature as a culture study and a disci- 
plinary power are practically unlimited. Let us consecrate to its 
teaching the most expansive and aspiring type of scholarship that 
the profession in this country has thus far been able to develop. 



THE TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL 

LANGUAGES.^ 

in. 

THE FIRST YEAR LS LATIN. — II. 
BY ADELINE A. KNIGHT. 

IT will be very well for teachers of Latin to write above the 
notes and helps which they may be arranging this summer 
toward next winter's laboi*s, — 

Object of this Brill, — To increase their resources and better 
their enjoyment of life by the command of the Latin language, 
the vehicle used by the Romans for conveying ideas. The end in 
view is, of course, cont^ict with the Roman mind. 

Menttil drill Ls not an es{)ecial object ; for other and more prac- 
tical matters are very fit for discipline — scientific cookery, appren- 

1 Copyright, 1888, Eastern Educational Bureau. 



1888.] TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES, 183 

ticeship to first-class dressmaking, any business of life where Heir 
Klesmer's terrible "musts" apply. To study Roman ambitions 
and aims, and the Roman modus of governing the world, as well 
as by discovering what Romans of different generations thought 
about tliis wonderful life of ours, and how this earth wliich they, 
like us, were permitted to love and to leave affected them, is to 
grow cultured and fitted to influence our small worlds to think 
and feel with us. How can anybody fail to dislike Cicero and 
Horace for brutal illustrations made with such appalling ease until 
he studies the combination of prejudices, coarse ways of regard- 
ing tilings, and vulgar narrowness brought on by exclusively mili- 
tary feeling which was the deep stain upon the masterful Latin 
character and in time fatally limited the point of view of even 
gentle and refined men like Virgil. But either of the old civiliza- 
tions, which we study in this far off day of ours as impersonally 
as we do the world of stars overhead, informs us much by compari- 
son and discloses in an humiliating way that our modern civiliza- 
tion is not symmetrical, in spite of its magnificent expansion 
along certain lines of development. A bad boy who tortures kit- 
tens cannot help being a better humanitarian than Marcus Aure- 
lius, and usages obtained among the noblest ancients which would 
be tolerated by no class in a civilized land now. But it is exceed- 
ingly doubtful if we have their respect for good material and hon- 
est work. I fancy, too, that in spite of our quick consciences we 
are morally disinclined to do our duty about various great reforms 
which we know are desirable and feel are inevitable. We secretly 
echo the cry of the Lotus-eaters, — 

*^ Let us alone. Time driveth onward fast, 
And in a little while oar lips are dumb.*' 

We have ambition without power, I suppose ; and how much of 
this semi-paralysis is due to the halting education which was cer- 
tainly ours will never appear. 

Long continued diill and a great endowment of knowledge are 
going to strengthen these girls of ours to be 

'^ More earnest than others are, speed 
Where they falter, persist where they cease." 

Their careers will be like the cathedrals of Europe whose wide 
doors stand forever open deep down among the homes of the cit- 



184 EDUCATION. [November, 

ies clustering at their feet, and whose spires soaring into the air 
command a view undreamed of in the streets below. 

The semi-yearly tests are in truth the power that holds our 
work together through the first year in Latin, and enables us to 
live with our pupils in tolerable friendship and not in intolera- 
ble discord. They gauge the class knowledge of the anatomy of 
the language which we will begin in the second year to pad with 
literature. A test used last year is appended with three of the 
papers offered, marked afterwards for the purpose they are now 
serving as Bad, Medium, and Good. The class, by the way, which 
had this test, numbered twenty-one. Of this number, two offered 
very poor papers, eleven some of medium quality, and eight those 
that were really of value. The three selected to illustrate the 
varying success with the test are printed precisely as they came to 
the teacher. 

An hour and a half was allowed, with a margin of fifteen min- 
utes. 

TEST. ( Written.^ 

1. Write in Latin, — 

If we were willing to forget the old misfortune, could we also 
get rid of the remembrance of recent insults ? 

2. Write in Latin, — 

The lieutenant did not lead liLs army into winter quarters, 
although the suminer was almost gone. 

3. Write in Latin, — 

(a) When ambassadors were sent, Ariovistus demanded. 
(6) Before he attempted anything he summoned Divitiacus. 

4. Write in English, — 

Eo postquam Caesar pervenit obsides, arma, servos poposcit. 

5. Write in Latin, — 

(a) He shows what his plan is. 
(V) He asked what the cause was. 

6. Translate, — 

Oppidum parvo pretio vendidit. 

7. In above, parse underlined words. 

8. Translate, — 

Quum ex captivis quaereret Caesar quam-ob-rem Ariovistus 
proelio non decertaret, hanc reperiebat causam. 

9. Decline plits in both numbers. 



1888.] TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES. 186 

BAD. 

1. Si incommodi vertus oblovisci vultis tarn memoriam recen- 
tum injuriarum. 

2. Legatus exercitum suum non duxit in herbena quum aestas. 

3. Quum legatus mitteret Ariovistus postulavit. 
Priusquam quid conabitur Divitiacum poposcit. 

4. After this Caesar came he demanded hostoges armes slaves. 

5. Consuli sui. 
Rogabat causa erat. 

6. 

7. Oppidum is a neuter noun of the second declention from 
oppidum oppidi oppido oppidum oppidum oppido ; it is found in 
the nominative case subject of vindidit according to Section 173.^ 



9. 


Phis 


Plures Plura. 




Phiris 


Plurium Plurium. 




Phis 


Pluribus. 
Plures Plura. 
Pluribus. 

MEDIUM. 



1. Si veteris contumeUarum oblivisci vellemus, num etiam nos 
recentium injuriarum deponere reminiscantur ? 

2. Legatus exercitum suum in hiberna non duxit, quum aestas 
semper iret. 

3. (a) Quum legati mitterentur, Ariovistus postulavit. 
(6) Priusquam quid quam conabatur Divitiacum vocat. 

4. After Caesar arrived there he demanded hostages, arms and 
slaves. 

5. (a) Quid sui consuli est, ostendit. 
(6) Quae causae fuit, rogavit. 

6. He sold the town for a small price. 

7. Oppidum is a neuter noun of the second declension from 
oppidum, oppidi, oppido, oppidum, oppidum, oppido. It is found 
in the accusative plural singular, and is the direct object of ven- 
didit, according to Section 237. 

Pretio is a neuter noun of the second declension from pretium, 
pretii, pretio, pretium, pretium, pretio. It is found in the ablative 
of Price, according to Section 250. 

*■ Allen ft Greenongh. 



186 EDUCATION. [November, 

8. When CsBsar asked from the captives, for what reason Ario- 
vistns did not contend in battle, he found out this reason. 

9. 



PhlR 


Plures Plura. 


Pluris 


Plurium Plurium. 




Pluribus Pluribus. 


Plus 


Plures Plura. 




Pluribus Pluribus. 




MUCH BETTER. 



1. Si incommodi veteris oblivisci vellemus, num etiam contu- 
meliarum recentium memoriam deponere possemus? 

2. Legatus exercitum suum in hiberna non adduxit, etsi aestus 
prope exacta erat. 

3. (a) Quum legati mitterentur, Ariovistus postulavit. 
(6) Priusquam quidquam conaretur, Divitiacum vocat. 

4. As soon as Caesar arrived there, he demanded hostages, 
weapons, slaves. 

5. (a) Quid sui consuli sit, ostendit. 
(6) Causa quae esset quaesiit. 

6. He sold the town for a small price. 

7. Oppidum is a neuter noun of the second declension, de- 
clined — oppidum, oppidi, oppido, oppidum, oppidum, oppido. It 
is found in the accusative, object of vendidit according to Section 
237. 

Pretium is a neuter noun of the second declension, declined 
pretium, pretii, pretio, pretium, pretium, pretio. It is found in 
the ablative of Price, according to Section 252. 

8. When Csesar inquired of the captives why Ariovistus would 
not fight, he found out this reason. 



9. Plus 


Plures, plura. 


Pluris 


Plurium, plurium. 




Pluribus, pluribus. 


Plus 


Plures, plura. 




Pluribus, pluribus. 



The thing we are apt to fail of to-day is not breadth and 
thoroughness of knowledge of what is about us, but of what is 
above and within us. T. T. Hunger. 



1888.] Oim'ARD, CHRISTIAN SOLDIERS. 187 



ONWARD, CHRISTIAN SOLDIERS.^ 

[FROM TIIE ENGLISH OF REV. 8. BARINO-OOITLD.] 
BT O. F. EMERSON, IOWA COLLEGE, GRINNELL, IOWA. 

Milites Christiani 

Bello pergite ; 
Caram Jesu crucem 

Vo8 provehite. 
Christus rex, magister, 

Ducit agmina, 
Ecce jam vexillum 

It in proelia. 

Magnum agmen movet 

Dei ecclesia. 
Gradimur nunc, fratres, 

Sanctii Semite. 
Non divisi sumus, 

Unus omnes nos ; 
Unus spe, doctrina, 

Caritate nos. 

Throni atque regna 

Instabilia, 
Sed per Jesum constans 

Stat ecclesia. 
Portae non geheimae 

Possunt vincere, 
Non promissus Jesu 

Potest fallere. 

Popule, beatis 

Vos conjungite ! 
Carmina triumphi 

Vos concinite; 
Christo regi honor, 

Laudes, gloria, 
Angeli hoc canent 

Saecla omnia. 

^Considerable interest is grivon to a class of beginners in Latin by allowing the pupils 
to sing simple Latin bymns. Besides tbe above a translation of " Stand np for Jesus " 
by the Rev. Samuel Duffleld, of New Jersey, has been used with profit. O. F. E. 



188 EDUCATION. [Noyember, 



CHILD SPEECH, AND THE LA W OF MISPRONUN- 

CIA TION, 

BY EDMUND NOBLE, BOSTON. 
III. 

BUT the law has a wider application stiU. To me it seems to 
throw not a little light on the tendency of consonants to 
vary according to a fixed rule when they pass from one language 
into another. The general phenomena of the LautverBchiehung 
will be known to aU my readers. I need, therefore, only remind 
them of a few of the changes that actually occur in accordance 
^ Gri^m-. fonnul. L u, W.e o„/or .wo dmpl. Aryan 
words and follow them in their passage through the principal 
Indo-European languages. The word ther in Greek reaches Latin 
as fera^ enters English as deer, and is seen in High German as 
thier. The Greek phegos again is seen as fagtis in Latin, as beech 
in English, and as buche in German. We thus gain the following 
sequences of recurrence : — 



Ther, 


Phegos, 


Fera, 


Fagus, 


Deer, 


Beech, 


Thier, 


Buche. 



The reader wiU note in passing, that while each word changes 
in entering a new language, the change is strictly in accordance 
with a method common to aU the changes. That is to say, an 
obvious sound never becomes a difl&cult sound, but continues to be 
modified in the anterior part of the mouth. The sounds in the 
first column stand — Dental aspirate, labial aspirate, dental soft, 
dental hard. In the second column the changes run — Labial as- 
pirate, labial aspirate, labial, labial. 

We shall find the same order of sequence in other words. Thus 
ffenos in Greek becomes genus in Latin, kin in English, and kind 



1888.] CHILD SPEECH. 189 

in German. Greek duo is duo in Latin, two in English, and zwei 
in German. The Greek kardia turns to cor(d) in Latin, in En- 
glish to hearty and in German to herzen. Pons in Greek is Latin 
pes^ English foot^ and German fuss. These examples may be ar- 
ranged thus : — 



Genes, 


Du6, 


Kardia, 


Pons, 


Genus, 


Duo, 


Cor(d), 


Pes, 


Kin, 


Two, 


Heart, 


Foot, 


Kind, 


Zwei, 


Herzen, 


Fuss. 



The changes here represented may be described : 1. Soft guttu- 
ral, soft guttural, hard guttural, hard guttural. 2. Soft dental, 
soft dental, hard dental, hissing dental. 3. Hard guttural, hard 
guttural, aspirate guttural, aspirate guttural. 4. Hard labial, 
hard labial, aspirate labial, aspirate labial. That the changes al- 
ways take place within the limits of their class is thus obvious. 
The reader wiU, moreover, note that the range of difference in the 
change from Greek to Latin is not so great in any of the cases as 
the range of difference in the change from Latin to the Germanic 
tongues, while these again seem to be more nearly allied with each 
other than they are with the Greek-Latin languages. 

Now, how did these changes come about, and by what limiting 
conditions were the variations confined within their own class? 
Philology is content to note the existence of the law of Lautver- 
schiebung ; further than a mere record of the facts it has never 
gone. But for us it has a new interest. For if the vagaries of 
child speech are to be removed forever from the list of accidental 
phenomena, how much more are we not bound to recognize the 
operation of law in the structural changes which words undergo 
in passing from race to race and from people to people I 

First of all, let us be fully aware of the impossibility of any 
structural changes occurring in words by any such sudden process 
as that indicated in popular illustrations of the Lautver schiebung. 
In the vicissitudes of language there are no leaps. Any one who 
can believe that Greek kardia was suddenly transformed for En- 
glish ears and vocal organs into "heart," or that Latin pes be- 
came " foot " in the twinkling of a philologist's eye, or that phegos 
was redacted in a night as buche for the German school books — 
any one who can believe these things is beyond the reach of evi- 



190 EDUCATION. [November, 

dence. The changes described as Lautver%chiehungen were really 
connected with each other by a vast number of slight variations, 
each of which carried the sound a little away from its early char- 
acter, a little nearer to the new phonic goal towards which it was 
tending. By almost insensible degrees of change the Greek trU 
became the German drei^ and the English " three " ; pes was con- 
verted into " foot " on the one hand, into fuss on the other ; duo 
appeared in English as " two " ; by such slow vicissitudes, in fact, 
all the metamorphoses of the Lautverschiehwig were accomplished. 

What, now, were the causes which led to the changes, and how 
were those changes confined within the class limits to which we 
have seen them to belong ? The simplest reply to this question is 
to attribute all the variations of the Lautverschiebung to the men- 
tal degeneration of the word in the course of the transition from 
its state as an original sound to its condition as a reproduced sound. 
A lack of vividness in the percept, an incomplete re-percept, and 
a defective translation of the re-percept into uttered sound — these 
are potent sources of mispronunciation in children. But how much 
greater are the difficulties in the way of a correct rendering of 
speech when the original sound is uttered and reproduction at- 
tempted by different races? Yet the German's confusion of "b" 
and " p, " of " t " and " d " ; the French use of " z " for " th " ; all 
the blunders, in fact, made by foreigners in pronouncing English, 
follow the same law which we have seen to be operative in the er- 
ror's of child speech. And it seems probable, at any rate, that the 
process of interracial degeneration of words was much the same 
during the formation of the later Indo-European languages as that 
which is being illustrated today in all countries of mixed population. 
Parents migrating to a new country or forced at home not only to 
mingle with a crowd of military invaders, but to adopt the speech 
and habits of the incomers, would first acquire the strange lan- 
guage imperfectly, and then transmit it, full of illegitimate sounds, 
to their offspring. Each country would thus redact the new 
tongue in its own way, and though in each the process would be 
governed by the same general law, there would arise, upon a 
foundation of racial peculiarities, lingual and physiological, sejv 
arate structures of language as individual in their physiognomy 
as are the Romance and the Germanic tongues of today. 

Concerning the changes themselves, it would be difficult to as- 
sert that they take place less in the case of the obvious sounds 



1888.] 



CHILD SPEECH, 



191 



than in the case of the sounds that are difficult. To decide whetlier 
a selection of the kind has actually been exercised would involve 
an exhaustive examination of related words in Indo-European dic- 
tionaries. The reader need only note here that in some of the 
more common nouns the obvious labials are changed but slightly or 
not at all. Thus : — 



Latin. 


Italian. 


Spanish. 


Portugaete. 


French. 


Filius, 


Figlio, 


Hijo, 


Filho, 


Fils, 


Palpebra, 


Palpebra, 


Palpebra, 




Paupifere, 


Bonus, 


Buono, 


Bueno, 


Bom, 


Neuf, 


Panis, 


Pane, 


Pan, 


Pao, 


Pain, 


Pater, 


Padre, 


Padre, 


Pai, 


P^re, 


Portio, 


Porzione, 


Porcion, 


Por9ao, 


Portion, 


Sacerdotium, 


Sacerdozio, 


Saeerdocio, 


Saeerdocio, 


Sacerdoce, 


Vento, 


Vento, 


Viento, 




Vent, 


Mulier, 


Mogliere, 


Mugere, 


Molher, 




Flamma, 


Fiamma, 


Llamado, 




Flamme, 


Phalanx, 


Falange, 


Falange, 




Phalange. 



The following are examples from the same languages of changes 
in difficult letters : — 



Clavis, 


Chiave, 


Llave, 


Chave, 


Clef, 


Oculus, 


Occhio, 


Ojo, 


Olho, 


Oeil, 


Stomachus, 


Stomaco, 


Estomago, 


Estomago, 


Stomac, 


Noctes, 


Notte, 


Noches, 


Noites, 


Nuits, 


Octo, 


Otto, 


Ochio, 


Oito, 


Huit, 


Aqua, 


Acqua, 


Agua, 


Agoa, 


Eau, 


Herba, 


Erba, 


Yerba, 




Herbe, 


Auricula, 


Orecchio, 


Oreja, 




Oreille. 



EDUCATION. 



The Teutonic languages seem to discriminate in the same way 
between difficult and easy sounds. In the following list the read- 
er will tind a number of words, each beginning with a labial or 
other easy consonant : — 



BnglUh. 


£sr. 


n-Mm. 


PUwUtk. 


DMck. 


S^. 


iX™«. 


ApmNO. 


iJis.. 


w«y. 


Weg. 


Wol. 


Weg, 


Weg. 


Weg. 


IV. 


viSS 


vegm. 


H*ld, 


HMden, 


U>«etb, 


MM»d. 


Maid. 


Hwd, 


Moe. 


mS. 


Hmt, 


Braut. 


Breott. 




Borete, 


Borat, 


BUnte, 


Borate. 


BAato, 


Brioat, 


Flood, 


Plod, 


Plod. 


riotd. 


Plood. 


Flutb. 


Plod, 


nod. 


Flod, 


Blood. 


Blod. 


Bloed. 


Blood. 


Blood, 


Blat, 


Blod, 


Blod. 


Blood, 


MldK. 


MlKse, 




Ma«. 


Mofge. 


Mooke. 


Myg, 


Mye«. 


My, 


DMp, 


Deop, 


Dyip. 


Dlep, 


Deep. 


tw. 


Dyb, 


ss 


DJap. 


SWMt, 


8w«t. 


Swiet. 


«Ml. 


Sot, 


Sum, 


sod. 


S»tr, 


FUh, 


FlM, 


Flik. 


««*, 


FlMb. 


Pt«b, 


Flak, 


Flak, 


Flakr, 


Ulik. 


Meolo, 


Meloo, 


Melk, 


Melk, 


Milcb, 


MItolk, 


Mjolk, 


Hlolk, 


Book, 


Boo, 


Book, 


Book, 


Book, 


BDOh, 


Bog, 


Bok, 


Bok. 


Pole, 


Pol, 


PH. 


PUl.' 


P«l. 


pfua, 


P«ll, 


p4,i.. 


PaU, 


Mmbs, 


Nuna, 


Kkmk. 


Num. 


Mame, 


K«m.. 


\aTD, 


NIfalD. 


Matn. 


Drink, 


DrinoD 




Drinken, 


Drinkea. 


TH,^, 


DriWHl 


Driaka. 


Dreoka, 


Mother. 


Mother, 


Moder, 




Moder, 


Matter. 


Moder, 


Moder. 


Mooder. 


Morrow, 


Morson. 


Morfen. 


MorseD, 


Mor^-. 




Moixen, 


Morsao. 


Morgan, 


Mn. 


8ann«. 


SUD. 


Ae, 


Sanoe, 


9on«e, 


Sol. 


Sol, 


Sonoa, 


DV. 


DXB, 


Del, 


D«B, 


D«t. 


7*W, 


Da«, 


Dag. 


Dagr. 


To«i, 


T». 


T.O.. 


Tm, 




Aft«, ,Ta«, 


HtI 


Ta, 


Tear, 


Tmt. 


Tbcr. 


Tnum, 


Tr^ne. 


T.,™eB.. 


Tux™. 


T«or. 


*■ J 




The coses when? there is a breiik in the oorreiipoDdenoa | 
marked with italic:^. It will thus be seen that of one hondl 
seventy-seven initiiU sounds all save eight an? in lonvi^j-ntui ■■?«». 
though drawn from nine different languages. M»iwvi.'r. t ^ i-ii the 
exceptions are merely case^ of the substitution o( Q 
, of a class for another soiuid of the same c 
to "v," of "s" to "z." of "d" U> "t," ol_3 
(v) to *• V." The reader will furthttJ| 
of all — vii.,"b,'" "II." "m" — doj 
Let us now turn to a few of I 
gui^s. They may K^ n^pn-st 



194 EDUCATION, [November, 

ment of strange habits of speech. It is a true case of concrete 
selection. Both child and man take ^^the path of least resist- 
ance." Yet, whereas the child only obeys the law of its blunders 
in pronunciation until the moment at which its senses have attained 
their full accuteness, the individual clings helplessly to his errors, 
while the race draws alike from proficiency in familiar and inca- 
pacity in strange habits of speech the materials of a new lingual 
structure. 



DOES IT PAY? 

BY ELIZABETH PORTER GOULD. 

DOES it pay — all this burden and worry, 
All the learning acquired with pain, 
All the planning and nervous wild action. 
All the restlessness following gain — 
Does it pay ? 

Alas ! 'tis disease that enslaves us, 
Not Nature's pure sanative health, 

Or the mind of the sweet blessed spirit 
Giving restful and generous wealth. 
Is it not? 

To be free from this burden and worry, 

To have knowledge without fear and pain. 
To be peaceful, far-seeing, sweet-tempered. 

And calm in the presence of gain, 
We must know the pure secret of Nature, 

Like her, be obedient tp law. 
And work in the light of the promise 
Of blessed results Christ foresaw. 
Then each day 
And alway 
Life will pay. 



1888.] EDITORIAL. 1»5 



EDITORIAL. 

IT must have been an impressive spectacle, on the evening of 
Oct. 10th, when the venerable senator, Justin S. Morrill, ad- 
dressed the legislature of Vermont on the importance of cherishing 
and strengthening the Agricultural College of the state. It should 
encourage Senator Blair, in his efforts at national aid for education, 
to learn that the proposition to grant public lands for agricultural 
and mechanical colleges was four years in limbo and survived one 
presidential veto, to be adopted in war time, in 1862. Although 
the distracted state of the country was unfavorable, for several 
years, yet forty-seven institutions, with five thousand students 
and five hundred professors in every state, are the fruits of the 
first twenty-five years of this beneficent movement. One of the 
most notable results is the stimulant thus given to the higher 
industrial education, everj^where. In several of the southern 
states this fund was the first lever that raised the broken-down 
state university from the wreck of 1865. Once in operation, these 
colleges attracted attention and gradually accumulated funds from 
public and private sources. In several cases the state has been 
able to separate the agricultural and mechanical college from the 
university and establish it on an independent foundation. In 
New England alone, more than a million dollars has thus been 
drawn from public and private sources to supplement the land 
grant, and Cornell in New York, Purdue in Indiana, and others, 
have illustrated the same tendency. There was never a more 
shallow criticism than the assertion that this national aid for 
industrial education has been a failure. So far from this, these 
forty-seven colleges are the solid foundation of the whole struc- 
ture of industrial education in the country. National aid to 
education in this, as in every case, does not demoralize the people, 
but stimulates public spirit and private benevolence to supplement 
the nation's gift. 

THE expert in the high and normal school is in constant need 
of wise supervision and, often, restraint, from a superin- 
tending mind competent to hold the entire scheme of education in 



196 EDUCATION. [November, 

that grade in due relations. We lately heard a bright teacher in 
English Literature assign work for the coming day, in the way of 
investigation, which would consume every hour of the most indus- 
trious pupil. Probably the half dozen other experts assigned 
similar tasks in their own departments. This habit is becoming a 
great burden and confusion in many of our best appointed schools. 
Unfortunately, superintendents are chary of suggestion to this 
class of superior teachers ; who are sometimes inclined to ignore 
or even resist all supervision. But the success of the secondary 
school depends largely on the working together of its teachers, 
that each may observe due limits and the pupil be saved from the 
fate of the immortal six hundred. 

THE recent conference of the friends of the Indian, at Lake 
Mohonk, was somewhat divided, though finally harmonized 
on the proposition to establish a thorough system of education, 
supported and supervised by the government, for the benefit of all 
their children and youth. What between the army, the contrac- 
tors, and the different agencies for educating the mind and saving 
the soul of " the noble savage," he is in danger of becoming as 
rare a spectacle as the buffalo. Why not assume that he is a man, 
like the rest of us Americans, and, for a time, try the system of 
education and discipline which has made the name American 
renowned through all the earth ? 

THE sudden death of Mr. E. C. Carrigan of this city a few 
days ago upon a western railroad train, furnishes an inter- 
esting commentary upon the possibilities which are open to an 
American youth. Bom abroad, coming to this country in early 
boyhood, learning to read at an age when some boys are almost 
fitted for college, pushing his way against tremendous obstacles' 
through a New England college, studying law and graduating at 
the law school of the Boston University, he has come to be one of 
the foremost educational men of the old Bay State. A member of 
the Boston School Committee, and of the Massachusetts State 
Board of Education, his untimely death has stopped short what 
many have predicted would prove a very brilliant and useful 
career. He was a warm friend of the public school cause. 



1888.] THE PBOMOTION OF PATRIOTISM. 197 



THE PROMOTION OF PATRIOTISM. 

THE American system of public schools has for its comer-stone the 
preservation of our republican institutions. This cannot be kept 
too closely before the mind of every one connected with school work. 
Whatever tends to foster a love of country, an appreciation of good gov- 
ernment, a correct understanding of our institutions, should lie near the 
heart of every earnest teacher. It is to be regretted that larger atten- 
tion has not been given to instilling sentiments of patriotism into the 
minds of the children in the schools by means of patriotic readers, and 
selections from the writings of the great men connected with our politi- 
cal history. The pupils in every school in the land should be familiar 
with Lincoln's address at Gettysburg. How strange it is that our patri- 
otic airs, and our national hymns cannot all be found in any one book. 
The schools are to be congratulated that a book containing the best 
patriotic selections f^om the world, with a chapter devoted to our ^^ Patri- 
otic and National Songs, Hymns and Odes," together with a large and 
rich gathering of original contributions, is soon to appear, compiled by 
Gen. H. B. Carrington.^ 

It is to be hoped that this reader will receive a wide circulation and 
find full use in all parts of our common country. No previous decade 
has been so prolific as the present in the production of important aids 
to the study of our national history. Among the important books which 
have lately appeared is one by that eminent educator. Dr. B. A. Hins- 
dale, now professor of the science and art of teaching in the University 
of Michigan, filling the chair lately vacated by that other eminent teacher, 
Dr. William H. Payne. This book is called " The Old Northwest." ^ 

This valuable work exhibits ripe scholarship, a royal historical genius, 
and a profound spirit of patriotism. From ^' North America in Outline," 
down through the French discoveries and settlements, showing how 
" England wrested the Northwest from France," along the line of the 
" Thirteen Colonies as Constituted by the Royal Charters," the author 
«hows '*The Western Land Policy of the British Government," "The 
Northwest in the Revolution," how " The United States wrested the 

1 A Patriotic Reader; containing selections in verse and prose firom all ages, lands, and 
races. With historical Notes. By Henry B. Carrington, U. S. A., LL. D. Philadelphia: 
J. B. Llppincott Co. 1888. 

*" The Old Northwest,*' with a view of the thirteen colonies as constituted hy the royal 
•charters. By B.:A. Hinsdale, Ph. D. New York: Townsend Mao Conn. 1888. Pp. 440 



Id8 ED UCA TlOy. [N o vember. 

Northwest from England," '' The Northwestern Land Claims," and '* The 
Northwestern Cessions," **The Ordinance of 1787," ''The Territory 
Northwest of the River Ohio," "The Admission of the Northwestern 
States," "Slavery in the Northwest," '* The Connecticut Western Re- 
serve," and finally, " A Century of Progress." 

The book is in reality a new history of the United States, from the 
Ohio standpoint, and is a monument of patient industry, and patriotic 
appreciation of the importance to our republic of these wonderful chap- 
ters in the history which gave us this " Northwest," instead of assigning 
it to either Great Britain or Spain, in which case it would have been a 
constant menace and probably a fatal barrier against our progress west- 
ward. It is difficult to overestimate the importance to our republic of 
this "Old Northwest" territory. It embraces a country covering more 
than 250,000 square miles, a territory larger by far than France or 
Spain, Germany or Italy. Its population has increased with surprising 
rapidity from less than 50,000 at the beginning of the present century to 
13,000,000 the present year, 1888. This section now produces on an 
average about one-third of the entire crop of our count r}' in wheat, oats, 
potatoes, Indian corn, and ha3\ It has nearly one-thiixl of all tbe rail- 
roads, reckoned by miles, in the United States, and has for many years 
held a controlling influence, in many respects, over the federal govern- 
ment. The people of the United States have only once in thirty 3'ear8 
elected a chief magistrate from outside of the "Old Northwest," and 
he, our present President, was but just over the border in the State of 
New York. One of the candidates now before the people for that high 
office is also from this section. Virginia was formerly called the " mother 
of presidents." This " Old Northwest " seems to be in a fair way to 
dispute that title, erelong, with the " Old Dominion." 

By a singular coincidence another important work upon this same 
patriotic section, and giving a graphic account of the earliest organized 
settlement within this region, a book long looked for by historical stu- 
dents, and of untold value, has just appeared, in the life of that famous 
Ohio pioneer. Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D.^ 

This Life of Doctor Cutler is in reality a history of the Marietta set- 
tlement, which has just celebrated its centennial. 

" Rev. Doctor Cutler was prominent in Massachusetts as a clergyman, 
scientist, and politician for fifly years prior to 1820. His memoir has 
been carefully prepared by his grandchildren from hitherto unpublished 
family papers in their hands. 

"The earlier chapters covering the period to 1783 contain a vivid 

1 Life, Journal and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D. By his grrand- 
children, William Parker Cutler and Julia Perkins Cutler. Two volumes. Pp. 624, 495. 
Cincinnati : Robert Clarke A Co. 1888. Price $5.00 net. Sent by mail on receipt of the 
price. 



1888.] THE PBOMOTION OF PATRIOTISM. 109 

picture of life in New England, in colonial times, and during the Revo-- 
lutionary War, in which Doctor Cutler served two campaigns as chap- 
lain. 

''The account of a visit to the White Mountains with Rev. Jeremy 
Belknap and others in 1784, and of a second visit in 1804; the corre- 
spondence with Mr. Belknap, largely concerning the early days of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; the botanical correspondence 
with Professor Peck, Doctor Mulilenburgh, Samuel Vaughn, and others 
in America, Doctor Jonathan Stokes of England, and Doctors Schwartz 
and Paykull of Sweden, will be of special interest to all scientists. 

'* The journal of his visits to New York and Philadelphia as agent of 
the Ohio Company to purchase lands in the Northwest Territory, which 
has been often quoted from, is given in full. It contains the only history 
of the negotiations with Congress which resulted in the passage of the 
Ordinance of 1787 and in the first settlement of Ohio at Marietta by a 
colon}' of old officers and soldiers of the Revolutionary Army ; and an 
entertaining picture of social life in New York and Philadelphia one 
hundred years ago. , 

" His journal of a visit to Ohio in 1788, when it required twenty-nine 
da3's of continuous travel to cover the distance from Hamilton, Mass., 
to Marietta, Ohio, is also given in full, with a description of the first 
accurate survej- and examination made of the Ancient Worlds at Marietta. 
Many letters to and from General Rufus Putnam, Major Winthrop Sar^ 
gent. General S. H. Parsons, Hon. Ebenezer Hazard, and others, with 
much of the unwritten history of the Ohio Company and its unfortunate 
neighbor, the Scioto Company, are contained in the work. 

" Dr. Cutler was a member of Congress from the Essex North Dis- 
trict, Massachusetts, 1801 to 1805, during President Jefferson's first 
term. His letters to his family and friends from Washington are very 
full, and cover a great variety of topics. Accounts of speeches of the 
elder Bayard, John Randolph, and others ; of dinners at the President's 
and British Minister's ; of a visit by a party of Federal Congressmen to 
Mrs. Washington, at Mt. Vernon ; of a horse race which Congress ad- 
journed to attend ; a description of Washington when it was little more 
than a village, and of Alexandria when it was an important commercial 
city : these, with his diary, form a valuable and interesting contribution 
to the social and political history of the period." 

The journals and descriptions are delightfully readable, and as a source 
of simple entertainment this work will prove as attractive as a romance. 
Senator Hoar in his oration at the late Marietta Centennial said of Doc- 
tor Cutler : — 

'^ He was probably the fittest man on the continent, except Franklin, 



190 EDUCATION. [November, 

dence. The changes described as Lautverschiebungen were really 
connected with each other by a vast number of slight variations, 
each of which carried the sound a little away from its early char- 
acter, a little nearer to the new phonic goal towards which it was 
tending. By almost insensible degrees of change the Greek trU 
became the German drei^ and the English " three " ; pes was con- 
verted into " foot " on the one hand, into fuss on the other ; duo 
appeared in English as " two " ; by such slow vicissitudes, in fact, 
all the metamorphoses of the Lautverschiehmig were accomplished. 

What, now, were the causes which led to the changes, and how 
were those changes confined within the class limits to which we 
have seen them to belong ? The simplest reply to this question is 
to attribute all the variations of the Lautverschiebung to the men- 
tal degeneration of the word in the course of the transition from 
its state as an original sound to its condition as a reproduced sound. 
A lack of vividness in the percept, an incomplete re-percept, and 
a defective translation of the re-percept into uttered sound — these 
are potent sources of mispronunciation in children. But how much 
greater are the difficulties in the way of a correct rendering of 
speech when the original sound is uttered and reproduction at- 
tempted by different races? Yet the German's confusion of "b" 
and " p, " of " t " and " d " ; the French use of "z " for " th " ; all 
the blunders, in fact, made by foreigners in pronouncing English, 
follow the same law which we have seen to be operative in the er- 
rora of child speech. And it seems probable, at any rate, that the 
process of interracial degeneration of words was much the same 
during the formation of the later Indo-European languages as that 
which is being illustrated today in all countries of mixed population. 
Parents migrating to a new country or forced at home not only to 
mingle Avith a crowd of military invaders, but to adopt the speech 
and habits of the incomers, would first acquire the strange lan- 
guage imperfectly, and then transmit it, full of illegitimate sounds, 
to their offspring. Each country would thus redact the new 
tongue in its own way, and though in each the process would be 
governed by the same general law, there would arise, upon a 
foundation of racial peculiarities, lingual and physiological, sej>- 
arate structures of language as individual in their physiognomy 
as are the Romance and the Germanic tongues of today. 

Concerning the changes themselves, it would be difficult to as- 
sert that they take place less in the case of the obvious sounds 



1888.] 



CHILD SPEECH. 



191 



than in the case of the sounds that are difficult. To decide whether 
a selection of the kind has actually been exercised would involve 
an exhaustive examination of related words in Indo-European dic- 
tionaries. The reader need only note here that in some of the 
more common nouns the obvious labials are changed but slightly or 
not at all. Thus : — 



Latin. 


Italian. 


Spanish. 


Portuguese. 


French. 


FUius, 


Figlio, 


Hijo, 


Filho, 


Fils, 


Palpebra, 


Palpebra, 


Palpebra, 




Paupi^re, 


Bonus, 


BUODO, 


Bueno, 


Bom, 


Neuf, 


Panis, 


Pane, 


Pan, 


Pao, 


Pain, 


Pater, 


Padre, 


Padre, 


Pai, 


Pere, 


Portio, 


Porzione, 


Porcion, 


Por9ao, 


Portion, 


Sacerdotium, 


Sacerdozio, 


Saceixlocio, 


Sacerdocio, 


Sacerdoce, 


Vento, 


Vento, 


Viento, 




Vent, 


Mulier, 


Mogliere, 


Mugere, 


Molher, 




Flamma, 


Fiamma, 


Llamado, 




Flamme, 


Phalanx, 


Falange, 


Falange, 




Phalange. 



The following are examples from the same languages of changes 
in difficult letters : — 



Clavis, 


Chiave, 


Llave, 


Chave, 


Clef, 


Oculus, 


Occhio, 


Ojo, 


Olho, 


Oeil, 


Stomachus, 


Stomaco, 


Estomago, 


Estomago, 


Stomac, 


Noctes, 


Notte, 


Noches, 


Noites, 


Nuits, 


Octo, 


Otto, 


Ochio, 


Oito, 


Huit, 


Aqua, 


Acqua, 


Agua, 


Agoa, 


Eau, 


Herba, 


Erba, 


Yerba, 




Herbe, 


Auricula, 


Orecchio, 


Oreja, 




Oreille. 



192 



EDUCATION. 



[November, 



The Teutonic languages seem to discriminate in the same way 
between difficult and easy sounds. In the following list the read- 
er will find a number of words, each beginning with a labial or 
other easy consonant : — 



EnglUK 


Anglo 
Saxon. 


FrUian, 


FltmUh. 


Low 
Dutch. 


High 
DiOck. 


Danitk. 


Swediik. 


lee. 
landie. 


Way, 


Weg, 


Wei, 


Weg, 


Weg, 


Weg. 


r^. 


v^ 


Vegur, 


Maid, 


Maeden, 


Mageth, 


Maagd. 


Maid, 


Magd, 


Moe, 


•• 

Mo, 


Maer, 


Breast, 


Breost, 




Borate, 


Borst, 


Bttrste, 


Borste, 


B9rste, 


Briost, 


Flood, 


Flod. 


Flod, 


Vloed, 


Flood. 


Fluth, 


Flod, 


Flod, 


Flod, 


Blood, 


Blod, 


Bloed, 


Bloed, 


Blood, 


Blut, 


Blod, 


Blod, 


Blood, 


Midge. 


Migge. 




Mug, 


Mugge, 


Mucke, 


Myg, 


Mygg, 


My, 


Deep, 


Deop, 


Dylp. 


Diep, 


Deep, 


TV. 


Dyb, 


DJup, 


pjup. 


Sweet, 


Swet, 


Swiet, 


Zo€i, 


Sot, 


Suss, 


S(id. 


SKtr, 


Fish, 


Fisc, 


Fisk, 


Vi$ck, 


Fissh, 


Fisch, 


Fisk. 


Fisk, 


Fiskr, 


Milk, 


Meolo, 


Meloc, 


Melk, 


Melk, 


Milch, 


MPelk, 


MJolk, 


Miolk, 


Book, 


Boo, 


Boek, 


Boek, 


Book, 


Bach, 


Bog. 


Bok, 


Bok, 


Pole, 


Pol, 


Pal. 


Paal,< 


Paal, 


PflOil, 


Pael, 


P^e. 


PaU, 


Name, 


Nama, 


Kama, 


Naam. 


Name. 


Name, 


Nam, 


Nfinn, 


Nafh. 


Drink, 


Drlnoan, 




Drinken, 


Drinken, 


TrtfilrMt, 


DriitMl 


Dricka, 


Dreoka, 


Mother, 


Mother, 


Moder, 


Moeder. 


Moder, 


Mutter, 


Moder, 


Moder, 


Mooder, 


Morrow, 


Morgon, 


Morgen, 


Morgen, 


Morgen, 


Morgen, 


Morgen, 


Morgon, 


Morgun, 


San, 


Sunna, 


Sun, 


Zon, 


Sunne, 


Sonne, 


Sol, 


Sol, 


Sunna, 


Day, 


Daeg, 


Dei, 


Dag, 


Dag, 


Tag, 


Dag, 


Dag, 


Dagr. 


Toe, 


Ta, 


Tane, 


Tee, 


Taan, 


Zehe, 


Taa, 


Hri 


Ta. 


Tear, 


Tear, 


Ther, 


Traan, 


Trane, 


Thraene, 


Taare, 


Taor, 


Tar. 



The cases where there is a break in the correspondence are 
marked with italics. It will thus be seen that of one hundred and 
seventy-seven initial sounds all save eight are in correspondence, 
though drawn from nine different languages. Moreover, even the 
exceptions are merely cases of the substitution of one of the sounds 
of a class for another sound of the same class — the change of " f " 
to " V," of " s " to "z," of " d " to " t," of '' t " to " z," and of " w " 
(v) to " V." The reader will further note that the easiest sounds 
of all — viz., "b," "p," "m" — do not yield a single exception. 
Let us now turn to a few of the difficult sounds of the same lan- 
guages. They may be represented as follows : — 



1888.] 



CHILD SPEECH. 



193 



u 

J?^ a 

a 



i 



* 4 



a 






BO *d 



g 






a 
a 






Is" 



a 

a 




^ "O 



8 -o I 3 

H H ^ fr 






I 






4 



>4 

M 






•* i 1 

«^ I 5 



5 ? 

it H 



tq 



.a 



a -o ^' JS »: a' S ^ 

3 3 Q Q •? 



S N n 



I' 
3 I 



a 



s 
S 



^1 



Q 3 



H W 



Q * tad 



u 

® a 

I 3 



1 3 






- "O 



Q M tid 



M 



a 

9 






a 
o 



a 

M 



f 



a 






a 

a 



s 



a 



2 o « 
•a o 



<g 



2 2?^ 

5 9 S ^ 

I .^ g m 



■si 



i 








a 

t 


1 


a' 
a 

5 


* 

2 







s 



O O V 

O Q H 



- s 



5' I -- I 2 i . 1 ^- 

03 



5 



o 

nJ 



o 






^ ^ g 



o 



C3 



2 



H 

O 



I 



fi4 

60 



«- -o J^ 2 

S J* J3 9 JS 

Q Q Q &si H 



- 5 "O jJ ^ A A 






S 



S 



o 



„ B § 8 a a ^- 

32 o'S ?^t^5S 



o s >• >» 






M 
O 



C3 






The above table of one hundred and fifty words, all of them 
exemplifjdng the difficult class of consonants, yields no fewer than 
seventy-nine variations of related sounds. It would thus seem^ 
from the examples cited — all of them either written down at ran- 
dom or selected with a simple preference in favor of words of 
common occurrence — that in interracial changes of speech-sounds 
there is far less tendency to variation in those sounds which are 
easily imitated than is noticeable in the sounds that are not so 
easily followed with ear and eye. 

The preference exercised by the child for the sounds which can 
be easiest reproduced is thus exercised alike by the individual 
learning a new language, and by the race forced into the acquire- 



194 ED UCA TIOX. [November, 

ment of strauge habits of speech. It is a true case of concrete 
selection. Both child and man take ^Hhe path of least resist- 
ance." Yet, whereas the child only obeys the law of its blunders 
in pronunciation until the moment at which its senses have attained 
their full accuteness, the individual clings helplessly to his errors, 
while the race draws alike from proficiency in familiar and inca- 
pacity in strange habits of speech the materials of a new lingual 
structure. 



DOBS IT PAYf 

BY ELIZABETH PORTER GOULD. 

DOES it pay — all this burden and worry, 
All the learning acquired with pain. 
All the planning and nervous wild action. 
All the restlessness following gain — 
Does it pay ? 

Alas ! 'tis disease that enslaves us, 
Not Nature's pure sanative health, 

Or the mind of the sweet blessed spirit 
Giving restful and generous wealth. 
Is it not? 

To be free from this burden and worry. 

To have knowledge without fear and pain. 
To be peaceful, far-seeing, sweet-tempered. 

And calm in the presence of gain. 
We must know the pure secret of Nature, 

Like her, be obedient tp law, 
And work in the light of the promise 
Of blessed results Christ foresaw. 
Then each day 
And alway 
Life will pay. 



1888.] EDITORIAL, 195 



EDITORIAL. 

IT must have been an impressive spectacle, on the evening of 
Oct. 10th, when the venerable senator, Justin S. Morrill, ad- 
dressed the legislature of Vermont on the importance of cherishing 
and strengthening the Agricultural College of the state. It should 
encourage Senator Blair, in his efforts at national aid for education, 
to learn that the proposition to grant public lands for agricultural 
and mechanical colleges was four years in limbo and survived one 
presidential veto, to be adopted in war time, in 1862. Although 
the distracted state of the country was unfavorable, for several 
years, yet forty-seven institutions, with five thousand students 
and five hundred professors in every state, are the fruits of the 
first twenty-five years of this beneficent movement. One of the 
most notable results is the stimulant thus given to the higher 
industrial education, everywhere. In several of the southern 
states this fund was the first lever that raised the broken-down 
state university from the wreck of 1865. Once in operation, these 
colleges attracted attention and gradually accumulated funds from 
public and private sources. In several cases the state has been 
able to separate the cigricultural and mechanical college from the 
university and establish it on an independent foundation. In 
New England alone, more than a million dollars has thus been 
drawn from public and private sources to supplement the land 
grant, and Cornell in New York, Purdue in Indiana, and others, 
have illustrated the same tendency. There was never a more 
shallow criticism than the assertion that this national aid for 
industrial education has been a failure. So far from this, these 
forty-seven colleges are the solid foundation of the whole struc- 
ture of industrial education in the country. National aid to 
education in this, as in every case, does not demoralize the people, 
but stimulates public spirit and private benevolence to supplement 
the nation's gift. 

THE expert in the high and normal school is in constant need 
of wise supervision and, often, restraint, from a superin- 
tending mind competent to hold the entire scheme of education in 



196 EDUCATIOy. [November, 

that grade in due relations. We lately heard a bright teacher in 
English Literature assign work for the coming day, in the way of 
investigation, which would consume every hour of the most indus- 
trious pupil. Probably the half dozen other experts assigned 
similar tasks in their own departments. This habit is becoming a 
great burden and confusion in many of our best appointed schools. 
Unfortunately, superintendents are chary of suggestion to this 
class of superior teachers ; who are sometimes inclined to ignore 
or even resist all supervision. But the success of the secondary 
school depends largely on the working together of its teachers, 
that each may observe due limits and the pupil be saved from the 
fate of the immortal six hundred. 

THE recent conference of the friends of the Indian, at Lake 
Mohonk, was somewhat divided, though finally harmonized 
on the proposition to establish a thorough system of education, 
supported and supervised by the government, for the benefit of all 
their children and youth. What between the army, the contrac- 
tors, and the different agencies for educating the mind and saving 
the soul of " the noble savage," he is in danger of becoming as 
rare a spectacle as the buffalo. Why not assume that he is a man, 
like the rest of us Americans, and, for a time, trj' the system of 
education and discipline which has made the name American 
renowned through all the earth? 

THE sudden death of Mr. E. C. Carrigan of this city a few 
days ago upon a western railroad train, furnishes an inter- 
esting commentary upon the possibilities which are open to an 
American youth. Born abroad, coming to this country in early 
boyhood, learning to read at an age when some boys are almost 
fitted for college, pushing his way against tremendous obstacles' 
through a New England college, studying law and graduating at 
the law school of the Boston University, he has come to be one of 
the foremost educational men of the old Bay State. A member of 
the Boston School Committee, and of the Massachusetts State 
Board of Education, his untimely death has stopped short what 
many have predicted would prove a very brilliant and useful 
career. He was a warm friend of the public school cause. 



1888.] THE PBOMOTION OF PATBI0TI8M. 197 



THE PROMOTION OF PATRIOTISM. 

THE American system of public schools has for its corner-stODe the 
preser\'ation of our republican Institutions. This cannot be kept 
too closely before the mind of every one connected with school work. 
Whatever tends to foster a love of country, an appreciation of good gov- 
ernment, a correct understanding of our institutions, should lie near the 
heart of every earnest teacher. It is to be regretted that larger atten- 
tion has not been given to instilling sentiments of patriotism into the 
minds of the children in the schools by means of patriotic readers, and 
selections tcom the writings of the great men connected with our politi- 
cal history. The pupils in every school in the land should be familiar 
with Lincoln's address at Gettysburg. How strange it is that our patri- 
otic airs, and our national hymns cannot all be found in any one book. 
The schools are to be congratulated that a book containing the best 
patriotic selections from the world, with a chapter devoted to our " Patri- 
otic and National Songs, Hymns and Odes," together with a large and 
rich gathering of original contributions, is soon to appear, compiled by 
Gen. H. B. Carrington.^ 

It is to be hoped that this reader will receive a wide circulation and 
find full use in all parts of our common countr}'. No previous decade 
has been so prolific as the present in the production of important aids 
to the study of our national history. Among the important books which 
have lately appeared is one by that eminent educator, Dr. B. A. Hins- 
dale, now professor of the science and art of teaching in the University 
of Michigan, filling the chair lately vacated by that other eminent teacher, 
Dr. William H. Payne. This book is called " The Old Northwest." « 

This valuable work exhibits ripe scholarship, a royal historical genius, 
and a profound spirit of patriotism. From '' North America in Outline," 
down through the French discoveries and settlements, showing how 
" England wrested the Northwest fVom France," along the line of the 
" Thirteen Colonies as Constituted by the Royal Charters," the author 
«hows ''The Western Land Policy of the British Government," "The 
Northwest in the Revolution," how " The United States wrested the 

1 A Patriotic Reader; containing selections in verse and prose ttoxa all ages, lands, and 
races. With historical Notes. By Heniy B. Carrington, U. S. A., LL.D. Philadelphia: 
J. B. Lippincott Co. 1888. 

*** The Old Northwest," with a view of the thirteen colonies as constituted by the royal 
charters. By B.^A. Hinsdale, Ph. D. New York: Townsend Mac Coun. 1888. Pp. iiO 



198 ED UCA TIOX. [N o vember, 

Northwest from England," '' The Northwestern Land Claims/' and '* The 
Northwestern Cessions," "The Ordinance of 1787," *'The Territory 
Northwest of the River Ohio," '*The Admission of the Northwestern 
States," "Slavery in the Northwest," " The Connecticut Western Re- 
serve," and finally, " A Century of Progress." 

The book is in reality a new history of the United States, from the 
Ohio standpoint, and is a monument of patient industry, and patriotic 
appreciation of the importance to our republic of these wonderful chap- 
ters in the history which gave us this " Northwest," instead of assigning 
it to either Great Britain or Spain, in which case it would have been a 
constant menace and probably a fatal barrier against our progress west- 
ward. It is difficult to overestimate the importance to our republic of 
this " Old Northwest" territory. It embraces a country covering more 
than 250,000 square miles, a territory larger by far than France or 
Spain, Germany or Italy. Its population has increased with surprising 
rapidity from less than 50,000 at the beginning of the present century to 
13,000,000 the present year, 1888. This section now produces on an 
average about one-third of the entire crop of our country in wheat, oats, 
potatoes, Indian com, and hay. It has nearly one-thiix! of all the rail- 
roads, reckoned by miles, in the United States, and has for many years 
held a controlling influence, in many respects, over the federal govern- 
ment. The people of the United States have only once in thirty 3'ears 
elected a chief magistrate from outside of the "Old Northwest," and 
he, our present President, was but just over the border in the State of 
New York. One of the candidates now before the people for that high 
office is also from this section. Virginia was formerly called the " mother 
of presidents." This "Old Northwest" seems to be in a fair way to 
dispute that title, erelong, with the "Old Dominion." 

By a singular coincidence another important work upon this same 
patriotic section, and giving a graphic account of the earliest organized 
settlement within this region, a book long looked for by historical stu- 
dents, and of untold value, has just appeared, in the life of that famous 
Ohio pioneer. Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D.^ 

This Life of Doctor Cutler is in reality a history of the Marietta set- 
tlement, which has Just celebrated its centennial. 

" Rev. Doctor Cutler was prominent in Massachusetts as a clergyman, 
scientist, and politician for flfty years prior to 1820. His memoir has 
been carefully prepared by his grandchildren fh)m hitherto unpublished 
family papers in their hands. 

"The earlier chapters covering the period to 1783 contain a vivid 

1 Life, Journal and Correspondence of Bev. Manaaseh Cutler, LL. D. By his grand- 
children, William Parker Cutler and Julia Perkins Cutler. Two Tolumes. Pp. fi24, 496. 
Cincinnati : Robert Clarke A Co. 1888. Price $5.00 net. Sent by mail on receipt of the 
price. 



1888.] THE PROMOTION OF PATRIOTISM. 199 

picture of life in New England, in colonial times, and during the Revo^ 
lutionary War, in which Doctor Cutler served two campaigns as chap- 
lain. 

'*The account of a visit to the White Mountains with Rev. Jeremy 
Belknap and others in 1784, and of a second visit in 1804; the corre- 
spondence with Mr. Belknap, largely concerning the early days of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; the botanical correspondence 
with Professor Peck, Doctor Mulilenburgh, Samuel Vaughn, and others 
in America, Doctor Jonathan Stokes of England, and Doctors Schwartz 
and PaykuU of Sweden, will be of special interest to all scientists. 

** The journal of his visits to New York and Philadelphia as agent of 
the Ohio Company to purchase lands in the Northwest Territory, which 
has been often quoted from, is given in full. It contains the only history 
of the negotiations with Congress which resulted in the passage of the 
Ordinance of 1787 and in the first settlement of Ohio at Marietta by a 
colony of old officers and soldiers of the Revolutionary Army ; and an 
entertaining picture of social life in New York and Philadelphia one 
hundred years ago. / 

" His journal of a visit to Ohio in 1788, when it required twenty-nine 
days of continuous travel to cover the distance from Hamilton, Mass., 
to Marietta, Ohio, is also given in full, with a description of the first 
accurate survey and examination made of the Ancient Works at Marietta. 
Many letters to and from General Rufus Putnam, Major Winthrop Sar^ 
gent. General S. H. Parsons, Hon. Ebenezer Hazard, and others, with 
much of the unwritten history of the Ohio Company and its unfortunate 
neighbor, the Scioto Company, are contained in the work. 

" Dr. Cutler was a member of Congress from the Essex North Dis- 
trict, Massachusetts, 1801 to 1805, during President Jefferson's first 
term. His letters to his family and friends from Washington are very 
full, and cover a great variety of topics. Accounts of speeches of the 
elder Bayard, John Randolph, and others ; of dinners at the President's 
and British Minister's ; of a visit by a party of Federal Congressmen to 
Mrs. Washington, at Mt. Vernon ; of a horse race which Congress ad- 
journed to attend ; a description of Washington when it was little more 
than a village, and of Alexandria when it was an important commercial 
city : these, with his diary, form a valuable and interesting contribution 
to the social and political history of the period." 

The journals and descriptions are delightfully readable, and as a source 
of simple entertainment this work will prove as attractive as a romance. 
Senator Hoar in his oration at the late Marietta Centennial said of Doc- 
tor Cutler : — 

^^ He was probably the fittest man on the continent, except Franklin, 



200 EDUCATION. [November, 

for a mission of delicate diplomacy. It was said that Putnam was a man 
after Washington's pattern and after Washington's own heart. Cutler 
was a man after Franklin's pattern and after Franklin*s own heart. He 
was the most learaed naturalist in America, as Franklin was the great- 
est master in ph3'sical science. He was a man of consummate prudence 
in speech and conduct ; of courtly manners ; a favorite in the drawing- 
room and in the camp, with a wide circle of friends and correspondents 
among the most famous men of his time. During his brief service in 
Congress he made a speech on the judicial system, in 1803, which shows 
his profound mastery of constitutional principles. It now fell to his lot 
to conduct a negotiation second only in importance in the history of his 
country to that which Franklin conducted with France in 1778. Never 
was ambassador crowned with success more rapid or more complete. The 
measure providing for the terms of the sale to the Ohio Company was 
passed on the 27th of July, 1787. Cutler was master of the situation 
during the whole negotiation. When some of his conditions were re- 
jected he * paid his respects to all the members of Congress in the city, 
and informed them of his intention to depart that day, and, if his terms 
were not acceded to, to turn his attention to some other part of the coun- 
try.' They urged him * to tarry till the next day, and they would put by 
all other business to complete the contract.' He records in this diary 
that Congress ^ came to the terms stated in our letter without the least 
Tariation.' From this narrative I think it must be clear that the plan 
nrhich Ruftis Putnam and Manasseh Cutler settled in Boston was the sub- 
stance of the ordinance in 1787. I do not mean to imply that the detail 
or the language of the great statute was theirs. But I cannot doubt 
that thej^ demanded a constitution, with its unassailable guaranties for 
civil liberty, such as Massachusetts has enjo\'ed since 1780 and such as 
Virginia has enjoyed since 1776, instead of the meager provision for a 
government to be changed at the will of Congress or of temporary popu- 
lar majorities, which was all Congress had hitherto proposed, and this 
constitution secured by an irrevocable compact, and that this demand 
was an inflexible condition of their dealing with Congress at all." 

These two volumes will be found replete with valuable information for 
the student of American history. It is not often that the reviewer has 
the privilege of noticing two such important works as the last two named, 
bearing upon the history of a distinct portion of our country, and the 
readers of American history are to be congratulated upon the important 
addition to our knowledge of the " Old Northwest" which these volumes 
bring. William A. Mowry. 



1888.] FOREIGN NOTES. 201 



FOREIGN NOTES. 

England. University Extension. — The local examinations and the 
local lectures by which the influence of the great universities is extended 
throughout England have been repeatedly noticed in Education. To 
these measures Oxford has added a scheme for giving the benefits of 
temporary residence to certain classes of outside students. One feature 
of this scheme is the ** Summer Festival of Education" which brings 
together for ten days' study and intercourse, students whose zeal has 
been kindled bj" the University lectures. A second, and for many rea- 
sons a more important feature is the summer session of the Teachers' 
University Association. The main aim of this Association is *' to pro- 
mote the training of teachers at the University' and University colleges," 
and in accordance with this purpose arrangements are made for a month's 
residence at Oxford, a full programme of lectures, geological excursions, 
etc.. being provided. The session for the present year, which was 
held in August, is said to have been unusuallj* successful. The follow- 
ing are mentioned as among the most notable features : Lectures on 
" Moral Philosoph}'," by Mr. J. M. McDonald ; on the *' Recent Progress 
of Astronomical Science," b}' Charbs Pritchard, D. D., Savilian Pro- 
fessor of Astronomy; on "Logic," by the Rev. W. Hawker Hughes, 
M. A., Dean of Jesus College. 

In the " Clarendon Laboratory," students of physics had every facility 
extended to them. In this connection it is interesting to notice that the 
Royal Commission on Education in its final report advises that "an 
experiment should be made of training non-residential students in con- 
nection with local university colleges." 

Report on Public Instruction in Hungary. — The death of Dr. Au- 
gust Tr^fort, Minister of Public Instruction in Hungary, deprives this 
department of public affairs of the services of an able and judicious 
statesman. Under his guidance some of the most important reforms 
advocated in recent years have been incorporated into the educational 
system of Hungary without material friction or disturbance. The fol- 
lowing particulars are from his last report covering the year 1885-86 : — 

As regards primary instruction, increase as compared with the pre- 
ceding year appears in almost every item. The number of primary 
schools reported is 16,417 ; attendance upon the same, 1,836,459 pupils, 
and the cost of maintenance, 85,110,523. The attendance was equiva- 
lent to 79 per cent, of the children subject to the compulsory law. 



202 EDUCATIOX. [November, 

The year was characterized by several important measures for the gen- 
eral improvement of the primary schools. We note particularly those 
having reference to the sanitary condition of the buildings. Instruction 
in hygiene and gymnastics has been made an obligatory part of the 
primary course. This creates a demand for teachers qualified in the 
.branches specified, to meet which the minister instituted a special course 
in the normal department of the University at Budapest, and ordered 
that henceforth no one should be employed as master or professor of 
g}'mnastics who had not attended the course and received the diploma. 
In view of the great importance attached to industrial training the min- 
ister established carpenter and mechanical workshops in the normal 
school for masters. It is remarked that whereas formerlv the schools 
depended upon foreigners for their supplies of plastic models and appa- 
ratus for teaching physics, these are now obtained from the new work- 
shops. 

As regards secondary instruction the most important action of the 
year consisted in the practical elaboration of the plan of studies laid 
down in the law of 1883. The programme for the gymnasia of Hungary 
is substantially the same as for the corresponding schools in other coun- 
tries of Europe, but such relations ar6 maintained with the real schools 
as makes it easy for scholars to pass from the one to the other. This 
arrangement was made by Doctor Tr^fort in order that parents might 
not be obliged to decide upon a final career for their children at too early 
an age. As one step toward the end indicated the minister had taken 
care to introduce the Latin language as an optional study in the real 
schools. Scholars from these schools who pass the required examination 
in Latin can be admitted to the faculties of law and of medicine, a pro- 
vision without example in any other European country. 

The number of gymnasia reported was 150, and of real schools, 28, 
having respectively an attendance of 35,749 and 6,371 students. The 
total expense for secondary instruction was 81,588,128. Of this sum 
16 per cent, was furnished by the public treasury, and 11 per cent, by 
religious orders. 

In accordance with his power under the law, the minister announced 
his intention of creating in the secondary schools chairs of hygiene and 
of political economy. 

In the chapter upon superior instruction the minister devotes consid- 
erable space to a discussion of the careers chosen by graduates of the 
secondary schools. According to the statistics given, 23 per cent, make 
choice of the ecclesiastical and 32 per cent, of the legal profession. The 
candidates for medicine fall to 22 per cent., which is less than is demanded 
by the needs of the country. As a means of remedying this evil, the 



1888.1 FOREIGN NOTES. 203 

minister proposed to create a third university, or at least a third faculty 
of medicine. Hungary possesses a single polytechnic university. In 
order to bring this into closer relation with the practical demands of life, 
the minister issued a decree making several of the professors perpetual 
members of the superior technical council of the government and accord- 
ing to students of the polytechnic who should pass their first examina- 
tion the privilege of employment for two months of their vacation in one 
or another section of the public works. 

France. — The new superior council of public instruction in France 
held its first session in Jul}'. The deliberations of the council related 
chiefly to secondary instruction and the interests of superior primary 
schools. With respect to the former, definite action must be delayed 
until the special commission, instituted in July to consider the changes 
and ameliorations that it is desirable to introduce into the conduct of 
secondary schools, shall have finished its operations and submitted a 
report. 

With respect to the superior primary schools, the council has issued 
an important decree which completes the laws and regulations for the 
organization of these intermediate schools. The decree permits the pro- 
gramme of studies and the industrial training to be determined by local 
conditions, but fixes the maximum hours of work, the conditions of 
admission and the qualification of teachers. The council has also sim- 
plified the programme of primary studies leading to the elementary cer- 
tificate. This action meets tlie approval of those members of Parlia- 
ment and of the Academy of Medicine who have raised the question of 
over-pressure. 

The Minister of public instruction announces tlie acceptance on the 
part of the Faculty* of Paris, of the annual appropriation by the city for 
the support of a chair of biolog}'. The amount offered is in round num- 
bers. $2,300. The proposition of the Faculty that the designation of 
the new chair should be *' Evolution of Organic Beings" was accepted. 
The designation originally proposed was '* Chair of Biological Philoso- 
phy." To this the Faculty' objected, because they do not teach philoso- 
phy. They pointed out further, that precedent for that title could be 
found only in England where the word philosophy has not the same sig- 
nification as in France. In the former country the word designates 
science itself, whereas in France, philosophy begins where science ends. 

The work of the reconstruction of the Sarbonne has been accomplished 
thus far at an expense of $3,589,800. There remains a balance of $700,- 
000 from the original appropriation which will be devoted to the recon- 
struction of the Faculty of Sciences and the rooms required for their 
use. A. T. 8. 



aoi 



EDUCATION. 



[November, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CURRENT PERIODICAL LIT- 

ERATURE UPON EDUCATION. 



The following bibliography of oarrent periodical literatare includes articles upon 
ednoation and other subjects calculated to interest teachers. Only articles from peri- 
odicals not nominally educational are mentioned. Articles of special importance to 
teachers will, as a rule, be mentioned in notes. 



Ainu Family. Life and Religion. J. 
K. Goodrich. Popular Science Mont?i- 
Ij/f October. 

Altruism Economically Considered. 
Charles W. Smiley. Popular Science 
Monthly^ October. 

American Language, The Great. 
Comhill Magazine^ October. 

A spicy account of American pro- 
vincialiems. 

Ants. Mound-Makinff Ants of the 
Alleghanies. L Dr. H. C. Mc Cook. 
Chautauquan^ October. 

Artium Magister. Clarence King. 
North American Review^ October. 

Atkinson, Edward, Sketch of. Popu- 
lar Science Monthly^ Octol)er. 

At Last: Six Days in the Life of an 
Ex-Teacher. John Ilabberton. Lip- 
pincotVsy October. 

Austrian Economists and their View 
of Value, The. James Bonar. Quar- 
terly Journal of Economics^ October. 

Belief. Sins of Belief and Sins of 
Unbelief. St. George Mivart. Nine- 
teenth Century^ October. 

Body, On the Care of the. W. M. 
P. Round. Homiletic Reviexo. October. 

Books. Early Books, Magazines, 
and Book-making. Charles IL Shinn. 
(herland^ October. 

An account of early book-making in 
California. 

Brown, John. Macm%llan''B^ Octo- 
ber. 

Buffon. F. Bruneti^re. Revue des 
Deux Mondes^ 15 September. 

Chatimentsdans V Education, A pro- 
posdes. Felix Hement. Academie des 
Sciences Morales et Politiques^ Septem- 
ber, October. 

Chautauqua Reading Circle, The. J. 
G. Fitch. Nineteenth Century^ Octo- 
ber. 

An interesting account of the Chau- 
tauquan movement as seen by an Eng- 
lish educator. 

Culture, The Possibilities of. Bish- 



op H. W. Warren. Chautauquan^ Oc- 
tober. 

Education Commission, Report of. 
Church Quarterly Review^ October. 

Education, Royal Commission on. 
Doctor Crosskey's Evidence. Congre- 
gational Review^ September. 

Economy, Esoteric. Agnes Rep- 
plier. Atlantic^ Octol)er. 

Elementary Education in England 
and Wales. Andover Review^ October. 

An editorial. 

Elementary Education : Payment by 
Results. Westminster Reviete^ October. 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Church 
Quarterly Review^ October. 

English and American Traits. Rich- 
ard A. Proctor. Knowledge^ October. 

Ethics, A Basis For. Prof. S. W. 
Dyde. Mind^ Octol)er. 

" Exorcizo Te." M. H. Dziewicki. 
Nineteenth Century^ Octol)er. 

A discussion of possession and ex- 
orcism. 

Flying Machine, The Problem of a. 
Prof. Joseph I^ Conte. Popular Sci" 
ence Monthly^ October. 

Four-Hunded Sinners. Felix L. Os- 
wald, M. D. Popular Science Monthly y 
Ootobf^r 

Garibaldi's Early Years. Wm. R. 
Thayer. Atlantic ^'OQloher. 

Genius, The Irresponsibilities of. 

E. Lynn Linton. Fortnightly Review^ 
October. 

Goethe's Faust. Prof. W. C. Wil- 
kinson. Homiletic Review. October. 

Greece and Modern Civilization. 
Herbert B. Adams and William P. 
Trent. Chautanquan^ October. 

Greece, Gossip about. I. J. P. Ma- 
haffy. Chautauquan, October. 

Greek, Mytholojry. I. James Bald- 
win. Chautauqnan^ October. 

Ilamilton. Some Precedents fol- 
lowed by Alexander Hamilton. Charles 

F. Dunbar. Quarterly Journal of Eco- 
nomics, October. 



1888.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



206 



Historical Writing in the United 
^ States, 1783-1861. J. F. Jameson. 
Englische Studien^ XII. band 1 heft. 

This able article was given as a pub- 
lic lecture at the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity in 1887. 

HumanismuB, £in Hauptfuhrer des 
deutschen. George Winter. Nord und 
Stid^ October. 

An historical sketch of Mutianus 
Rufus. 

Indian Women, Everyday Life of. 
Capt. R. C. Temple. Popular Science 
Monthly^ October. 

Industrial Village of the Future, 
The. Prince Krapotkin. Nineteenth 
Century, October. 

A strong argument for the combina- 
tion of Agriculture and Industry. 

Jonson. Ben Jonson's *'Dis«'over- 
ies.'* Algernon Charles Swinburne. 
Fortnightly Bevieto, October. 

Kindergarten. What is the Good of 
the Kindergarten ? J. 'Lliomas. Catho- 
lic Worlds October. 

An argument for consideration of 
the claims of the Kindergarten in 
Catholic education. 

Lazarus, Emma. Century ^ October. 

Life. Prolongation of Human Life. 
Clement M. Hauimond. Popular Sci- 
ence Monthly^ October. 

Limoges and its Industries. Theo- 
dore Child. Harper^s, October. 

Literary Idolatries, Some. William 
Watson. ' National Beview, October. 

Luxe. Questions sociales. II. I^ 
Luxe. Ch. Secretan. Bevue Philo- 
sophique^ September. 

Malerei, Von moderner. Betrach- 
tungen iiber die Munchener Kunstaus- 
stelTung von 1888. Carl Neumann. 
Preussische Jahrhiicher, September. 

Manual Training in the Public 
Schools in its Economic Aspect. Prof. 
Edmund J. James. Andooer Beview, 
October. 

"The future of our public educa- 
tional S3'ittem is firmly bound up in, 
and dependent upon, the future of 
manual training. As the latter suc- 
ceeds, the former will flourish.'* 

Marriage and Divorce, The Scrip- 
tural Doctrine concerning. Westmin- 
ster Bevifw^ October. 

Martineau's Study of Religion. 
Church Quarterly Bevifxo^ October. 

Mental Science. Recognition of 
Sense-Impressions. Association by 
Contrast. Science^ September 28, anil 
October 12. 

Meredith, George. Meredith's Nov- 
els. J. M. Barrie. Contemporary Be- 
viewy October. 



Military Education and the Volun- 
teer Militia. Col. James M. Rice. 
Century, October. 

Mineral Waters, Home Uses of. Ti- 
tus Munson Coan. Harper^ s, October. 

Morality and its Sanction. Church 
Quarterly Bevievo, October. 

Morals, The Border-Land of. Dr. 
C. A. Bartol. Forum, October. 

Music and Christian Education. Ed- 
ward S. Steele. Bibliotheca Sacra, Oc- 
tober. 

Musique, L* Amour dans la. Ca- 
mille Bellaigue. Bevue des Deux 
Mondes, 15 September. 

My Predecessors. Prof. Max Miil- 
ler. Contemporary Beview, October. 

Myth and Totemism, Gerald Mas- 
sey. National Beview, October. 

Naturforschung und Schule« A. 
Matthias. Preussische Jahrb^kcher, Sep- 
tember. 

An able defence of the gymnasium 
in answer to Preyer's brochure upon 
the same subject. 

Oeffentliche Unterricht in Preussen, 
Was kostet der ? Annalen des Deutschen 
Beichs, Nr. 10. 

Oldest Book in the World, The. 
Translated by Howard Osgood. Bib- 
liotheca Sacra, October. 

Old Shady, with a Moral. Gen. W. 
T. Sherman. North American Beview, 
October. 

Opera. English Opera in Nubibus. 
Frederick J. Crowest. National Be- 
view^ October. 

Oxford, ** The Classes and the Mass- 
es" at. National Beview^ October. 

An account of the recent vacation 
meeting of University Extension stu- 
dents at Oxford. 

Pain, The Economy of. III. Rev. 
Henry Hay man. Bibliotheca Sacra, 
October. 

Painters. Boston Painters and Paint- 
ings. IV. Wm.HoweDownes. Atlan- 
tic, October. 

Paleolithic Man in America. W. J. 
Mc Gee. Popular Science Monthly^ Oc- 
tober. 

Peasant Women of Galicia, The. 
Paul Sylvester. National Bevieuo, Oc- 
tober. 

Philanthropy. Prof. Richard T. 
Ely. Chautauquan, October. 

Philosophic, L' Ilistoire de la. F. 
Picavet. Academie des Sciences Mor- 
ales et PolUiques, September, October. 

Poet. IlrtS America Produced a 
Poet? Edmund Gosse. Forum, Oc- 
tober. 

Political Econo:iiy, International 



200 



EDUCATION, 



[November, 



Migration and. Westminster Heview^ 
Oct<)l)er. 

Polities, Problems in American. 
Hugh MeCulloch. Scribner's^ Octo- 
ber. 

Poverty. Westminster Eeview^ Oc- 
tober. 

Progress of the Nation, The. Ed- 
ward Atkinson. Forixm, October. 

Protection, The Effects of. Charles 
S. Ashley. Popular Science Monthly^ 
October. 

Psychologic. L* Association par 
Contraste; Le Contraste simultane; 
I>eContraste successif. M. Paulhan. 
Bevne Sdentifique^ September 1 and 15. 

An interesting attempt to show the 
importance of contrast as a law of 
mental association. 

Psychology, The llerbartian. II. 
G. F. Stout. Mind^ October. 

An account of the analytical portion 
of Herbart's psychology. 

Psychologie des Grecs, Ilistolre de 
la. La Psychologie des Stoiciens. A. 
Ed. Chaignet. Acad^mie des Sciences 
Morales et Politiques^ Septeml)er, Oc- 
tober. 

Public Schools. What Shall the 
Public Schools Teach? Rev. A. S. 
Isaacs. Forttm^ October. 

" Whatever tends to produce the 
perfect American citizen, helpful, 
sound, sober, honest, earnest, patriot- 
ic, intelligpnt, must And place in its 
curriculum.'^ The author advocates 
the teaching of morality, and suggests 
the use as a manual of an anthology 
from American literature. 

Public School System, The, and the 
Ministry. Prof. John Bascom. Uomi- 
letir Review^ October. 

Questions, Our One Hundred. II [. 
LippincotVs^ October. 

Race Antagonism in the South. 
James B. Eustis. Forum, October. 

Railroad, The, in Its Busin^^ss Rela- 
tione. Arthur T. Hadley. Scribnefs^ 
October. 

Railway Debt, The Great. Adelbert 
Hamilton. Ftirum, October. 

Religion en Russie, La. V. I^s Re- 
fornjateurs. Le Comte I/»on Tolstoi, 
ses Precurspurs et ses Emules. Ana- 
toli* Ixjroy Beaulieu. Revue des Deux 
Mondes, 1.5 September. 

Relisi:ioii!4 Education. Cyrus A. Bar- 
tol. Unitarian 7^Ti>»r, Ortober. 

Resiionsabilitc Morale, La. A. Bi- 
net. Revue Philosophique^ September. 

Roe. '' A Native Author Called 
Roe. (An AutoMojrniphy.) E. Pi 
Roe. Lippincott^s, October. 



Saloon in Politics, Sovereignty of 
the. Judge Pitman. Our Day^ Octo- 
ber. 

Sciences, The Circle of the. I. Prof. 
A. P. Coleman. Chautauquan^ Octo- 
ber. 

Sense, Problematic Organs of. Sir 
John Lubbock. Popular Science Month' 
ly^ October. 

Socialistic Philosophy. London 
Quarterly Review^ October. 

Solon, the Athenian. Thomas D. 
Seymour. Chautauquan^ October. 

SomnambuliKme. Contribution & 
V etude du somnambulisme provoque 
A distance et a 1* insu du sujet. Doc- 
tor Dufay. Revue PhilosophiquCy Sep- 
tember. 

Spinoza. 1/ Amour Intel lectuel de 
Dieu d* apres Spinoza. Malapert. Re- 
vue Philosophique^ September. 

Subject-Sciences. Definition and De- 
marcation of the. Prof. A. Bain. Mind^ 
October. 

Sun-Power and Growth. Julius 
Stinde. Popular Science Monthly^ Oc- 
tober. ^ 

Sweating System, The Lord's Com- 
mittee on the. Arthur A. Baumann. 
National Review^ October. 

Sweating System, The. LendaHand^ 
October. 

Tariff Experiment, The Australian. 
Fred Perry Powers. Quarterly Jour- 
nal of Economics^ October. 

Tariff. How the Tariff Affect« Wa- 
ges. Prof. F. W. Taussig. Forum^ 
October. 

A clear and candid discussion. 

Tell-Sage, Dar Ursprung der. J. 
M&hly. Preussische Jahrhuche.r^ Sep- 
tember. 

Tolstoi and Mathew Arnold. Prof. 
Fnincis II. Stoddard. Andover Review^ 
October. 

Tolstoi, Count Leo. Archdeacon F. 
W. Farrar. Forum^ October. 

Tortoise, Habits of the Great South- 
ern. Prof. N. S. Shaler. Popular Sci- 
ence Monthly^ October. 

Truthfulness in S«*ience and Reli- 
gion. Church Quarterly Review^ Oc- 
tober. 

Tutor of a Great Prince, The. II. 
W. P. and L. I). Atlantic^ Oirtober. 

Unlversite D* Orleans, La Nation Al- 
lemande, a \\ au XIV. e Siecle. Xou- 
velie Revue Ilistoriqne^ July, August. 

Urheberrecht. Die Berner Ueber- 
einkunft zum Seliutzc des Urheber- 
rechts. Adolf Fleischmann. Unsere 
Zeit^ October. 



1888.] AMOXO THE BOOKS. 207 



AMONG THE BOOKS, 

IklETHODS AND AlDS IN GEOGRAPHY FOR THE USE OF TEACHERS AND NORMAL 

Schools. By Charles F. Kin^, President of the National Summer School, 
and Master of Dearborn School, Boston. Boston : Lee & Shepard. Cloth. 
Illustrated. Pp.518. Price $1.60 net. 

This is a practical book for the use of practical teachers. It is evidently a 
V3orking book in Geography. It has been prepared to help teachers ^^ to help 
pupils help themselves/' according to the true spirit of the new education. Mr. 
King believes in making geography interesting to the child, and he tells here 
just how to do it; what illustrations to use, what selections to read from other 
books, what topics to treat in detail, and what to pass over hastily. The meth- 
ods recommended are those adapted to the child's nature. A well arranged 
course of study is given with all necessary adjuncts for carrying it out. 

The chapters on Commercial Geography contain much matter not before 
accessible toTtie teachers of the country. How to Conduct a Recitation, is illus- 
trated from actuHl work in the school, reported by one of the pupils. A strik- 
ing feature of the work is the exhaustive list of geographical books in the last 
chapter, classified and arranged so that the teacher may easily find the best 
work on each country, the best books for a teacher's geographical library, the 
best scientific books for children as supplementary reading in connection with 
geography, interesting books of travel for children, etc. A list of books of 
travel, published in paper covers, contains some forty titles. We have thus 
indicated to some extent the encyclopaedic character of the closing chapters. 
The illustrations are a valuable feature. A second edition is already out. It is 
one of the most helpful and valuable aids to the teaching of geography which 
has yet appeared. It will prove Itself indispensable to every well equipped 
library. 

INTRODUCTORT LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR, for u«e in lower grammar 
classes. By William II. Maxwell, M. A., Ph. D., Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, Brooklyn, N. Y. New York : A. S. Barnes & Co. 

It is refreshing to observe a new book entitled " Grammar." We have had 
lor ten or fifteen years a surfeit of textbooks on '^ Language," and ^* Language 
Lessons," but no new grammars. The course marked out by Doctor Maxwell 
comprises three books, viz. : 1. Primary Lessons in Language and Composi- 
tion. 2. Introductory Lessons in English Grammar. 3. Advanced Lessons 
in English Grammar. The plan of this book is a good one, and it is well car- 
ried out. The author begins with a sentence, and the kinds of sentences, and 
then considers the several parts of speech. The discussion of the modes, 
tenses, and conjugations of the verb is postponed, apparently with wisdom, to 
a later period than usual. The construction process is largely employed, and 
in all respects the author has shown himself master of the subject and its treat- 
ment. The book is commended to the careful attention of all teachers of ele- 
mentary grammar. 



906 EDUCATION. [November, 

Harper*s First Reader in two parts. Price 24 cents. 
Harper's Second Reader In two parts. Price 36 cents. 
Harper's Third Reader In two parts. Price 48 cents. 

This new series of Readers should receive the careful attention of all teach- 
ers and school boards. The paper, type^ and illustrations are of the very best, 
and the binding Is unusually strong. They are bound in linen covers with tape 
and steel wires. They are fuller than most other readers, the price is low, and 
the illustrations, which are in the best style of the art, are evidently for pur- 
poses of teaching and not for ornamentation. The editor has so arranged the 
lessons, especially in the First Reader, that while no more words than usual 
are introduced, all of these words are continually repeated until they are per- 
fectly familiar, ao that the child recognizes them at sight, llie easy, steady 
progress of the lessons Is noticeable. Script type Is in frequent use, and one of 
the lessons in the First Reader upon the clock Is designed to teach in a very 
interesting way, how to tell the time of day. The lessons appear to be un- 
usually well adapted to the minds of children, and at the same time are calcu- 
lated to cultivate a taste for the best style of literature as regards both thought 
and expression. It Is no secret that these readers were edited and prepared for 
the press by Dr. James Baldwin, and Supt. O. T. Bright, of Englewood, 111. 

Second Lessons in Arithmetic. An Intellectual Written Arithmetic upon 
the inductive method of instruction, as Illustrated In Warren Colburn's First 
Lessons. By U. N. Wheeler. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin &Xo. Pp. 282. 
Price 60 cents. 

Professor Wheeler has in this book prepared a textbook on the principle that 
the essentials of Arithmetic should be better taught than heretofore, and that 
the non-essentials should be omitted. Ills first aim Is to develop the mind of 
the learner, and he places emphasis constantly on fundamental principles and 
omits useless subjects and those arithmetical terms which are known only in 
the schoolroom. He follows the Inductive method so admirably illustrated In 
^^ Colburn*s First lessons '^ which has probably done more for the cause of 
education than any other textbook ever published in America. The book is 
designed as a continuation of ^^Colburn's First lessons.*' Professor Wheeler 
is a thorough mathematician, and not simply an Arithmetic maker. He grasps 
the whole range of mathematics, and has given us here a book on an entirely 
new plan which is at once original, practical, thorough, and philosophical. 
While smaller than some textbooks upon the subject, it probably has more 
examples, and, therefore, gives more practice in the use of numbers than any 
other textbook in common use. It is safe to say that any class of pupils which 
shall have mastered '* Colburn's First I^essons '' and " Wheeler's Second Les- 
sons/^ will need no further Instruction in Arithmetic for the ordinary affairs 
of life. We commend this book heartily to the careful examination of all teach- 
ers and school boards. 

My Wonder Story. By Anna Kendrick Benedict. Illustrated. Boston : D. 
Lothrop Company. Price $L50. 

The Idea of imparting a knowledge of anatomy and physiology to young 

readers in the form of a story is unique, but it is successfully accomplished In 

the handsomely Illustrated volume before us. The author imagines a mother 

with two bright children, who are full of questions, and especially anxious to 

learn something about the structure of the human frame. The mother Is only 

too ready to gratify them, and they begin their Informal studies. First, the 



1888.] AMOXQ THE BOOKS. 209 

bones are coDsidered ; then they take up the muscles, fat and skin ; the organs 
that take care of the blood and the blood itself; the process of digestion; the 
lymphatic system; the nervous system, and, finally, specid studies are made 
of the eye and the ear. At each lesson the microscope is brought into use, and 
the author has avoided as much as possible all technical terms, and wherever 
they occur they are accompanied by the corresponding popular terms. The 
text is very fully illustrated, and the work is admirably fitted for use in schools 
as a reader or supplementary textbook. 

Illustrated Catalogue of the Art Galleries, in the Ohio Centennial 
Exposition, September 4 to October 19, 1888. Arranged by Walter S. Good- 
nough. Commissioner of Art Department. 

Here is a catalogue containing 625 numbers, with many engravings, showing 

the finest of the pictures on exhibition at this famous gallery. Mr. Goodnough 

has devoted almost infinite pains and labor in getting up this department of 

the wonderful Ohio celebration. It reflects great credit upon him, and must 

prove of special interest and satisfaction to the people of Columbus and Ohio. 

Questions Prepared to Accompany Fiske-Irving's Washington and his 
Country. By D. H. M. Boston ; Glnn A Company. 1888. Paper. Pp. 88. 

Primary Methods in Zoology Teaching. For Teachers in Common Schools. 
By W. P. Manton, M. D., F. R. M. S., F. Z. S., etc. Illustrated. Boston: 
Lee & Shepard. 50 cents. Cloth. 

This is a capital littln treatise. It is a republication of the articles which ap- 
peared under the same title last year in Common School Education. It deserves 
and will receive a wide reading. 

Aims and Methods in Classical Study. By William Gardner Hale, Cornell 
University. Boston : Ginn & Company. Paper. Pp. 47. Price 20 cents. 

Topics in Ancient History. By Miss C. W. Wood, Teacher of Ancient His- 
tory in Mt. Holyoke Seminary and College. Boston: Ginn A Company. 
Paper. 

The object of this little pamphlet is to suggest rather than limit topical study. 

The references indicate additional lines of thought, and admit of much variety 

of use in teaching and study, giving material help in brief lectures. The idea 

that the best literature is full of condensed philosophy of history is indicated 

in a series of illustrative quotations. 

The Fatherhood of God. By Rev. John Coleman Adams. Boston : Unl- 
versalist Publishing House. 

This is No. 1 of a series of little booklets called ^*- Manuals of Faith and 
Duty." Rev. Mr. Adams has here presented " The Fatherhood of God " in a 
very attractive way, the teaching of the Old Testament, of our Lord, of the 
Apostles, and of the fathers, and he discusses in a skilful and convincing man- 
ner *' The Divine Fatherhood and Human Sorrow," and other kindred topics. 
It deserves a wide reading. 

Riverside Literature Series. No. 12. Studies in Longfellow, by W. C. 
Gannett. No. 37. A. — Hunting of the Deer, and other essays, by Charles Dud- 
ley Warner. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Price 16 cents. 

Delightful paper covers, just what is wanted in the Language and Literature 

classes in our High schools. 

Algebra Lessons. No. 1. To Fractional Equations, 47 lessons. No. 2. 
Through Quadratic Equations, 47 lessons. No. 3. Higher Algebra, 47 les- 
sons. $1.44 per dozen for each number. Boston: Leach, Shewell & San- 
born. 

These are three blank books of large size in paper covers, for work in Alge- 



210 ED UCA TIOX. [November, 

bra. They have the examples at the top of the long page to be worked oat 
with pen or peDcil upon the page. The examples appear to be well arranged, 
and the blanks v^l undoubtedly^ prove popular and have a large sale, as they 
deserve. 

Some Famous Art Galleries axd Works of Art ik England and on the 
Continent. Compiled by E. W. Boyd. Boston : Leach, Shewell & San- 
born. Pp. 54. 

To the student of Art, this brief account of some famous art galleries with 

their contents, will be a source of great pleasure and profit. The work was 

prepared by the author, who is the " Head of St. Agnes School, Albany," from 

the outline used in his classes. It will prove valuable to travelers. 

English Composition and Rhetoric. Enlarged Edition. Part II. Emo- 
tional Qualities of Style. By Alexander Bain, LL. D. New York : D. Ap- 
pleton & Co. 

This is the authorized edition of this newest standard work by this distin- 
guished author. It is designed to follow Part I., which treats of Intellectual 
Elements of Style. This Part II. is devoted to Emotional Qualities of Style. 
It classifies ^^ Art Emotions,'* discusses ^^ Aids to Emotional Qualities," 
'* Ideality,'' *' Refinement," *' Strength," "Feeling," *• Wit," "Ridicule." 
etc., etc. It is a strong book, and treats the subject in a thorough and masterly 
manner. It will be welcomed by many colleges and universities, who desire a 
complete and reliable book. 

The Tenth and Twelfth Books of the Institutes of Quintilian. With 
explanatory notes. By Prof. Henry S. Frieze, Ann Arbor. New edition. 
Revised and enlarged. New York : * D. Appleton & Co. 

Professor Frieze's classical books are too well known to require anything 
more than a mere mention. This revised edition of Quintilian is every way 
worthy the name of the distinguished editor. The notes are enlarged, and con- 
tain the results of all recent criticism and scholarship. 

The GUNMAKER OF Moscow. Bv Sylvanus Cobb, Jr. New York: Cassell 
& Co. Price 50 cents. For sale by W. B. Clarke & Co. 

^^ The Gunmaker of Moscow " is Sylvanus Cobb, Jr.*s most famous book, 

and has become a classic among stories. It was a great success from the first. 

It is now for the first time published in a bound volume. It forms one of the 

*' Sunshine Library " series. 

The Rainbow Calendar for 1889: a companion to *' A Year of Sunshine." 
Compiled by Kate Sanborn. Boston : Tioknor & Co. Price 50 cents. 

A capital book, beautifully printed, with choices elections for every day in 

the year. It will make a beautiful Christmas gift. 

The Silver Ix)CK, and other Stories. By Popular Authors. Cassell & Co. 
Pp. 212. Price 25 cents. Sold by W. B. Clarke & Co. 

Another of the Rainbow Series. Containing seventeen short stories, some 
of which are remarkably well told. ''Shooting the Rapids," '*The School- 
mistress at " Skenie Dun," and '* A Song Without Words " are among the best 
of them. 

Fa<;ots for the Fireside. A c<>lleetl(»n of more than one hundred entertain- 
ing games for evenings at home and social parties. By Lucretia Peabody 
Uale. Illustrated. Boston: Ticknor & Co. Pp.274. 

Chock full of fun, games, and puzzles. It has riddles and conundrums, sto- 
ries, ballads, proverbs, and everything else, from chicken-pie to cupping verses. 



1888.] AMONG THE BOOKS. 211 

There are sixteen bundles of these fagots. The book is one of the most com- 
plete collections of entertaining games and plays which has ever appeared in 
this country. Any child who gets a copy of it for a Christmas present should 
be truly grateful to Santa Claus as long as he lives. 

Classiques Populaires, Edites par II. Leeene and H. Oudin. Florian, par 
Leo Claretie. Paris. Paper covers. Price 1 franc and a half. 

This volume of 238 pages gives an account of the life and w^orks of Jean 

Pierre Claris de Florian, who was born in 1754, and died in 1703. The work is 

divided into five chapters, which treat respectively of his early years; of his 

literary career; as a dramatic author, novelist, and writer of fables; of his 

last years; concluding with the distinguished tributes paid to his memory after 

his death. The book is, from its pure French and the diversity of matter, — 

both prose and poetry, — well adapted for French classes in our schools and 

seminaries. 

First French Course; or Rules and Exercises for Beginners, By C. 
A. Chardenal. A new and enlarged edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 

This capital book for iMginners in French was republished from foreign 
plates some years ago, an^has had a large sale in this country. It is now re- 
vised and reprinted from new plates of the very best type. Paradigms and 
vocabularies are in bold faced type with proper French accents. The exercises, 
both French into English, and English into French, are numerous and well 
adapted. Near the end of the book are twenty-five pages of choice extracts 
from French authors. The vocabularies, both French-English and English- 
French, are very full. 

Teacher's Manual. No. 7, Unconscious Tuition. By F. T. Huntington, 
D. D. No. 8. How to Keep Order. By James L. Hughes. No. 9. How to 
Train the Memory. By Rev. II. K. Quick. No. 10. FroebePs Kindergarten 
Gifts. By Heinrich Hofi'man. New Vork: E. L. Kellogg «fe Co. Price by 
mail, 13 cents each. 

Capital little books with paper covers, for the wide-awake teacher. 

A Quiz Manual of the Theory and Practice of Teaching. By Albert P. 
Southwick, A. M. New York: E. L. Kellogg & Co. Pp. 132. Price 75 
cents. 

Mr. Southwick is well known as a writer of ^^ Quiz '' books. In this, his 
latest, he discusses " What is Education V " *' Reading,'' " Arithmetic,'* *' Com- 
position," ''Natural History," " Grammar," "Rhetoric," ''Literature," and 
twenty or thirty more subjects. In the first part of the book the author asks 
more than five hundred questions, and in the remainder of the book answers 
them. The type is too small, and the ideas, in too many instances, very com- 
monplace. We confess to no great love for this omnium^atherum style of 
teacher's books. 

Missouri : The Bone of Contention. By Lucien Carr. Boston : Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 377. Price $126. 

The latest addition to the American Commonwealth Series gives the hiitory 

of this central state in our Union, from the early discovery and exploration of 

the Mississippi River, down to the close of the civil war. It is essentially a 

political history, and has to do largely with the slavery controversy. About 

one-fourth of the book is devoted to matters relating to the civil war. The 

history of this state is interesting, especially from a political standpoint, as 

Missouri was for nearly half a century the great battle-ground of the slave 



212 EDUCATION. [November, 

power. From the specially political character of the work it will be less popu- 
lar and more limited in the scope of its readers than some other volumes of this 
excellent series. 

A Guide to the Study op the History and Constitution of the United 
States. By William W. Rupert, C. E. Boston: Ginn & Co. Pp. 130. 
Price 75 cents. 

This book is designed to aid the teacher in imparting a knowledge of the his- 
tory and the Constitution of the United State:?, and to guide the student in 
acquiring such knowledge. It is piiucipally concerned with a brief explana- 
tion of the Constitution. Its bibliography will be found to be of much value 
to the teacher of the history of this country. 

Introduction to the Books of the Old Testament. With Analyses and 
numerous references to Illustrative Literature. By O. S. Stearns, D. D., 
Professor of Biblical Interpretation in Newton Theological Institution. 
12mo. Cloth. Price $1.00. Boston : Silver, Burdett A Co. 

Every careful reader of the Bible finds himself punctuating its pages with 
the queries, \ioho^ tohen^ why^ what. The Old Testamant is a library containing 
thirty- nine books. They cover a period of many oraturies. They sprang out 
of the pressure of the times. Each book calls for m answer to each of these 
questions before it can be intelligently understood. Who wrote it? In what 
age of the world was it written? Why was it written just at that time? What 
is the central thought in the book, and how is it unfolded? This volume at- 
tempts to answer these questions candidly and briefly. Professor Stearns calls 
it a '* syllabus,** a ^* digest.** He has given in compact form the results of 
many years* experience as a teacher of the Old Testament. The general reader 
and the special student of the Bible will welcome it as an important and valua- 
ble help. Every reader, teacher, and student of the Bible should possess a 
copy. It will be of great value to all Sunday School teachers, in unfolding 
intelligently the international lessons. 

Temple House. By Elizabeth Stoddard. New York : Cassell & Co. For 
sale by W. B. Clarke & Co. Price 50 cents. 

Of writing story books there is no end, and there are all kinds of stories. 
Indeed, there must be, to suit all kinds of people. This is not like one of Uow- 
ells*, but the story h well told. It delineates the life of a certain class of peo- 
ple — if such as are here described exist anywhere — but its scenes and charac- 
ters fortunately arc not common. It will engage the attention of the reader 
till it is finished. When finished, he will say, '' Right is right, and right is 
best.*' 

Marching through Georgia; written in honor of Sherman*s Famous March 
from " Atlanta to the Sea.'* Written and composed by Henry C. Work. Il- 
lustrated. Boston : Ticknor & Co. Full gilt. Bronzed Arabesque. Price 
$1.50. 

'* Marching through Georgia** is the great processional song of this decade 
in America, and thrills with patriotic fervor and martial spirit. No other mel- 
ody Is so often sung and played in assemblies of national interest, or where 
the memories of the old heroic days come to the fore. It is a ringing, heroic 
song, full of swing and spirit, and every old soldier loves it. The American 
Bookmaker says of it : ^^ Intent upon giving the admirers of this soul-stirring 
song a series of every-way truthful illustrations, the publishers commissioned 
that very capable artist, Charles Copeland, to go South, traverse the route pur- 
sued by Sherman, and catch to the life the necessary local coloring. The spir- 



1888.] AMONG THE BOOKS. 213 

ited work which illumines the pages of this book gives evideDce of study/' 
This will make a very popular gift book for the approaching holiday season. 

The Young Idea ; or Common School Culture. By Caroline B. I^ Row. 
New York : Cassell & Co. For sale by W. B. Clarke & Co. Price 50 cents. 

The effect upon a philosophic mind of reading this book, it would be difficult 
for us to tell. But let an ordinary mortal somewhat at home upon educational 
subjects read it, and we know from experience that it leaves him in serious 
doubt and perplexity. At one time he is almost ready to abolish the entire 
school system and bid the race return to its natural state of barbarism and be 
happy. Again, he wishes Miss Le Bow, and General Walker, and Colonel 
Parker would stop holding up our excellent school system to ridicule, and turn 
around and give their blessing to the poor school teachers, who amid much dis- 
couragement are trying to elevate the coming race of American citizens, so that 
they will know whether to vote for a high protective tariff, '* revenue reform " 
or free trade. On the whole, it is to be hoped that this brilliant author will 
not write any more books criticising the schools, the teachers, and the pupils, 
and ^^ making fun " of them all unless she will show good judgment in doing 
it. What stuff she quotes from the Xeic York School Journal and The Journal 
of Education^ and General Walker, and others id omne genus! And yet she 
culls many excellent extracts from Education and copies some sensible words 
from *• A Boston Teacher** and a Rhode Island Normal School Teacher, which 
go far towards setting the whole matter right. The author quotes a report of 
^*a child In a western prairie country who asked her teacher if the Alps and 
the Andes were as high as the steeple of the Congregational church.^- Well, 
what of it? The question was perfectly natural, and is not to be considered to 
the discredit of the pupil. Apropos to that, one might quote a report to the 
effect that an intelligent English lady asked an American if there were any 
large trees in his country, but immediately checked herself, and added, ^^ Of 
course not, because your country is too young yet to have any." It may be 
wise for us all to exercise a little care over the inferences we draw from such 
*' reports." Again, '* A Boston Teacher" is quoted as saying: " There Is too 
much of this condemnation without knowledge and without investigation. 
. . . . Many of the things that are said against the schools, fifteen min- 
utes^ inquiry at the nearest school-house would show to be not only baseless, 
but purely nonsensical." It will appear to some minds a prurient sort of 
curiosity or what-not, to roam over the whole country as a scavenger, smelling 
out all the foolish and unripe things which little children, Just beginning to 
learn, say, and to hold these sayings up to ridicule, and withal blaming the 
schools therefor. 

•Chubby Ruff, and other Stories. By Rev. George Huntington. Boston : 
Congregational Sunday-School and Publishing Society. Pp. 200. Price 
91.00. 

A charming little book for the children, fresh, and bright, and wise. It car- 
ries its readers into the borders of wonderland, but always has a hidden bit of 
wisdom to hint, but not quite to disclose. They are like the author^s descrip- 
tion of Captain Beu*s stories in ^^ the Bobo*s Country," of which he says : 
-■^The most improbable of them were generally the most Instructive, and often 
bit off some fault or nonsense of our own pretty sharply.** The visits to San- 
ta Claus in his home, and to the Bobos, a people who had no feelings, are 
•equally amusing and instructive. It is a good book for Christmas or any other 
time of year. 



214 EDUCATIOX. [November. 



MAGAZINES RECEIVED. 

The attention of the readers of this magazine is respectfully called to the following 
articles in the current numbers of onr leading magazines as likely to be of special inter- 
est to them:— 

Tery little is known by the general public, or by teachers even, about some parts of 
North America. The history of several of our own states is still largely unknown. T\t 
American Magazine of History for October gives " A Romtintio Chapter in Texas Uistor>'»** 

under the title of **Tbe City of a Prince." The third of a series of articles on ** A 

Mexican Campaign/' is given in the October Century The Xorth American Review for 

October contains some very vigorous articles on political subjects. '* The President's 
Letter" is discussed by Thomas B. Reed, while "General Harrison's Letter" is the sub. 
Ject of an article by Senator Morgan. In this same number is an article on the " Presi- 
dent's English," by Daniel Sparkman. General Butler's article on " Defenseless Cana- 
da*' will be read with interest. The October Jfide Awake contains an article on '* Dan- 
iel Webster in his New Hampshire Home," which will be of value to the older readers 

as well as to the children. Prof. Edmund J. James has an article on '* Manual Train* 

Ing in the Public Schools in its Economic Aspect," in the October number of The Ando- 

ver Review. The September number of The Xew England Magazine gives an interesting 

and well illustrated article entitled, "A Literary Symposium on Cincinnati." Our 

Little Men and Women is one of the prettiest, brightest, most healthful of the many excel- 
lent children's magazines published. The Writer is a monthly magazine to interest 

and help all literary workers. The September number of this novel magazine contains 

an Interesting article entitled. " The Story of a Rejected Manuscript." The opening 

article in the yeto Englander and Yale Reviewia by William L. Klngsley. entitled, *' The New 

Danger which Threatens Russia." An interesting article on *■ Paleolithic Man in 

America," is given in the November Popular Science Monthly. An article on *' The 

Australian Tariff Experiment " in the October Quarterly Journal of Economic* is particu- 
larly timely. The Home-Maker, a monthly magazine edited by the well-known Marion 

Harland. An interesting and attractive homo magazine with a list of our best contribu- 
tors. Literature for October 20 gives an account of Gen. Onnsby MacKnight Mitchell. 

The Xoveliett A weekly Magazine of American Fiction, contains a story by Robert 

Timsol, entitled " A Pessimist." The complete novel in the November Lippincott is 

" Earthlings,*' by Grace King. The " Physiology of the Sea," in the November Catho- 
lic Worldt is an article of much value. The Englieh Illuetrated Magazine for October, 

contains an article on " A Dead City," an account of St. David's. In the November 

Quiver is another account of St. David's, a city sixteen miles from a railway, and in 

Great Britain. A story entitled " Genevieve; or, The Children of Port Royal," which 

has been running for some time in Frank Leslie** Sunday IUu*traied Magazine, gives a 

very graphic account of Old France. One of the prominent features of the October 

Lend a Hand, is an article on " Modern Social Conditions." The November number of 

the Cottage Hearth shows that this excellent home magazine keeps up the high standard 

of its matter as formerly. The November Chautauquan gives special attention to the 

history of Greece, and to the sciences. Ca*sdVs Family Magazine for November has 

an article on " The Art of Type Writing," which should be of special interest to teach- 
ers. Miss Edith Simcox, In The Woman"* World for November gives an article on 

" Elementary School Teaching as a Profession," which is at least novel in its tone. 

ShoppdVs Modem Houses, an Illustrated Architectural Quarterly for October, November 
and December, contains twenty-four beautiftil designs of "modern houses," and estimates 

of the cost of the same. An article in October Treasure-Trove on " Russian-America." 

has a bit of history concerning our country that has but Just come to light, as it was a 
state secret, and it is only within a short time that it has leaked out. Teachers and all 
interested in history will And this article of special interest. If the story be true, it ia 

an important one. Scribner for November, contains a vivid description of Gen. P. H. 

Sheridan's experiences in the Franco-German War. The article Is written by General 
Sheridan himself, and is entitled " From Gravelotte to Sedan." 



Q)UCrATIOR 

DEVOTED TO THE SCIENCE, ART, PHILOSOPHY, AND 

LITERATURE OF EDUCATION. 



Vol. IX. DECEMBER, 1888. No. 4. 

EXCESSIVE HELPS IN EDUCATION. 

BY W. T. HARRIS, CONCORD, MASS. 

INASMUCH as the child is self-active and grows only through 
the exercise of his self-activity, education consists entirely in 
leading the child to do what develops this power of doing. Any 
help that does not help the pupil to help himself is excessive. The 
same principle is a safe guide in our public and private charities* 
Help the poor and unfortunate to help themselves, and you ele- 
vate them towards human perfection and the divine ideal. It is- 
this principle, too, that makes clear to us what road leads to the 
surest amelioration of the evils of poverty and mendicancy. Edu- 
cation is the one sure road to help the unfortunate. Adopt all 
the cunning devices that social science has invented, and you can- 
not be sure that direct or indirect help of the poor does not under- 
mine their self-respect and weaken their independence. But you 
may give them all the education possible. You may begin with 
the kindergarten and end with the highest university — all brought 
to the very door of the proletariat, and you are certain that the 
more education you can persuade him to take, the more indepen- 
dent and self-helping he will become, and the more he will benefit 
the race of mankind. 

In making this assertion, I have, of course, presupposed that the 
education is good education, and that the intellect is trained on 
science and fed on history and literature, while the will is trained 
into good habits by a firm and mild discipline. Education such as 



216 ED UCA TlOy. [December, 

this will elevate the most downtrodden and servile class of people 
into self-governing freemen in a few generations. Gratuitous 
education does not tend towards communistic views and opinions, 
but towards private ownership of property and true public spirit. 
The educated man wishes a larger and larger margin of individual 
action, and hence he throws off in succession the patriarchal despo- 
tism of family government, the semi-patriarchal form of the village 
community, the serfdom of the feudal manor, the caste system of the 
monarchy, and finds all the scope he needs in the free choice of 
vocation, the free choice of his habitat, free combination with his 
fellow-men, and in free ownership of property without entail. 
Within the sphere of his private property he exercises his absolute 
or individual will, but in his free combination with his fellow-men 
as political member of a -constitutional government, he attains that 
higher and more rational freedom which comes of the adoption of 
the will of the community through free insight. 

In the State of Massachusetts perhaps one may find all grades 
of education brought nearest to all classes of people. In Massa- 
chusetts will be found the widest distribution of private property 
and the largest average amount of it that can be found in com- 
monwealths of equal or greater size, search where you will. 

I mention these things by way of showing the ground on which 
my views in regard to Excessive Ileli^s in Education rest. For 
they go to show that the school is the ideal place where self-help 
is to be cultivated. By the study of science the pupil learns to 
help himself, by adding to his own experience of the world the 
aggregate results of the entire experience of the race. By the 
study of literature he learns to know the sentiments and feelings 
that have inspired the different peoples of the world, and especially 
his own racial stock. He thus learns human nature as manifested 
in the race, and in liis nation, and he learns by this his own indi- 
vidual possibilities. He learns the ways of thinking of his fellow- 
men and their habits of action. He thus acquires through litera- 
ture the most practical of all practical learning, the knowledge of 
human nature. Without this knowledge he will not know how to 
deal with his fellow-men. By the school discipline the pupil learns 
to work with his fellow-men, and combine peaceably to produce a 
joint result. He learns to submit to the necessary mediation which 
alone can bring about great results — that is to say, he learns to 
subordinate himself for Uie sake of the whole. 



1888.] EXCESSIVE HELPS IN EDUCATION. 217 

Now it is evident that the intellectual training of the school 
which does not help the pupil to help himself is pernicious and 
destructive of the very ends for which the school exists. This 
pernicious effect is a constant tendency in education flowing from 
the mistaken idea that it is quantity and not quality of learning 
which is to be arrived at by instruction. To get over the course of 
study rapidly seems to be a veiy desirable thing to some teachers 
and to many parents and children. The majority of teachers have 
learned that such progress is all a delusion ; that the true progress 
is the mastery by the pupil of his branch of study by a clear com- 
prehension of all the steps. From this comes power of analysis 
— the ability to divide a difficult subject and attack it in each of 
its details in proper order. Victory is sure to come if we can de- 
tach the forces of the enemy from the main body, and defeat them 
one by one. The good teacher looks solely to the quality of the 
knowledge, and by this increases the pupil's self-help. The poor 
teacher helps the pupil by doing his work for him instead of stimu- 
lating him to do it for himself. He gives the pupil ready-made 
information and saves him the trouble of finding it out from books 
and experiments. He pours in his oral instruction to save the 
pupil from the necessity of hard study. 

In arithmetic, for example, the good teacher does not assign les- 
sons to be learned out of school, for he knows that there is great 
danger that the elder brothers and sisters, the parents and even 
the grand-j)arents will be brought into requisition to assist at the 
solution of the hardest problems. In the recitation the teacher 
will then be without any reliable knowledge of the pupil's powers. 
He will probe a given amount of pupil's work, plus an unknown 
quantity (r) of outside help. The good teacher sees to it that 
the arithmetic lesson is prepared under his own eyes, and that the 
pupil does not " cipher " — does not work out all of the numerous 
"examples for practice " given in the textbook, but only the few 
typical examples. These he requires him to do again and again, 
explaining minutely all the steps of the process, and then invent- 
ing new problems by the change of the numbers given in the 
book. 

In grammar the good teacher knows that the pupil is to learn 
how to analyze and discriminate ideas and mental distinctions, 
thus acquiring logical power and the ability to think out a difficult 
question by taking it to pieces and putting it together. 



218 ED UCA TIOX. [Decern iM-r, 

Grammar as the science of human speech — since language is 
the instrument of reason — is the most concrete study that is to be 
found of logic and ^jsychology. The good teacher does not make 
the mistake of throwing out grammar from the course of study 
because it is difficult to learn, and substituting " language lessons " 
for it because the latter work is easy. He knows that language 
lessons may be taught in connection with the reading lesson, which 
is properly a language lesson, and by written examinations on the 
substance of what has been learned in all other branches of study. 
Language lessons and compositions, as often taught, are a mere 
training in gibble-gabble ; for they use the colloquial vocabulary. 
Grammar is to be taught by itself as an indispensable branch of 
study. 

In the reading lesson excessive help has done its utmost to make 
the first steps easy, and to remove all climbing thereafter. It ex- 
pends an infinite amount of ingenuity to smooth away all eleva- 
tions. For this purpose it uses only readers that have the simplest 
forms of colloquial language, carefully avoiding readers that take 
up higher vocabularies which develop the resources of our language. 
The pupil learns to read at sight all lessons written in the collo- 
quial vocabulary — and this is called teaching how to read. 
Whereas, it is but one-half of the process. The other half, and the 
more important half, is to teach the pupil to grapple with the great 
works of literature, and all higher readers of any series are full of 
excellent specimens of real literature. In mastering these the 
pupil must not hurry and endeavor to read a large quantity of 
reading matter. If he memorizes the gems of poetry and the se- 
lections of impassioned prose he will fill his memory with the hap- 
piest forms of expression of deepest thoughts and subtlest feelings. 
In learning these, the pupil learns new words unfamiliar before 
and new thoughts with them, and his mind grows larger. Our 
school instruction leans in the direction of excessive oral exposi- 
tion, — and too much manipulating of apparatus. The result is that 
the pupil is less able to find for himself the aid that he needs from 
books, and in the case of apparatus, he has less grasp of the uni- 
versal idea, though he possesses a more intense notion of the 
special machine in its special applications. This makes him a 
good routine worker, but lame and impotent in his inventive 
powers. 



1888.] EXCESSIVE HELPS IN EDUCATION. 219 

I must hasten to allude to excessive helps in geography as found 
in too much map-drawing — too much physical illustration, and 
too little study of the relations of man to the planet. In history, 
in like manner, the pupil is helped by avoiding the study of thoughts 
and relations, and setting his task chiefly on the biographical parts 
and personal anecdotes. These should be only the vestibule to 
histor}\ But excessive help in education wishes to prolong the 
vestibule and never reach the temple itself. 

In conclusion, I would briefly name the two excessive helps in 
discipline. There is the old regime which administered the rod 
industriously, and sought by an oppressive system of espionage to 
prevent the growth of evil habits. It was excessive help. The 
doing of good was to be made easy by the aid of bodily terror and 
by the consciousness of vigilant supervision. Another person's 
will was to penetrate the sacred limits of the pupil's individuality 
and take away his autonomy. The building up of walls round 
the pupil to shield liim from bad external influences had the efiPect 
of weakening his will power and first making him an un-moral 
being — afterwards to grow into an immoral and corrupt one. Af- 
ter the pupil left school and came upon the world he felt the need 
of the master's rod and threatening look, and not finding this or a 
substitute for it, he found in himself no strength to meet tempta- 
tion. Excessive helps in the way of harsh punishments and rigid 
supervision hinder the development of the will and tend to form 
moral dwarfs, or moral monsters. 

On the other hand an excessive help to self-activity and freedom 
by giving too much rein to the inclinations of the youth is apt to 
ruin him. The too lax discipline allows the weeds of caprice 
and arbitrariness to grow up and each pupil strives against 
the order of the school, gets in the way of all others, and the 
total result is zero. The one in authority does not act to help 
the pupil obey his higher self and subdue his lower self. Such 
sentimentality ignores in fact the existence of two selves in the 
child — it does not see that he begins as an animal self full of 
appetites and desires and must become a rational self, a spiritual 
self, governed by moral and universal ideas. He must put down 
his animal and vegetable nature and put on the ideal type of 
human nature in order to be civilized. The too lax discipline, or 
the discipline that aims to isolate the pupil from temptation — the 
flower-pot system of education — this discipline helps excessively 



290 EDUCATION. [December, 

the development of the spontaneous will of the pupil and helps 
unwisely. The pupil becomes wayward and selfish, or weak and 
pusillanimous, and falls an easy victim to the temptations of the 
real world after he leaves school. 

Excessive helps in the intellectual branches do not produce 
such lasting and far-reaching destruction as excessive helps in dis- 
cipline. They may be more easily remedied. But excessive helps 
in discipline destroy the character and tend to make the whole 
personality a zero. 

Since the properly taught and disciplined school can, and does 
give the only kind of help to the pupils that will help them to 
help themselves, it is obvious how imix)rtant is this question of 
excessive helps in education. 



THE RECITATION. 

BY W. B. FERGUSON, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, MIDDLETOWN, CONN. 

IT is largely in the recitation that the vital, lasting work of the 
teacher is done. It is here that the mind of the teacher and 
the mind of the pupil come into living, life-imparting contact, the 
former to be tested in its powers and attainments, the latter to be 
directed, quickened, and developed. It is for this important work 
that the ambitious and devoted teacher studies and plans. Here, 
waiting before him, are pupils ; some active, alert, inquiring, need- 
ing guidance chiefly, others cold, sluggish, indifferent, needing 
inspiration and push. What vast responsibilities, then, centre in 
the recitation ! How can those responsibilities be successfully met ? 
To answer this question is the object of this paper. 

It is not my purpose to pass through all the branches of study 
taught in our public schools, and to explain just how recitations 
in every study should be conducted. To do this would require 
more sj)ace than is at my disposal. Indeed, all successful recita- 
tions conducted by different teachers, or even by the same teacher, 
cannot be placed in the same mould. There is and can be no best 
way in detail of conducting recitations in general. There are 
pedagogical principles which must not be violated in any recitation, 
but principles may be the basis of many equally good methods. 



1888.] THE RECITATION. 221 

And yet there are certain features which must appear in nearly all 
successful teaching. 

Let us inquire, then, first, what are the leading objects of the 
recitation, that is, what results should be gained therefrom? and 
secondly, what are the chief conditions to the obtaining of those 
results? 

The first object of the recitation, in all grades except the prima- 
ry, is to discover the attainments of the pupils in the subject of 
the lesson. This is usually made the sole aim by ignorant and lazy 
teachers. It is so easy to sit calmly with book in hand, and to 
read off the questions with one eye on the text to see whether the 
pupil answers correctly. Pupils must learn lessons, and it is the 
teacher's duty to see that they learn them properly, not so much, 
however, for the facts to be gained (though these are seldom harm- 
ful) as for a more important object, as we shall soon see. 

The second object of the recitation, one closely connected with 
the first, is to firmly fix in the pupil's mind the leading points of 
the lesson. This is often neglected. Most textbooks fail to suf- 
ficiently emphasize the more important parts of the lesson, and to 
make subordinate the less important. Sometimes one point is the 
key to the whole lesson, the other facts depending upon and re- 
sulting from this one. Pupils usually fail to observe this; to them 
all facts are equally important ; hence, often, none are completely 
grasped and securely lodged in the memory. The critical teacher 
will sharply discriminate between the vital and controlling part of 
the lesson and the subordinate or merely incidental parts. He 
will concentrate attention upon the former ; he will focalize upon 
it all the light the pupils can give ; he will illumine it, if neces- 
sarj'^, with his own clear thought and vivid illustration ; he will 
magnify it, cause it to stand out from the connected facts, and, in 
this way, he will firmly fix it in the pupil's memory. The other 
parts of the lesson being then placed in proper dependent relations 
to this one are held in the mind in an orderly and philosophical 
arrangement, contributing to the pupil's intellectual growth. 

The third and most important object of the recitation is to train 
to quick perception, close and accurate observation, clear and logi- 
cal thinking, in short, — mental development. This object out- 
weighs all others. It is vastly more important than the mere gath- 
ering of information. " Were I deprived of my knowledge," said a 
well-known college president/* I would not be greatly impoverished ; 



222 EDUCATION. [I>ecember, 

but were I to lose the mental power derived from the efiPorts put 
forth to gain that knowledge, I would be poor indeed." Says Lea- 
sing, " Did the Almighty, holding in his right hand Truth and in 
his left hand Search after Truths deign to offer me the one I might 
prefer, in all humility, but without hesitation, I should choose 
Search after Truthy Evidently the great German valued the de- 
velopment and discipline to be gained from searching after truth 
more highly than truth itself. 

And, happily, teachers are coming to discover — the better class 
have already discovered — that children are not rtiQVQ phonographs^ 
doing their highest intellectual work in storing up and reproducing 
words ; nor merely collectors of information, but that they are liv- 
ing spirits^ capable of growth^ jwssessing the powers of sight, touch, 
and hearing, whose sole function is not the detecting and doing 
of mischief, hence senses not to be closed and lulled to sleep by 
the teacher but senses to be trained to rapid and certain action, 
since upon the trustworthiness of their testimony all the higher 
activities of the soul are largely conditioned ; yes, living spirits 
capable of thought, if kindled and aroused into action by contact 
with the moving, inspiring thought of a genuine teacher. 

Other objects of the recitation are, to cultivate the power of 
accurate, concise, and ready expression (which usually accom- 
panies clear thinking), to discover the pupil's habits of study and 
to correct whatever is faulty in those habits, to cultivate self-reli- 
ance and self-possession, to create interest and arouxe pupils to 
heartier and more persistent work, and, in a degree, to develop the 
moral nature. 

Bearing in mind these objects of the recitation, let us now con- 
sider the chief conditions to the obtaining of those objects. 

The first condition is that the teacher possess some general 
knowlege of the faculties of the human mind, their action, 
their order of development, and their proper stimuli. All 
pedagogical principles of instruction and discipline have their 
foundation in the nature of the mind ; hence, the most important 
object of the recitation, that of rightly stimulating mental growth^ 
is conditioned upon an acquaintance with the mental powers. 
How can the perceptive powers be quickened and properly guided; 
the memory made tenacious and ready ; the imagination excited, 
elevated, and broadened ; the reason trained to unerring logic ; the 
feelings deepened, refined, and brought under control; the will 



1888.] THE RECITATION. 223 

strengthened and made to respond to high motives and to resist 
the lower ; in short, how can the e'tUire nature of the pupil be — 
not to say symmetrically developed, an interesting thing to think 
and write about, but a result quite impossible to accomplish — but 
developed in their natural order with anything like the least loss 
of mental energy, except the teacher have some general knowledge 
of the mental faculties, their modes of activity, their inter-de- 
pendence, their order of development, and their proper nourish- 
ment. From a lack of such knowledge, the observing powers are 
often stunted ; artificial memory is trained to the exclusion of the 
philosophical ; the imagination, so active in cliildren, is repressed 
and thus made incapable of forming lofty ideals; the reflective 
powers are insufficiently developed; the egoistic feelings are often 
encoiu-agedto the utter exclusion of the altruistic and theetliical; 
while the Avill, instead of being strengthened and rightly guided, 
is either broken, thus making the coward, or it is uncontrolled, 
becoming master of the future criminal. 

Only, then, through the possession and exercise of such knowl- 
edge, gained in some way, can the teacher meet the fii^st condition 
of the most successful recitation. 

The second condition is thorough, daily preparation on the part 
of the teacher. This statement i)erhaps seems trite to some, but 
its practice is not trit^ to all teachers. I have visited not a few 
schools in our own state and elsewhere, and, while I have been 
gratified to see evidences of some preparation by most teachers, I 
have seldom failed to detect an entire lack of preparation for some 
recitations. In reading, for instance, lessons upon which fifteen 
or twenty minutes of careful study could have been profitably put 
had not been looked at until the classes stood in the floor to read ; 
hence, an unattractive and ineffective way of teaching new words, 
mistakes in emphasis and inflection, silly and irrelevant questions, 
a shallow pretence of interest, and, of course, little or no interest on 
the part of pupils, in short, all the essential elements of good 
reading omitted. This, too, in some of our so-called best city* 
schools, not in backwoods districts, where the teacher has thirty 
or forty recitations a day and two dollars a week. When a teacher 
stands before his class, he should know pretty definitely what he 
is to teach and how he is to teach it, otherwise his instruction is 
diffuse, indefinite, hap-hazard, not like the arrow that flies straight 
to the mark and finds lodgment, but, like the snowball, it cov- 



^U EDUCATION. [December, 

ers much surface, but leaves no lasting impression. It is a com- 
mon saying that one cannot teach what he does not know, but still 
further, he cannot teach broadly and critically what he does not 
know thoroughly, and this tlioroughness nothing but daily prepara- 
tion in and outside of textbooks can give. One who does not thus 
prepare himself for his daily work lacks that genuine, burning, 
and contagious enthusiasm so necessary to arouse pupils to ener- 
getic, interested mental activity in the recitation, without which 
little benefit results. He not only has no enthusiasm for his work, 
but he positively dislikes it. He goes to his daily task like a 
" galley slave scourged to his dungeon." ** Not so," says Superin- 
tendent Dutton, ^^with him who makes a judicious plan for each 
day. He goes to his work with conscious strength. His pupils 
are expectant, and feel that they are sitting at the feet of a genu- 
ine teacher." 

It is unnecessary to discuss the needed preparation on the part 
of pupils. Most teachers appreciate the importance of pupils pre- 
paring their lessons whether they prepare themselves or not. Poor 
teachers, however, are apt to accept a mere verbal or a narrow prep- 
aration, such as can be made by slavislily following the textbook. 
Ideas^ not words merely, characterize every successful recitation, 
and the larger use of supplementarj'^ books, the better. 

The teaclier stands before his class prepared for the recitation ; 
the pupils have prepared their lesson. What is now needed ? This 
brings us to the third condition, viz., the concentrated mental ac- 
tivity^ or the undivided attention of the whole class, the hardest 
condition to be fully met. Such attention, however, is absolutely 
necessary to the most efiPective teaching. This word attention sig- 
nifies from its derivation a stretching of the mind toward some 
object of observation or thought ; hence, an active condition of the 
mind. It is a mistake, then, to suppose that attention consists in 
a particular position of the hands and feet, posture of the head, 
or direction of the eyes, though these may favor attention. It 
consists, rather, in mental activity in observing, comparing, gen- 
eralizing, recalling, imagining, or reasoning in respect to some par- 
ticular object of thought before the class ; and it is a psychological 
fact that accuracy of observation, clearness of thought, readiness 
and tenacity of memory, and intellectual growth are in proportion 
to the degree of mental concentration. I stop to emphasize this 
point, because its importance is not fully appreciated. It is not 



1888.] THE BECITATION. 225 

an unfrequent sight to see a whole class, except the one pupil re- 
citing, half asleep. All may be sitting erect, hands and feet in 
position, eyes properly directed, while the thoughts are milea 
away, or, at best, resting lightly on the lesson. Some teachers 
are deceived by this seeming attention, and not a few are appar- 
ently satisfied with it. The recitation should be the time for 
the keenest, severest work. The teacher should furnish the corv- 
ditions of knowledge and give proper guidance, while the pupils 
should do the observing, comparing, recalling, inferring, and rea- 
soning ; thus will their interest be kindled and sustained, and the 
zeal and confidence resulting from successful personal effort will 
be theirs ; thus will they be stimulated to stronger, heartier, and 
more persistent endeavor, and the result will be rapid intellectual 
growth. Failure on the part of the teacher to secure this self- 
activity of the pupil means almost total failure in the recitation. 
Effective teaching, as I have said, is impossible until this is se- 
cured. " Indeed," says one, " teaching is nothing else than pro- 
moting human growth through attention." The attention of the 
youngest pupils is largely involuntary, flitting from object to ob- 
ject. The power of self -direction of intellectual energy is weak ; 
but, if the teacher so plans her exercises as to attract and hold 
her pupils' attention, at first for a few minutes only, afterward 
for a little longer time, and so on, the power of voluntary, con- 
centrated attention will, at length become more or less easy and 
constant. And, if the schools do not develop this power, they fail 
in a most important part of their work, and pupils enter upon the 
active pursuits of life ill prepared to solve the difficult problems 
that are sure to present themselves to those who aspire to large 
success. Says Schiller, " The thunder, spread out into its separate 
folds, becomes a lullaby for children ; send it forth in one quick 
peal, and the royal sound shakes the whole heavens." So the pu- 
pil who would make the most of his tiipe in school, and who would 
attain a high degree of success in the world must be taught to 
throw his intellectual energies, like the focussed rays of the sun, 
upon a single point, and to hold them there, until the desired ob~ 
ject is accomplished. 

The attention of the class being secured, what next? The 
teacher must not lecture. Such instruction appeals only to the 
so-called passive attention, not to the active, the investigative at- 
tention at all. It may increase the pupil's stock of information ;. 



2-26 EDUCATION. [December, 

it may broaden his intellectual horizon temporarily, or even per- 
manently, but it cannot greatly increase his intellectual poiver^ 
which is of chief value. Young teachers, particularly college gradu- 
ates who think ideal teaching consists in imitating some learned col- 
lege professor, oft«n make this mistake. Such a teacher once in- 
formed me that she often had a sore throat at night, caused by her 
being obliged to talk nearly all the time to her classes in order to 
teach them anything. Not realizing that the teacher should place 
before her pupils the conditian% of knowledge cliiefly, sparingly 
knowledge itself, not realizing that the mind is a living organism, 
growing and gaining strength through exercise like the body, and 
not a receptacle to be filled, she proceeded on that ever to be 
condemned plan of lecturing, stuffing the pupils with sense and 
nonsense. Such a teacher, of course, thinks it necessary to keep 
a large portion of her pupils after school every night, tlian which 
no habit can be much worse. Something is radically wrong with 
the teaclier wlio finds it necess«arv to habitually resort to such 

ft V 

means in order to induce pupils to learn their lessons. Theii* in- 
terest in study must be sadly lacking, and for this the teacher is 
largely responsible. 

But to return to the matter of lecturing. Says Spencer, '" This 
need of perpetual telling is the result of the teacher's stupidity, 
not the pupil's. Having by our method induced helplessness, we 
straightway make helplessness a rt^ason for our method." While 
there are reasons why lecturing in college, and, occasionally in the 
high or the grammar school may be proper from a pedagogical 
standpoint, it can be safely said that all lecturing that relieves the 
scholar of work, and that deprives him of that intense interest and 
large mental growth that results from successful personal investi- 
gation and discovery is harmful. A splendid talker is quite often 
a very poor teacher. The ideal teacher is one who can talk enter- 
tainingly, for he is full of his subject, but he seldom does talk at 
any considerable lengtli, for he remembers the teacher's golden 
maxim, that " He helps a pupil most, not by doing for him, but by 
inspiring him to do for himself." "Self-activity, self-evolution, 
and this alone," says Spencer, " insures vividness and permanency 
to impressions. Knowledge thus acquired becomes at once or- 
ganized into faculty, ready to aid in still keener observation, closer 
comparisons, broader and truer generalizations, and more logical 
reasoning, and does not lie, like a dead weight, upon the memory." 



1888.] THE BECITATION. 227 

There are, in general, three methods of conducting recitations : 
the questioning method, the topical method, and the discussion. 
The first, skilfully employed in connection with the other two, is 
valuable, but exclusively used, it is harmful. Poor teachers, as a 
rule, employ this method too exclusively. It requires little 
information on the part of either teacher or pupil, for the teach- 
er usually has one eye on the book and asks leading questions 
in such a way as to suggest the answer. But with the skilful 
teacher, questioning is an art, and one not easily acquired. Just 
how to question so as to reveal the pupil's previous knowledge, at 
the same time kindling curiosity and arousing the intellect into a 
wakeful condition creating a desire to know more ; just how to 
lead the pupil from point to point in a line of thinking, giving him 
all needed assistance without relieving him of the necessity of put- 
ting forth earnest effort ; just how to question so as to most secure- 
ly link the leading facts of today's lesson with those of yesterday ; 
just how to lead the pupil to say as much as possible to the point, 
while the teacher says as little as possible, is a question which re- 
quires for its answer much careful study of both pupil and lesson. 

The following recitations reported by Agent Martin, of Massa- 
chusetts, as having been heard by him in a city high school of that 
state, illustrate the misuse of the questioning method. A lesson 
about a Greek philosopher, teacher with book in hand questions 
as follows : — 

" Who was an eminent philosopher, and taught mathematics and 
astronomy ? " 

One Pupil, — " Diogenes." 

Teacher. — " No, Anaragoras ! Who was Diogenes ? Can any 
one tell ? " 

Several Pupils, — " He lived in a tub." 

Teacher, — *' Yes ; he was a famous cynic. Who was called the 
laughing philosopher ? Can any one tell ? " 

No answer. 

Teacher, — "Democritus; because he treated the follies and 
vices of mankind with ridicule. He taught that the physical uni- 
verse consists of atoms, and that nature, space, and motion are 
eternal." 

In another high school, the following recitation on the reign of 
Charles I. : — 

Teacher, — " This is known in history as the " 



228 EDUCATION. [December, 

Answer. — " Long Parliament." 

Teacher. — " The king ungratefully gave his consent to his " 

Answer, — " Execution." 

Teacher. — '' The king retired amid cries of " 

Answer. — " Privilege." 

I believe these recitations fairly illustrate a large part of the 
work done by those who have not made a %tudy of teaching. 

The topical method is especially well adapted to develop readi- 
ness in thinking, self-reliance, and self-possession. The pupil is 
placed face to face with his subject, and he succeeds according to 
Lis knowledge of the subject, his self-command, and his readiness 
in speech. He is trained in correctness and facility of speech, 
and, in a degree, he is practiced in extemporaneous speaking. 
He is also obliged to take a somewhat larger view of the subject. 

The discussion is profitably used, in the higher grades, in con- 
nection with the two other methods. It tends to give increased 
life and interest to recitations upon certain subjects, and, if prop- 
erly conducted, it teaches pupils to yield to the force of rea- 
son. Which of these methods should be made most prominent 
in a particular recitation, largely depends upon the character 
of the lesson, and the maturity of the pupils. While the 
topical method supplemented by the other two is best suited to a 
recitation in history, the questioning method is chiefly employed, 
though wrongly, I think, in teaching the ancient classics. While 
neither the topical method nor the discussion can be used to any 
considerable extent in the primary grade, the tluee should be com- 
bined in the higher grades. 

The number of devices and expedients that may be employed 
in the application of these three general methods is almost inflnite, 
and many are equally good. In so far as they conform to peda- 
gogical principles, they are proper, and in so far as they are effec- 
tive, they are valuable. To pronounce this particular method or 
device in teaching the best is the merest folly. What to one seems 
absurd, to another appears reasonable and valuable. Is the method 
based upon right principles ? Is it, in a degree, original ? Is it 
the way in which the teacher's best thoughts, deepest interest, 
and most glowing enthusiasm go ? With it, does he accomplish 
his best results? If so, then it is his best method, however it may 
appear to others. 

But any method is empty and futile, dead^ unless filled and vital- 



1888.] THE TEACHINQ OF THE ENGLISH LANG UAGE. 229 

ized^ and made effective by an unquenchable interest and enthusi- 
asm on the part of the teacher ; an enthusiasm that shows itself, 
not in noisy, highly demonstrative, and egotistic bluster, attracting 
attention from the lesson to the teacher, or causing unhealthful 
excitement, but a deep and intense interest that forgets self, cen- 
tres in the subject and the pupils and rivets attention on the lesson, 
an interest, not of the head to the head alone, but also of the heart 
to the heart, and through it reaching and moving the will. With- 
out this genuine, consecrated interest, the teacher is only sounding 
brass or a tinkling cymbal ; with it and through it, he becomes a 
fashioner of intellectual and moral character. 



THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

AND LITER A TURE.^ 

III. 

THE STUDY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 
BY MRS. LAURA SAUNDERSON HINES, A. M. 

NEW generations need new methods. Especially is this true 
in the study of English Literature. My early impressions 
of the study will never fade. A small biographical history of lit- 
erature served for a textbook and an interrogation mark for a 
teacher. The lesson was so many hard dry facts, — dates, names, 
and titles, — all to be piled up in the memory like bricks. Even 
the day of the month of the author's birth and death, no matter 
how unimportant his work might be, must be carefully memorized. 
The titles of all the works each writer had composed, with the dates 
of publication, must be religiously committed to memory. Great 
emphasis was laid upon such good mouth-filling names as Areop- 
agitica. Novum Organum, or The Leviathan. That these words 
might mean anything or contain ideas which we could understand 
never once dawned upon us. Why one man was called a better 
writer than another we made no attempt to find out. We memo- 
rized the opinion of our textbook with painstaking accuracy, and 
that always satisfied the question mark. 

1 Copyright, 1888, by Eastern Educational Bureau. 



230 EDUCATION. [December, 

The best rank was awarded to the most complete rehearsal of 
the facts of an author's life, the perfect enumeration of his writ- 
ings, and the repetition, word for word, of the summary at the end. 

No suggestion was made that these were readable books and of 
possible interest to us. Neither was it made clear to us that the 
papers and magazines we enjoyed so much at home weY*e a part of 
the very literature we were studying at school. It has taken 
time to remove from my mind the impression received in those 
early days that a man must be dead in order to make his writings 
a part of literature. 

Knowledge comes, and the methods of study in this department 
have been greatly improved. The true teacher of literature 
should work for thoughts and not for facts. In our best schools 
this work is done, and well done, but there are still many where 
too much of the old method lingers. The true teacher should 
study the minds of his pupils, the peculiar tastes and tendencies 
of each. He must try to awaken one out of dullness, and to 
steady the erratic brilliance of another. In no department can 
this mental development be carried on with greater success than 
in that of literature. 

The student should study the works of the authors themselves. 
Every high school girl and boy can not only read Chaucer but 
enjoy his writings. Most of them will find him a delightful writer 
and well worth the slight trouble of mastering his charming method 
of spelling and his rhythm. The sturdy boy will at once claim 
fellowship with the pilgrims as they journey toward Canterbury. 
He will tell you that Chaucer is a jolly fellow with a level head, 
and that he likes him first-rate. If you question him, he will give 
you his reasons for this opinion in honest English. The power of 
thought gained from reading the old masters can scarcely be esti- 
mated. No amount of memorizing textbook opinions will give 
the training obtained from reading and forming an opinion for 
one's self. A pupil that is required to tell what he thinks and 
why he thinks so, learns to rely upon his own brain rather than 
the textbook for his ideas. Then as the types of character, the 
styles of expression and the subjects presented are ever varying 
the teacher may rapidly master the tendency of mind in each 
pupil. The dreamy girl "dotes" on Edmund Spenser. The 
practical boy "has no use" for Spenser but likes the way Bacon 
puts things because he stops when he gets through. In such 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LAXGUAOE. 231 

expressed preferences, the bias of the pupil's mind can be easily- 
read. And the teacher can make suggestions for outside reading 
accordingly, so that other powers of the mind will be developed ; 
a taste for the romantic cultivated in the boy and an appreciation 
of the practical e very-day side of life awakened in the di*eam- 
loving girl. 

In studying an author througli his works, emphasis must be 
laid upon two points. The work chosen — if the class have time 
for but one — should be one that well represents the peculiar char- 
acteristics of the writer and one that is complete in itself. It is 
always desirable to study more than one selection from each 
author. In many instances it is necessary to study some of the 
shorter productions of tlie author and then parts of longer ones. 
This is true of writei's like Edmund Spenser, John Milton, and 
• Robert Browning, with whom the style of the shorter poems differs 
so greatly from that of their so-called masterpieces. The purpose 
of the autlior cannot be well understood unless the student has 
the whole composition in mind. And unless the writer's aim ia 
understood the student is liable to misjudge the work produced. 

When one complete selection from an author has been studied 
for its purpose, the relation of each part to the end in view, the 
author's methods of accomplishing his purpose and his style of 
expression, then the student is not likely to be unjust to that 
author in selections from writings too long for class study aa 
a whole. 

The most important factor in producing the desired mental 
development is the teacher's power to ask questions. 

It is assumed that no person will be entrusted with the teach- 
ing of literature who is not at home in the subject, who does not 
possess a mind imbued with the spirit of the masters whom he has 
to teach. In no way can he awaken the enthusiasm of his class if 
he attempts to teach what he does not know himself. The art of 
questioning is of great moment and cannot be gained in a day. 
To draw out each pupil's thought of the poem or essay under 
examination and of the man who wrote it, will require in the 
teacher an extensive knowledge of the laws of the human mind as 
well as of the author. It will also demand a thorough compre- 
hension of the meaning of the questions asked. The teacher can- 
not study too carefully the exact content of "why," "when," 
"where," and "how." The dull pupil must be encouraged to 
express what thought he has and incited to further thinking by 



230 ED UCA TION. [December, 

The best rank was awarded to the most complete rehearsal of 
the facts of an author's life, the perfect enumeration of his writ- 
ings, and the repetition, word for word, of the summary at the end. 

No suggestion was made that these were readable books and of 
possible interest to us. Neither was it made clear to us that the 
papers and magazines we enjoyed so much at home we^e a part of 
the very literature we were studying at school. It has taken 
time to remove from my mind the impression received in those 
early days tliat a man must be dead in order to make his writings 
a part of literature. 

Knowledge comes, and the methods of study in this department 
have been greatly improved. The true teacher of literature 
should work for thoughts and not for facts. In our best schools 
this work is done, and well done, but there are still many where 
too much of the old method lingers. The true teacher should 
study the minds of his pupils, the peculiar tastes and tendencies 
of each. He must try to awaken one out of dullness, and to 
steady the erratic brilliance of another. In no department can 
this mental development be carried on with greater success than 
in that of literature. 

The student should study the works of the authors themselves. 
Every high school girl and boy can not only read Chaucer but 
enjoy his writings. Most of them will find him a delightful writer 
and well worth the slight trouble of mastering his charming method 
of spelling and his rhythm. The sturdy boy will at once claim 
fellowship with the pilgrims as they journey toward Canterbury. 
He will tell you that Chaucer is a jolly fellow with a level head, 
and that he likes him first-rate. If you question him, he will give 
you his reasons for this opinion in honest English. The power of 
thought gained from reading the old masters can scarcely be esti- 
mated. No amount of memorizing textbook opinions will give 
the training obtained from reading and forming an opinion for 
one's self. A pupil that is required to tell what he thinks and 
why he thinks so, learns to rely upon his own brain rather than 
the textbook for his ideas. Then as the types of character, the 
styles of expression and the subjects presented are ever varying 
the teacher may rapidly master the tendency of mind in each 
pupil. The dreamy girl "dotes" on Edmund Spenser. The 
practical boy " has no use " for Spenser but likes the way Bacon 
puts things because he stops when he gets through. In such 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANCWAOE, 231 

expressed preferences, the bias of the pupil's mind can be easily- 
read. And the teacher can make suggestions for outside reading 
accordingly, so that other powers of tlie mind will be developed ; 
a taste for the romantic cultivated in the boy and an appreciation 
of the practical every-day side of life awakened in the dream- 
loving girl. 

In studying an autlior through his works, emphasis must be 
laid upon two points. The work chosen — if the class have time 
for but one — should be one that well represent* the peculiar char- 
acteristics of the writer and one that is complete in itself. It is 
always desirable to study more than one selection from each 
author. In many instances it is necessary to study some of the 
shorter productions of the author and then parts of longer ones. 
This is true of writers like Edmund Spenser, Jolm Milton, and 
• Robert Browning, with whom the style of the sliorter poems differs 
so greatly from that of their so-called masterpieces. The purpose 
of the author cannot be well understood unless the student has 
the whole composition in mind. And unless the writer's aim ia 
understood the student is liable to misjudge the work produced. 

When one complete selection from an author has been studied 
for its purpose, the relation of each part to the end in view, the 
author's methods of accomplishing liis purpose and his style of 
expression, then the student is not likely to be unjust to that 
author in selections from writings too long for class study as 
a whole. 

The most important factor in producing the desired mental 
development is the teacher's power to ask questions. 

It is assumed that no person will be entrusted with the teach- 
ing of liteiTiture who is not at home in the subject, who does not 
possess a mind imbued with the spirit of the masters whom he has 
to teach. In no way can he awaken the enthusiasm of his class if 
he attempts to teach what he does not know himself. The art of 
questioning is of great moment and cannot be gained in a day. 
To draw out each pupil's thought of the poem or essay under 
examination and of the man who wrote it, will requii*e in the 
teacher an extensive knowledge of the laws of the human mind as 
well as of the author. It will also demand a thorough compre- 
hension of the meaning of the questions asked. The teacher can- 
not study too carefully the exact content of "why," "when," 
"where," and "how." The dull pupil must be encouraged to 
express what thought he has and incited to further thinking by 



232 EDUCATIOX, [December, 

judicious questions. Tlie thought must be found in fragmentary 
answers and unformulated expressions and completed by means 
of questions. The student must be trained to finish the express- 
ion of his thought in words before he attempts to utt^r it. All 
this can be done by questions. It is of great service to the pupil 
if the teacher's questions on the lesson have been arranged in 
logical order before going into class. This exact series of ques- 
tions may never be put to the pupils, but the teacher so prepared 
does not allow the discussion to be drawn off on a tangent to the 
central purpose of the lesson. Also, the teacher so prepared does 
not confuse the minds of the pupils by permitting the discussion 
of more than one point at a time. 

A cliild's mind reasons with syllogistic accuracy if it has never 
been tampered with and given false conclusions from known 
premises. A little consideration of the political condition of 
England during those periods so barren in literary production, 
■ readily furnishes the pupil with data for the conclusion that no 
writings of value would be produced at that time. What writ- 
ings there were, he decides, would relate to the political or social 
interests of that time and so would i>erish with it. In this way, 
these periods become reasonable, not mere freaks of history. He 
no longer wonders that there was little but political literature in 
the early years of American authorship, when he considers that 
-during that time the government was forming and the minds of 
All our thinking men were centered upon the interests of the 
nation. The revival of learning ceases to be like Jonah's gourd, 
the wonder-work of a night, when the silent influences producing 
it are considered. The condition of the people, their state of civil- 
ization and advancement in thought easily show why one form of 
literature is so popular in one era while a different form is preem- 
inent in a second. If the student has not the time to look up the 
facts for himself, the teacher may so present them that the pupil 
can draw his own conclusions. 

A dozen dates, well fixed, serve to hang all the historical and 
biographical knowledge upon which one needs to know with 
exactness from Chaucer to Matthew Arnold. All other facts can 
be grouped about these as centres and remembered easily in their 
relation to them. 

In ten weeks, even, of this kind of study a class will show 
maiked improvement in the power of grasping thought, of reach- 
ing right conclusions and clearly expressing original thought. 



1888.] THE TEACHma OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 233 

There are many aids that may be employed in making this work 
of interest to a large class. The aim of the study of literature is 
the cultivation of a desire for reading the best writers, and of the 
power to do so with an understanding mind. A valuable help to 
this end is the devotion of five minutes of each recitation to the 
literary news of the day, every member of the class holding him- 
self ready to report, if questioned. Magazine articles of any 
relation to the topic of study, with the date and number of the 
volume and the author's name may be reported. The death of 
any man of literary distinction must be noted ; points of interest 
about new books, or any item seeming important to the student, 
should be gathered for that report. The shortness of the time 
allotted this exercise requires brevity and force in the expression 
of the facts, while the habit of noting accurately the points is of 
great value as a memory discipline, if for nothing else. But more 
important, to my thinking, is the grasp the student gains upon 
the thought of the world at large, and the habit of reading with a 
purpose. 

Besides this, printed outlines^ placed in each pupil's hand, 
showing the place each man occupies in his time, facilitate a com- 
prehensive grasp of the subject. Each man becomes one in the 
great body of thinkers and is no longer a separate unit. 

Papers showing the growth, development, and decline of any 
form of writing assist the student in keeping such writings in the 
right perspective. This development usually extends over several 
centuries, as in the case of the English Drama. An outline pre- 
sents at once to the eye the relation of the early forms to the later 
ones. Dates placed against each division prevent a confusion of 
periods and show the condition of that kind of literatui'e during 
each period included in its development. 

More valuable still we have found the reference lists. These 
lists give for each author, under such headings as " Life," "Times," 
"Criticisms" and "Editions," the best books written about the 
author. Pains should be taken, under "Life" for instance, to 
refer to one brief and succinct account of the author as well as 
to mention those full of detail, incident, and anecdote. On the 
left hand margin of this list against each book referred to, should 

iFor my own claesee I have used the hektograpb, printing the outlines upon sheets of 
the same size and punched so that they could be bound together or piled in book racks 
for easy reference in review. My pupils report constant use of these oatllneft and refer- 
ence lists in class work and later in their own teaching. 



234 EDUCATIOX, [December, 

be pLaced the library number of the volume. This saves the pupil 
time and often he obtains a book and reads it when he woukl not 
take the trouble to find the number. This is specially true where 
the library is a large one. In placing this list in the hands of the 
student*?, a brief mention of the points for which the volume is 
most valuable, helps tlie student in his choice of a book to read. 
All criticisms should be left until the author himself has been read 
and the pupil has fonned his ow^n opinion. Then lie can read the 
critic intelligently witliout fear of being unduly biased either by 
severity or excessive praise. 

The list given below is comparatively brief, as the Editions are 
so numerous that reference is only made to the general bibli- 
ography. The list does not pretend to be exhaustive. It gives 
the student a view of the subject through the eye, giving him 
under A the relation of the man's different kinds of writing to 
each other, and in B the men who have written about the author. 
The numbers are Boston Public Library humbei^s, as the papers 
were made out for Boston classes. 

WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY. 

1811—1863. 

A. 

I. Periodical Writings. 1829-1848. 
The Snob. 1829. (Punch.) 
The National Standard. 1833. 
The FraRer*8 Magazine. 1837-1839-1847. 
The New Monthly Magrazine. 1838-1840. 
Titmarsh Papers. 1843-1847. 
Punch. 1844-1854. 

II. Novels. 1848-1860. 
Vanity Fair. 1848. 
Illstory of Pendennis. 1849, 1850. 
History of Henry Esmond, Esq. 1852. 
The Newcomes. 1854, 1855. 
The Virginians. 1858, 1859. 

III. Editorial. 1860-1863. 

Cornhill Magazine. 1860-1862. 
Loveli, the Widower. 1860. 
Adventures of Philip. 1861,1862. 
The Roundabout Papers. 1860. 
The Four Georges. Published 1860. 

IV. Posthumous. 

Denis Duval. (Cornhill Magazine.) 

Early and Late Papers. Edited by J. T. Fields. 

Thackeray's Letters. Scribner, 1887. 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 235 

WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY. 

B. 
Life. 

Anthony Trollope's English Men of T^etters. 
1529.13. B. II. Stoddard's Anecdote Biographies of Thackeray and Dickens. 
4540a. 6. J. Hannay. Memoir of Thackeray. 

Editions. 

2575.78. See Bibliography of Thackeray. Compiled by R. H. Shepherd. 1880. 

Times. 

2496.77. W. H. Rldeing. Thackeray's London. 

J. McCarthy. History of Our Own Times. 

Criticisms. 

2478.57. Novels and Novelists. J. C. Jeaffreson. 
S. E.15.14. British Novelists. David Masson. 

4554.78. The English Novel. Sidney Lanier. 
2578.63. The Best of All Good Company. B. Jerrold. 

Magazine Articles. 

7313.1.9. Cornhill. Vol. 9. February, 1864. (Memorials by Dickens, Antho- 
ny TroUope, and Lord Houghton.) 
London Literary Budget, July 26, 1862. Page 265. (Mr. Thack- 
eray as an Editor.) 

3162.50.87. Edinburgh Review. Vol.87. Page 46. 

5314.1.13. Atlantic. Vol. 13. Page 371. (B. Taylor.) 

5314.1.34. Atlantic. Vol. 34. (G. P. Lathrop. The Novel.) 

5299.1.40. North British Review. Vol.40. Page 210. 

If time permits the student should write essays upon topics con- 
nected with the lessons. In no instance should the class neg- 
lect to define each style of writing. The discussion of what 
a sonnet, a novel, an epic poem ought to be and the expression of 
the definition evolved is a valuable drill. It gives the student 
the opportunity to compare the author's work with his ideal of 
that class of work. It heli)S him make keen discriminations and 
teaches him concise expression and precision in the use of words. 

This work requires thought and care on the part of the teacher, 
but the results are so manifestly valuable to the student that he is 
repaid a hundred fold for his labor. 



236 BDUCATIOX. [December, 



PREPARATION FOR CITIZENSHIP. 

II. 

AT AMHERST COLLEGE. 

BY ANSON D. MORSE, A. M. 
WMUey Profu9or of Hittory and Politieal Economy. 

GOOD citizenship is a product of character even more than of 
knowledge. One may know the facts and science of politics 
as thoroughly as Aaron Burr knew them and still be a bad citizen. 
If at graduation a man lack the spirit of the good citizen, he will, 
in all probability, never possess it; if, on the other hand, he has 
this spirit, but lacks political knowledge, his deficiency admits of 
partial remedy ; he can acquire afterwards a working knowledge of 
politics. 

The spirit of a college is an important factor in the education of 
its students ; it shapes their ideals, and thus counts for much in 
deciding the type and quality of their citizenship. The political 
traits of the Amherst spirit are like those of the decade, 1815 
to 1825, in which the college was founded.^ National as op- 
posed to sectional feeling, sympathy with the people, rather 
than a particular class, devotion to those interests which are uni- 
versal, have always been marked characteristics of Amherst. 
The relation of the College to slavery, the civil war and recon- 
struction, as shown in its teaching and the conduct of influential 
representatives, proves the strength and breadth of its nationalism. 
The democratic ideal of relationship between man and man is 
perhaps nowhere more perfectly realized than among the under- 
graduates at Amherst. Personal merit is the basis of distinction. 
Only talent, and fine or strong traits of character confer influence. 
There is no mammon worship. The student who works his way 
enjoys the esteem of the college community as fully as the student 
who spends lavishly. Straitened means lead neither to a surrender 
of self respect, nor to a struggle with society, the result of which, too 

^Amherst reckons 1821 as her birth year, but Amherst Academy, "the mother of 
Amherst College." was dedicated in 1815 and the College charter after a protracted and 
really desperate struggle was obtained in 1825. Vid. Tyler's History of Amherst College, 
Chapters III.-X. 



1888.] PREPABATION FOB CITIZENSHIP. 237 

often, is embittered isolation. The influence upon the rich is not 
less wholesome. They learn to judge themselves and others, not by 
what a man has, but by what he is and does. They learn also to 
regard themselves as belonging to the people rather than to a 
privileged class. Another side of this trait is the marked pref- 
erence for substance over form which characterizes both student 
and graduate. That the Amherst spirit is sensitive and respon- 
sive to universal interests is proved by the history of the college 
in respect to science, philosophy and foreign missions. 

The first fonnal step in " preparation for citizenship" at Amherat 
is taken at an interview w4th the President at the beginning of 
Freshman year. In this an exposition is given of the paragraph in 
the college catalogue which treats of "Administration." The 
most important clause reads: "A student whose recommendations 
have been approved, and whose examinations have shown liim 
capable of admission to Amherst College, is received as a gentle- 
man, and, as such, is trusted to conduct himself in truthfulness and 
uprightness, in kindness and respect, in diligence and sobriety, in 
obedience to law and maintenance of order, and regard for Chris- 
tian institutions as becomes a member of a Christian College." 
The words are explicit; still it is found useful to impress them 
upon the memory and to make clear fis possible their application 
to tlie actual conditions of college life. Emphasis is laid upon the 
facts; first, that the relation with the college into wliich the stu- 
dent enters is on his part voluntary ; second, that this relation is 
of the nature of a contract wliich binds the college to admit the 
student to its privileges and the student to observe the conditions 
on which these privileges are granted; and consequently, that non- 
fulfillment of obligations by cither party sTiould terminate the 
relation ; third, that this relation is direct ; the student deals with 
the college and the college with the student, not as a member of a 
class, but as an individual. The next step is participation in the 
government of the college. The nature and extent of this parti- 
cipation are stated in the catalogue as follows: "The Faculty have 
judged it wise to associate with them, in the immediate govern- 
ment of the College, a body chosen by the students themselves, to 
which questions of College order and decorum are referred, and 
whose decisions, if approved by the President, are binding in the 
CoUege. This Ijody is called the College Senate, and consists of four 
Seniors, three Juniors, two Soj)homores, and one Freshman, chosen 



238 EDUCATION, [December, 

by their respective classes. At the meetings of the Senate, which 
are hehl regularly once a month, the President of the College 
presides." ^ 

The attitude of the Senate towards the College Ls indicated by 
the following extract from its Constitution : — 

'"Before taking his seat, each member shall sign the Constitu- 
tion, U) which shall Ihj prefaced the following pledge : * I hereby 
sign this Constitution, promising to act as a judge ui)on all 
matters brought before me, and to endeavor in all my decisions to 
seek always the good order and decorum of the College.'" ^ 

The powers of the Senate are as follows: — 

"Whenever a member of the college shall appear to have broken 
the contract upon which he was leceived as a member of Amherst 
College, except in cases pertaining to attendance upon college exer- 
cises, determined by the regular rules of the Faculty, the case shall 
be brought before the Senate, who shall determine both as to whether 
the contract has been broken, and whether, if broken, it shall 
again be renewed. 

"The jurisdiction of the Senate shall also extend over such pro- 
cedures of any Ixxly of students, relating to order and decorum, 
as affect the whole college, and over whatever other business the 
President or Faculty may submit to it ; it being understood that in 
such cases the action of the Senate shall have the full authority of 
the college. 

"Any member shall have the right to introduce business, also to 
call for any vote by ballot whenever he shall desire it."^ 

The Facult3% subject to the approval of the Trustees, remains 
the general law-making branch of the college government. In the 
main the functions of the Senate are judicial. A large proportion 
of cases which come before it permit the application of principles 
and rules already in force. A question frequently adjudicated is 
wdiether a particular act in violation of order, decorum or good 
morals, should terminate the relation of the i)erj)etrator to the col- 
lege. But the Senate does more than merely interpret law: it 
deals with many questions which relate to the welfare of the 
college in a general way, and to the settlement of which, existing 
rules are inapplicable. Questions which concern student publica- 

»C<>lh'go Catalogue, Par. on Organization. 
< Constitution of tho Senate, Art. II., Sec. 4. 
3n)id. Art. IV. 



1888.] PREPARATION FOR CITIZEXSHIP. 239 

tions, intercollegiate contests, the privileges of and restrictions 
upon organizations which engage in these, the Senate decides 
according to its own best judgment; and in so doing, is gradually 
building up a system of college local common law. A third very 
important function of the Senate is to serve as a kind of perma- 
nent conference committee in which the President represents the 
Faculty and the Senators, the students. By means of these confer- 
ences each of the represented bodies becomes acquainted with the 
views and feelings of the other, and under circumstances which 
dispose each to considerateness. The result is the prevention of 
those frequent and, at times, grave collisions which arise from 
misundei-standings between faculty and students. The President 
can veto the decisions of the Senate as he can those of the Fac- 
ulty ; but he has very rarely found it necessary to do so. After 
full discussion, the President, who from the nature of his office 
embodies the conservatism of the college, and the Senators, who in 
their official capacity represent its radicalism, have come to an 
agreement respecting almost every question. The idea of a con- 
tract as the basis of the relation between student and college, and 
participation of the student in college government, are leading 
features of what some have called the "Amlierst System." The 
influence of this system begins with the first day of college life 
and increases to the end of the course. Ite first aim is to develop 
in the student the capacity for wise self direction ; its second, is to 
awaken in him an interest in the college and a sense of responsi- 
bility for its welfare. The system combats at the threshold the 
tendency once prevalent and still powerful, to put class feeling 
and college custom in the place of the judgment and conscience of 
the individual student. It tries to make him feel, with respect to 
the administration of college government, that he is not so much 
the subject of the faculty as their colleague. 

Is the system successful? Yes, but like other systems it must 
be used a while before it can work with perfect smoothness. 
Under this system college public opinion has greater weight than 
it used to have. It is probable that neither faculty nor students 
realize as yet the full consequences of this fact. In order that 
public opinion may become a safe guide in determining college 
policy, two conditions are requisite; first, it must be based on 
regard for not one, nor a few, but all important interests con- 
cerned; second, the estimate of the relative importance of these 



340 EDUCATIOX. [December, 

interests must be just. From a standpoint which takes into view 
only a certain set of interests, required attendance at church and 
chapel seems indefensible ; from a standpoint with a broader out- 
look, the question assumes an aspect which would lead advocates 
of the voluntary system who have the highest good of the college 
at heart, to wish for more light before assuming the responsibility 
of a revolutionarj' change. The habit of looking at both sides, or 
rather all sides of a question, cannot be formed in a day. The 
encouraging featui*e of the situation at Amherst is the evidence of 
progress in this direction. In general the difference between fac- 
ulty-views and student-views is less radical than it used to be ; the 
relation between faculty and studentw is more frequently that of 
friendly and hearty cooperation. Under the influence of this 
change certain hateful incidents of the old method of governing — 
its conflicts, diplomacy, and espionage, are being forgotten. The 
student is becoming a good citizen of the college community, and 
in this way, is preparing to become a good citizen of the state. 

At Amherst the fraternities, nine in number, are a marked fea- 
ture of the college. The proportion of '* Society men" is consider- 
ably larger than twenty years ago and is steadily increasing. In 
certain respects the fraternities are colleges within the college; 
they are bodies of colleagues whose corpoi-ate aims are in sympathy 
with those of the college and supplementary to them. Their 
vitality and prosperity indicate that they satisfy a real want. In 
fact what they offer the student is something he needs and cannot 
with equal ease and fulness obtain by other means. To prepara- 
tion for citizenship the fraternities contribute in several ways. 
They establish a close and permanent relationship between alumni 
and undergraduates, through which the juster views of life and of 
college opportunities and duties, which prevail among the alumni, 
reach and influence the undergraduates. By means of their 
intercollegiate relations the fraternities develop a friendly and 
magnanimous spirit towards other colleges. Through admitting 
delegates from each of the four classes they do much to keep class 
spirit from becoming arrogant and belligerent. As literary socie- 
ties they encourage the serious study and discussion of political 
topics. But of all their services to preparation for citizensliip 
one of the greatest is the aid they give in maintaining relations 
with general society. The tendency of college life towards seclu- 
sion is a survival in the field of education of the once dominant 



1888.] PREPARATION FOR CITIZENSHIP, 241 

influence of monasticism. This tendency explains in part why 
the educated modern is less frequently a man of affairs than was^ 
in classic times, the educated Greek or Roman. To many a studi- 
ous man, going to college has been to such an extent a going out 
of the world, that only with difficulty could he find his place again. 
To many who were not studioas, partial isolation from ordinary 
social influences during the four years of College life has proved 
seriously demoralizing. The happiest result is when social and in- 
tellectual development keep even step. The comradeship which the 
fraternities have always fostered is now widening into practical citi- 
zenship. Through his chapter house the relation of the student 
to the town of Amherst is undergoing a radical change ; he has be- 
come a householder, a neighbor, and a host ; as a taxpayer he has 
an interest in the management of town affairs ; his stake in the 
community is much more like that of other citizens than it used to 
be ; in brief, through helping the student to maintain responsible 
relations with general society, the fraternities make it difficult for 
him to be a recluse, a Bohemian, or an Ishmaelite. 

On the other hand it must be conceded that " Society men " are 
sometimes clannish ; and clannishness is narrow and narrowing — 
the counterpart in college of sectionalism in the state. It is, how- 
ever, a fair question whether the fault does not^ lie in the men 
rather than the fraternities — whether in fact the fraternities do 
not in many cases really broaden the associations and sympathies 
of men who are by nature clannish. Observers agree that the 
evil was greater when the fraternities were fewer. 

Turning now to the curriculum we find that the studies, and 
exercises which deal most directly with political subjects, are 
oratory, debates, history, political economy, international law, 
moral science, and discussions with the President. To oratory 
are assigned four exercises each week during the second and third 
terms of sophomore year, and one each week during the first term 
of junior year ; to debates, one exercise each week during the last 
term of junior year and all of senior year. Of the relation of these 
studies to preparation for citizenship the professor in charge says: 
"As the oratorical aim is not to impress upon the student any 
arbitrary system of delivery, but to develop and train his individ- 
ual powers, a necessary condition is a theme of interest and recog- 
nized importance to the speaker and his hearers. Experience has 
shown that this condition is most happily found in questions 



242 ED UCA TIOX. [December, 

relating to our political social, and economic life. The more 
thoroughly the (juestions are studied and the more deeply inter- 
ested the student becomes in their preparation, the more easily 
does he, as a speaker, relieve himself from restraints and reveal the 
powei's and defects that demand the guidance and criticism of the 
instructor. This is tlierefore suHicient ground, aside from other 
important reasons, for making the coui*se a stimulus and guide to 
reading and thought upon subjects readily seen to affect tlie wel- 
fare of our country. The subjects assigned are carefully arranged 
80 as to make the course progi-essive and systematic. The work 
early interests the student in subjects bearing upon the duties of 
citizensliip and in many instances it undoubtedly directs his 
private reading in the same channels. It is also probable that 
much of the forensic work in the literary meetings of tlie societies 
is largely influenced in its character by these exercises of the class- 
room. 

Tlie questions assigned for debate and discussion relate mainly 
to political liistory, our social prol)lems and present administra- 
tion. Typical (juestions as debated or discussed by the class of 
'88 are : — 

1. Has the influence of Compromise in our history been more 
harmful tlian beneficial? 

2. Is the cure of our social evils to be more largely moral and 
religious than physical and economic? 

3. Should the friends of temperance favor high license? 

4. Was Thomas Jefferson a better president than Andrew 
Jackson ? 

5. Is the "Fisheries Bill" the l>est means of meeting our diffi- 
culties with Canada? 

6. What is the true regulative principle in the industrial 
world? 

7. How are the interests of the laboring classes in this country 
to be best advanced ? 

8. What should be done in regard to the accumulating surplus 
in the United States Treasurv ? 

9. Which of the great political parties in the history of the 
United States has had tlie most influence upon its institutions? 

10. What should be the course of the United States in regard 
to immigration ? ^ 

1 Quoted from statomcnt of Professor Frink, made at reqaost of the writer. 



1888.] PREP^lBAriOX FOR CITIZENSHIP. 243 

111 history there are two courses ; one, a general course, wliich 
has four exercises each week of junior year; the other, a course 
in the political and constitutional history of the United States 
which has two hours each week of the first senior term and four 
hours each week of the second. In the study of general history 
the following divisions are made: (1) A review of Orienta.1, Greek, 
and Roman history. (2) A course of twelve weeks on the period 
from the Migrations to the Kenaissance, in which the history of 
England and the movements and institutions which affected west- 
ern Europe as a whole receive most attention. (3) A course of 
twelve weeks on the period from the Reformation to the French 
Revolution, in which the Reformation, the Catholic Counter-Refor- 
mation, and the Revolutions in England and France are the features 
most studied. (4) A course of eleven weeks on American col- 
onial history, the political history of the United States, and, in 
outline, the history of Europe since the French Revolution. 

Throughout these courses the standpoint is that of world his- 
tory. Only those fact*^ are studied which have a traceable relation 
to general progress. The history of a nation is treated as a chap- 
ter in universal liistory ; the importance of individuals, peoples, 
movements, and institutions is measured by their contributions to 
civilization. The question which the course propounds is : through 
what experiences and by what agencies has the world as it was at 
the dawn of history become the very different world of to-day? 

This course is a preparation for citizenship, because every man is 
a citizen of the world as well as of a particular country ; and the 
best work of a citizen is that through which he aids his country to 
recognize and discharge its obligation towards the world. More- 
over, there is nothing which so clears the judgment respecting 
national affairs as acquaintance with and interest in the affairs of 
mankind. 

The course in political and constitutional history begins with 
the inauguration of the new government in 1789 and comes down 
to the close of Reconstruction. In the spring of 1888, a special 
course of twenty lectures on ''The Civil War and Reconstruc- 
tion," was given. In explaining methods, an account of the work 
of the first term will serve. The period covered is 1789-1833. 
The following general subjects are selected for investigation by 
the students : foreign relations ; Indian policy ; banks : internal im- 
provements ; tariffs ; national sovereignty ; state sovereignty. 



■oiioiiik: lift'. Tin- inme 
il tlif inont (k-L-ply iiiler- 
thfir iirejiaratiiiii, tlif mtirt' ciwily 
iiist'lf friim rustmints ami reveiil the 



Stll.Ut-.l i 



niliitiuj,' tn 11111- iK.litiral su.-iul. aii(\ c 
tlioiiiu^^lily till' (lUL'stioiis il 
esled tile student Ijciouk-s in 
tliK's lie, lis 11 simaker, relieve lii 
Itowors ami ilefeits tlmt (lemaml the fjiiiilaiue ami iritieisni nf tliu 
iiiistnitrtor. This is thfivfurc suthcieiit irrouiul. aside from other 
iiiipnrtanl ivasniis, fur makiii;; the i-fnirse a stiiiiiihis ami friiitle to 
reading mid lhoiii;Iil iipiin siilijwls n-adily seen to affcel i!ie wel- 
fare (»f our eoiuitry. The snhji'i-t.s assijjned arc laivfuUy ananK^d 
BO iiti to make the voiii'se jirnfjii'ssive hihI systematic. Tlie work 
early intelvsts tlie student in sulijects In'arinjj n]ion tlic duties of 
citi/eiisliip and in many instanees it nmlonhtedly diivcts his 
jMivalf leadiuf,' in the same elianmds. It is also iirolxilde that 
mui'li of the forensii- work in the literary ineelinps of tlio sooiwtiea 
is laimdy intiuoiiced in its oliaraLter hv these exei-cises of thf cLiss- 



Th(i questions assigned for deltale and discussion ivlate mainly 
to iiuliiicnl history, our soeinl pi-olileiiis and present ailininistra- 
tion. Tyiiii'al tjneslinns us deliated or discussed by the class of 
'8«are: — 

1. Has the influence of Comiiromise in our history been more 
harmful tlian Iwnetiiuar' 

'2. Is the cuie of our social evils to be more largely moral and 
religiiniM than pliysical and economic? 

3. Should the friends of temperance favor high lioeiue? 

4. Was Thomas JeiTi'i'son a WMtcr [iresidtint titan An 
Jackson ? 

5. Is the "Fisheries Bill" the l)ent meaiut of iui»otiii^ our diffi- 
culties with Canada? 

(). What is the true it-guhitivu |iriiie4ple lu tb? industrial 
world? 

7. How arcs the intere-<tt3 nf th« Ijtbiirtag cluWfiS m Uiii' cnnnti-y 
to be hutti advanced ? 

S. What shnold he done in rugard Hft^iita aoooj 
in the Uuiusd StattR TrcMiiry'/ 

9. Wiiich of the s 
United Statert ha» had t 

in. Mniats 
In imtnigratiiili ? * 




8.] 



PBEPAJfATIO.y FOtl CITIZEN SHIP. 



In history tliere are two coui-aes; one. a general course, wliith 
has four exercises each week of junior year; the other, a course 
in the [loUtical and constitutional history of the United States 
which has two houi-s each week of the first senior terra and four 
hours eacli week of tlie second. In the study of general history 
the following divisions are made : (1) A review of Oriental, Greek, 
and Roman history. (2) A course of twelve weeks on the period 
fi-om the Migrations to the Renaissance, in which the history of 
England and the movements and histitutions whieh affected west^ 
em Europe as a whole receive most attention. (3) A course of 
twelve weeks on the period fr(mi the Reformation to the French 
Revolution, in which the Ref(»rmation, the Catholic Counter-Refor- 
mation, and the Revolutions in England and France are the features 
most studied. (4) A coui-se of eleven weeks on American col- 
onial history, the political history of the United States, and, in 
outline, the historj- of Europe since the French Revolution. 

Throughout these com-ses the standpoint is that of world liis- 
tory. Only those facts are studied which have a traceable relation 
to general progress. The liistory of a nation is treated as a cha[>- 
ter in universal history; the importance of individuals, peoples, 
movements, and institutions is measured by their contributions to 
oivilization. The question which the course propounds is: through 
what experiences and by what agencies has the world as it was at 
the dawn of history liecomc the very different world of to-day? 

This course is a preparation for citizenship, because every man is 
B citizen of the world as well as of a particular country ; and the 
best work of a citizen is that tlirimgh which he aids his country to 
recognize uud diacharge its ohligatiou towards the world. More- 
over, tluT« is nutliiug which so clears the judgment respecting 
natiouul affairs as acquaintance with and interest in the affairs of 
mankind. 

Tlio course in political and coustitutional history begins with 
1 of the new government in 1789 and comes down 
[cconstruction. In the spring of 1888, a special 
\, tcutniaa on " T!ie Civil War and Reconstruc- 
iuing methods, an account of the work 
Tlif period covered is 1789-1833. 
n ;ird selected for investigation by 
; Indian policy ; banks : internal im- 
btul suvereignty ; state sovereignty. 




244 EDUCATION, [December, 

These subjects are sub-divided ; that on foreign relations, for 
example, furnishes topics for ten students ; that on tariffs, for 
three. Examj)les of special topics are: (1) foreign relations 
during the administration of Wasliington; (2) compare the foreign 
policy of Washington with that of Jefferson ; (3) foreign policy of 
the Federalists during the administrations of Jefferson and Madison ; 
(4) history of the first bank of the United States; (5) history of 
tariffs down to 1816, including an analysis of Hamilton's report on 
manufactures in 1791 ; (G) history of New England Sectionalism; 

(7) the political work and influence of Hamilton ; (8) the political 
work and influence of Gallatin. Each student, as far as possible, 
makes use of original sources; in studying Hamilton, for example, 
he reads Hamilton's own words. The essays, so far as the nature 
of the topic permits, conform to the following scheme : (1) narra- 
tive of facts, (2) discussion of the constitutional questions involved, 

(8) influence upon political development. Each essay is read 
before a section of the class and in the discussion which follows 
every member takes part. About one-fourth of the lectui-es of the 
course are introductory to the period ; the others treat of party 
history. 

Political economy has four hours each week of senior year, and 
international law four hours during the last term of that year. 
" The first term is devoted to the study of economic theory ; the 
second, to the social problem and the problem of transportation. 
In the study of the social problem the individualistic, socialistic, 
and social reformatory propositions are analyzed and criticised 
and the lines indicated along wliich the solution must take place. 
In this course one important aim is to determine the principles and 
limits of state action. The third term is devoted to fiscal science 
and the tariff. In the former the main topics of investigation are : 
the theory of public fiscal administration ; the principles which 
should guide in making appropriations for public expenditure ; the 
subject of revenue in its general aspects ; the methods of raising 
revenue; the principles and the different forms and systems of 
taxation ; the general subject of public credit ; the extent to which 
the state may safely employ credit; and lastly the principles which 
should guide in the administration, contraction, liquidation, and 
conversion of the public debt. In the course on the tariff, the 
theories of free trade and protection and the liistory of the tariffs 
of the United States, are studied. The aim is not to make stu- 



1«88.] PBEPARATIOX FOR CITIZENSHIP. 245 

dents free traders or protectionists, but to secure acquaintance 
with the subject and establish the habit of candid thinking. 

The method of instruction is as follows: the subject is first 
outlined by means of lectures and then discussed in the class. 
By means of references, acquaintance with authorities is ob- 
tained. For those who can devote more time to the subject 
a seminary is held for the free discussion of practical economic 
questions. In international law the methods are the same as those 
employed in political economy. ^ 

Moral science has five hours each week during the second term 
of senior year. *'In the study of Ethics, which covers the whole 
sphere of moral obligation, special attention is given to the study 
of citizenship. It is felt that however perfect may be the form of 
government, its administration and its laws, these alone can no 
more make a good citizen than sunshine and rain and a rich soil 
can transform a pebble into an oak ; there must be a spirit of life 
from within before environment can call out growth; the spirit of 
life, the vital force of citizenship, is virtue. 

The method of conducting the study is, fii-st, to ground the 
student in the convictions of an immutable moralit)' as opposed to 
prudence and expediency. Then having found the source of 
moral obligation, an exhaustive investigation of the nature of the 
State and claims of positive authority is attempted in order that 
the conscience of the student may be aroused and government may 
be seen to be one of right as well as might. Having thiLs laid the 
foundations of civil authority, the questions respecting the forms 
which are legitimate and the limitations of its action, are discussed 
so far as these can be brought witliin a philosophical investiga- 
tion. 2 

Once each week during two terms the Seniors meet the Presi- 
dent for the discussion of questions which they themselves propose. 
A large percentage of these questions relate to social and political 
problems. The discussions are more like conferences than formal 
classroom exercises. Their value as a preparation for citizenship 
will be understood by all who know the college. 

Summarizing, we find that the political studies at Amherst equal 
thirteen and a half full terms of four exercises each week. Of 
these three and a quarter are in the department of public speak- 

1 Quoted fiom Htatement of Dr. Tuttle. 
> Statement of Pi*ofes»or Garman. 



246 EDUCATION, [December, 

ing, eight and a half in the department of history and political 
economy, one and three quartei-s in the department of pliilosophy. 
Most of these studies belong to junior and senior years; were 
they equally distributed, there would be one and a fraction for 
each term of the course. 

To what extent do the students come under the influence of 
these studies? Debates, moral science and discussions with the 
President are required; the others are elective. Tlie present 
divisions in oratory include all the class except eight members. 
All of '88, except three, and of '89, except two, elected at least one 
section of the general course in history ; and of these, nearly all 
elected the three terms. On the other hand, the division in 
political and constitutional history is smaller tlian in any other of 
the studies named; in the class of '89 which has ninety-eight 
members, it numbei-s forty-one. About half the last class elected 
political economy and international law ; in tlie present class, the 
proportion is somewhat greater. 

But long before the extended introduction of political studies^ 
a college course was justly considered a valuable preparation for 
citizenship. To explain this, account must be taken of factors, 
such as the influence of teachers, of classical study, and of re- 
ligious instruction, whose bearing on politicjil education is too 
often overlooked. Their importance in this respect is very great. 
A strong teacher who is himself a good citizen, invariably devel- 
ops good citizenship in his pupils. Many of the selections from 
Plato, — the Apology and (7n7<?, for example, — Thucydides, Demos- 
thenes, Cicero, and Tacitus, concern the citizen even more than 
the scholar. Moreover, the study of the classics, through acquaint- 
ing the student intimately with the thoughts and acts of great 
men and great peoples, tends to free him from the tyranny of 
petty interests, and creates in him a liking and aptitude for public 
affairs. The political service of religious instruction consists 
in part in the theory of the state which it teaches. The difference 
between the good and bad citizen begins with different conceptions 
of the state ; to the latter it is an association for the f uitherance 
of private ends ; to the former, an organism in which the function 
of the individual is to work for the welfare of the whole. Not 
until a man has learned to feel as well as ''tliink organically'* 
can he be a good citizen: but religion and rational religious 
instruction promote, perhaps more than all other influences united, 
this kind of feeling and thinking. 



1888.] THE TEACHINO OF MATHEMATICS. 247 



THE TEACHING OE MATHEMATICS.^ 

IV. 

TEACHING ALGEBRA TO BEGINNERS. — U. 
BY JOHN F. CASET, ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL, BOSTON. 

DR. PEABODY in his " Reminiscences of Harvard," says of the 
late Professor Peirce, "In one respect I was Mr. Peirce's 
superior, solely because I was so very far his inferior. I am certain 
that I was the better instructor of the two. No one was more cor- 
dially ready than he to give such help as he could, but his intuition 
of the whole ground was so keen and comprehensive that he could 
not take cognizance of the slow and tentative processes of mind by 
which an ordinary learner was compelled to make his step-by-step 
progress. 

"In his explanations he would take giant strides, and his fre- 
quent 'you see ' indicated what he saw clearly, but that of which 
his pupil could get hardly a glimpse. 

" I, on the other hand, was so far from being a proficient in the 
more advanced parts of the course, that I studied every lesson as 
patiently and thoroughly as any of my pupils could have done. I, 
therefore, knew every short step of the way that they would be 
obliged to take, and could lead them in the very footsteps which I 
had just trodden myself." 

A great amount of energy and ammunition is wasted in firing 
over the heads of pupils, — a course which mystifies rather than 
enlightens, and discourages by disclosing apparently unfathomable 
depths. 

In solving simple equations with one unknown quantity, at least 
twenty-five lessons of one hour each can be profitably employed. 
And all this time, not one word should be said about addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, or division as such, or any instruction 
given as to the processes by which these four fundamental opera- 
tions are performed. If the pupil has an equation in which occurs 

^ Copjrright, 1888, by Eastern Educational Bureau. 



248 EDUCATION. [December, 

the expression 2a: + 82: = 20, his common sense, with his knowledge 
of arithmetic, will enable him to form from it the equation bx = 
20 and from that x= i without any knowledge of the principles 
of algebraic addition or division. So, also, if the sign minus 
occurs, he has already used it in arithmetic, and, for all problems 
or equations that he will meet for the first few months, it has the 
same meaning in algebra and will be handled as readily, except 
when it comes before a fraction having a numerator of more than 
one term. In this case, the teacher must show him how to find 
out what to do, not in order to satisfy any technical algebmic 
demands, but must appeal to his common sense and his knowledge 
of arithmetic to lead him by well-known processes to form an 
equation less complex. He can also be readily taught to clear 
from fractions any simple equation that he ought to meet in the 
first few months, without knowing that there is such a process as 
algebraic multiplication. 

When he can solve these equations readily, it is time to say 
something about addition, subtraction, etc., as such. He has al- 
ready been adding and subtracting when he united terms in such 
expressions as Si- + 2x — 3x = 60, it is but a step which he will 
readily take, to unite these same terms when placed in column, and 
but one more to adding any polynomials. 

The old method now in common use, of teaching first the gen- 
eral operations of algebra at considerable length, and then supply- 
ing as an application of them concrete problems, is open to many 
objections. 

In the first place, a polynomial looks to a beginner very much 
like Chinese writing and pupils might be taught to successfully 
perform operations on either with equal profit as to mental gym- 
nastics and with about equal profit as to acquisition of useful 
information. 

The pupil may learn to add polynomials correctly in a few days, 
but, as he cannot realize what a polynomial is and why there 
should be such an expression till he has actually formed them in 
making equations, his addition must be mechanical and more or 
less distasteful. 

On this point, a few words from Herbert Spencer: "This need 
for perpetual telling is the result of our stupidity and not the 
child's. We drag it away from facts in which it is interested and 
which it is actively assimilating of itself ; we put before it facts 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS. 249 

too difficult for it to understand, and therefore distasteful to it; 
finding that it will not voluntarily acquire these facts, we thrust 
them into its mind by force of threats and punishment. By thus 
denying it the knowledge it craves and cramming it with knowl- 
edge it cannot digest, we produce a morbid state of its faculties 
and a consequent distaste for knowledge in general." 

After the four fundamental operations should come equations of 
two or more unknown quantities, avoiding, for the present, any 
complex literal equations for the proper solution of which a knowl- 
edge of factoring and fractions would be desirable. 

Not till he has been studying algebra for five or six months 
should factoring, greatest common divisor, least common multiple 
and fractions be taken up. By this time he will have become 
familiar with algebraic expressions, will know how and why they 
are used and can appreciate the advantages of factoring, etc. 

Having finished fractions, he will have obtained enough knowl- 
edge of the fundamental operations of algebra, to proceed readily 
and rapidly to the consideration of radical quantities, affected 
quadratics, etc., in the treatment of which not so much care will 
be necessary, for the pupil has now sufficient algebraic knowledge 
to be able to investigate for himself and follow the reasoning of 
new theories. 

One other point deserves special mention: that new subjects 
should be introduced by concrete work and inductive method as 
far as possible. In affected quadratics, for example, begin with an 
easy problem which will introduce an affected quadratic; with 
books closed, build on our algebraic knowledge already obtained, 
draw from it materials for solving the new problem. After solv- 
ing several similar ones, generalize the facte obtained, make our 
own theory and deduce a rule for the solution of all similar exam- 
ples. Do not leave the subject till the class understands it 
throughout, theoretically and practically, and can apply the prin- 
ciples to the solution of examples in the form of affected quadrat- 
ics, to equations with exponente or coefficiente, either monomial or 
polynomial, numerical or literal, positive or negative, integral or 
fractional. 

It is in the first few months that pupils are either well fitted and 
well disposed to proceed with algebraic study, or are spoiled by 
too great speed, or by demands made beyond their ability or com- 
prehension, or are confused by bad methods and inexperienced 



240 EDUCATION. [December, 

interests must be just. From a standpoint wliich takes into view- 
only a certain set of interests, required attendance at church and 
chapel seems indefensible ; from a standpoint with a broader out- 
look, the question assumes an aspect which would lead advocates 
of the voluntary system who have the highest good of the college 
at heart, to wish for more light before assuming the responsibility 
of a revolutionaiy change. The habit of looking at both sides, or 
rather all sides of a question, cannot be formed in a day. The 
encouraging feature of the situation at Amherst is the evidence of 
progress in this direction. In general the difference between fac- 
ulty-views and student-views is less radical than it used to be ; the 
relation between faculty and studentw is more frequently tliat of 
friendly and hearty cooperation. Under the influence of this 
change certain hateful incidents of the old method of governing — 
its conflicts, diplomacy, and espionage, are being forgotten. The 
student is becoming a good citizen of the college community, and 
in this way, is preparing to become a good citizen of the state. 

At Amherst the fraternities, nine in number, are a marked fea- 
ture of the college. The proportion of '' Society men " is consider- 
ably larger than twenty years ago and is steadily increasing. In 
certain respects the fraternities are colleges within the college; 
they are bodies of colleagues whose corporate aims are in sympathy 
with those of the college and supplementary to them. Their 
vitality and prosperity indicate that they satisfy a real want. In 
fact what they offer the student is something he needs and cannot 
with equal ease and fulness obtain by other means. To prepara- 
tion for citizenship the fraternities contribute in several ways. 
They establish a close and permanent relationship between alumni 
and undergraduates, through which the juster views of life and of 
college opportunities and duties, which prevail among the alumni, 
reach and influence the undergraduates. By means of their 
intercollegiate relations the fraternities develoj) a friendly and 
magnanimous spirit towards other colleges. Through admitting 
delegates from each of the four classes they do much to keep class 
spirit from becoming arrogant and belligerent. As literary socie- 
ties they encourage the serious study and discussion of political 
topics. But of all their services to preparation for citizenship 
one of the greatest is the aid they give in maintaining relations 
with general society. The tendency of college life towards seclu- 
sion is a survival in the field of education of the once dominant 



1888.] PREPARATION FOR CITIZENSHIP. 241 

influence of monasticism. This tendency explains in part why 
the educated modern is less frequently a man of affairs than was» 
in classic times, the educated Greek or Roman. To many a studi- 
ous man, going to college has been to such an extent a going out 
of the world, that only with difficulty could he find his place again. 
To many who were not studious, partial isolation from ordinary 
social influences during the four years of College life has proved 
seriously demoralizing. The happiest result is when social and in- 
tellectual development keep even step. The comradeship which the 
fraternities have always fostered is now widening into practical citi- 
zenship. Through his chapter house the relation of the student 
to the town of Amherst is undergoing a radical change ; he has be- 
come a householder, a neighbor, and a host ; as a taxpayer he has 
an interest in the management of town affairs ; his stake in the 
community is much more like that of other citizens than it used to 
be ; in brief, thi-ough helping the student to maintain responsible 
relations with general society, the fraternities make it difficult for 
him to be a recluse, a Bohemian, or an Ishmaelite. 

On the other hand it must be conceded that " Society men " are 
sometimes clannish ; and clannishness is narrow and narrowing — 
the counterpart in college of sectionalism in the state. It is, how- 
ever, a fair question whether the fault does not^ lie in the men 
rather than the fraternities — whether in fact the fraternities do 
not in many cases really broaden the associations and sympathies 
of men who are by nature clannish. Observers agree that the 
evil was greater when the fraternities were fewer. 

Turning now to the curriculum we find that the studies, and 
exercises which deal most directly with political subjects, are 
oratory, debates, history, political economy, international law, 
moral science, and discussions with the President. To oratory 
are assigned four exercises each week during the second and third 
terms of sophomore year, and one each week during the first term 
of junior year ; to debates, one exercise each week during the last 
term of junior year and all of senior year. Of the relation of these 
studies to preparation for citizenship the professor in charge says : 
"As the oratorical aim is not to impress upon the student any 
arbitrary system of delivery, but to develop and train his individ- 
ual powers, a necessary condition is a theme of interest and recog- 
nized importance to the speaker and his hearers. Experience has 
shown that this condition is most happily found in questions 



242 ED VGA TIOS, [December, 

relating to our political social, and economic life. The more 
thoroughly the (jiiestions are studied and the more deeply inter- 
ested the student becomes in their preparation, the more eiisily 
does he, as a speaker, relieve himself from restraints and reveal the 
powers and defects that demand the guidance and criticism of the 
instructor. This is therefore sufficient ground, aside from other 
important reasons, for making the course a stimulus and guide to 
reading and thought upon subjects readily seen to affect the wel- 
fare of oiu' country. The subjects assigned are carefully arranged 
so as to make the course progressive and systematic. The work 
early interests the student in subjects bearing upon the duties of 
citizenship and in many instances it undoubtedly directs liis 
private reading in the same chamiels. It Ls also probable that 
much of the forensic work in the literary meetings of the societies 
is largely influenced in its character by these exercises of the class- 
room. 

The questions assigned for debate and discussion relate mainly 
to political history, our social problems and present administra- 
tion. Typical (juestions as debated or discussed by the class of 
'88 are : — 

1. Hiis the influence of Compromise in our history been more 
harmful than l)eneficial? 

2. Is the cure of our social evils to be more largely moral and 
religious than physical and economic? 

3. Should the friends of temperance favor high license? 

4. Was Thomas Jefferson a better president than Andrew 
Jackson ? 

5. Is the "Fisheries Bill" the best means of meeting our diffi- 
culties with Canada? 

6. What is the true regulative principle in the industrial 
world? 

7. How are the interests of the laboring classes in this country 
to be best advanced ? 

8. What should be done in regard to the accumulating surplus 
in the United States Treasurv ? 

9. Which of the great i)olitical parties in the history of the 
United States has had the most influence upon it« institutions? 

10. What should be the course of the United States in regard 
to immigration ? ^ 

1 Quoted from statomont of ProfeHsor Frink, made at request of the writer. 



1888.] PREPABATIOX FOR CITIZENSHIP. 243 

In history there are two courses ; one, a general course, which 
has four exercises each week of junior year; the other, a course 
in the political and constitutional history of the United States^ 
which has two hours each w^eek of the first senior term and four 
hours each week of the second. In the study of general history 
the following divisions are made : (1) A review of Oriental, Greek, 
and Roman history. (2) A course of twelve weeks on tlie period 
from the Migrations to the Renaissance, in which the history of 
England and the movements and institutions which affected west- 
ern Europe as a whole receive most attention. (3) A course of 
twelve weeks on the period from the Reformation to the French 
Revolution, in which the Reformation, the Catholic Counter-Refor- 
mation, and the Revolutions in England and France are the features 
most studied. (4) A course of eleven weeks on American col- 
onial history, the political history of the United States, and, in 
outline, the history of Europe since the French Revolution. 

Throughout these courses the standpoint is that of world his- 
tory. Only those facts are studied which have a traceable relation 
to general progress. The liistory of a nation is treated as a chap- 
ter in universal liistory ; the importance of individuals, peoples^ 
movements, and institutions is measured by their contributions to 
civilization. The question which the course propounds is : through 
what experiences and by what agencies has the world as it was at 
the dawn of history become the very different world of to-day? 

This course is a preparation for citizenship, because every man is 
a citizen of the world as well as of a particular country ; and the 
best work of a citizen is that through which he aids his country to 
recognize and discharge its obligation towards the world. More- 
over, there is nothing which so clears the judgment respecting 
national affairs as acquaintance with and interest in the affairs of 
mankind. 

The coui-se in political and constitutional liistory begins with 
the inauguration of the new government in 1789 and comes down 
to the close of Reconstruction. In the spring of 1888, a special 
course of twenty lectures on ''The Civil War and Reconstruc- 
tion," was given. In explaining methods, an account of the work 
of the fii*st term will serve. Tlie period covered is 1789-1833. 
The following general subjects are selected for investigation by 
the student.s : foreign relations ; Indian policy ; banks : internal im- 
provements ; tariffs ; national sovereignty ; state sovereignty. 



844 EDUCATION. [December, 

These subjects are sabHlivided ; that on foreign relations, for 
example, furnishes topics for ten students ; that on tariffs, for 
three. Examples of special topics are: (1) foreign relations 
during the administration of Washington ; (2) compare the foreign 
policy of Washington with that of Jefferson ; (3) foreign policy of 
the Federalists during the administrations of Jefferson and Madison ; 
(4) history of the first bank of the United States ; (5) history of 
tariffs down to 1816, including an analysis of Hamilton's report on 
manufactures in 1791 ; (6) history of New England Sectionalism; 
(7) the political work and influence of Hamilton ; (8) the political 
work and influence of Gallatin. Each student, as far as possible, 
makes use of original sources; in stud}4ng Hamilton, for example, 
he reads Hamilton's own words. The essays, so far as the nature 
of the topic permits, conform to the following scheme : (1) narra- 
tive of facts, (2) discussion of the constitutional questions involved, 
(3) influence upon iK)litical development. Each essay is read 
before a section of the class and in the discussion whicli follows 
every member takes part. About one-fourth of the lectures of the 
course are introductory to the period ; the others treat of party 
history. 

Political economy has four hours each week of senior year, and 
international law four hours during the last term of tliat year. 
" The first term is devoted to the study of economic theory ; the 
second, to the social problem and the problem of transportation. 
In the study of the social problem the individualistic, socialistic, 
and social reformatory propositions are analyzed and criticised 
and the lines indicated along which the solution must take place. 
In this course one important aim is to determine the principles and 
limits of state action. The third term is devoted to fiscal science 
and the tariff. In the former the main topics of investigation are : 
the theory of public fiscal administration ; the principles which 
should guide in making appropriations for public expenditure ; the 
subject of revenue in its general aspects ; the methods of raising 
revenue; the principles and the different forms and systems of 
taxation ; the general subject of public credit ; the extent to which 
the state maj*^ safely employ credit; and lastly the principles which 
should guide in the administration, contraction, liquidation, and 
conversion of the public debt. In the course on the tariff, the 
theories of free trade and protection and the history of the tariffs 
of the United States, are studied. The aim is not to make stu- 



less.] PBEPARATJOy FOE CITIZENSHIP. 245 

dents free traders or protectionists, but to secure acquaintance 
with the subject and establish the habit of candid thinking. 

The method of instruction is as follows: the subject is first 
outlined by means of lectures and then discussed in the class. 
By means of references, acquaintance with authorities is ob- 
tained. For those who can devote more time to the subject 
a seminary is held for the free discussion of practical economic 
questions. In internati(mal law the methods are the same as those 
employed in political economy. ^ 

Moral science has five hours each week during the second term 
of senior year. *'In the study of Ethics, which covers the whole 
sphere of moral obligation, special attention is given to the study 
of citizenship. It is felt that however perfect may be the form of 
government, its administration and its laws, these alone can no 
more make a good citizen than sunshine and rain and a rich soil 
can transform a pebble into an oak; there must be a spirit of life 
from within before environment can call outgrowth; the spirit of 
life, the vital force of citizenship, is virtue. 

The method of conducting the study is, first, to ground the 
student in the convictions of an immutable moralit)'^ as opposed to 
prudence and expediency. Then having found the source of 
moral obligation, an exhaustive investigation of the nature of the 
State and claims of positive authority Ls attempted in order that 
the conscience of the student may be aroused and government may 
be seen to be one of right as well as might. Having thus laid the 
foundations of civil authority, the questions respecting the forms 
which are legitimate and the limitations of its action, are discussed 
so far as these can be brought within a philosophical investiga- 
tion. ^ 

Once each week during two terms the Seniors meet the Presi- 
dent for the discussion of questions which they themselves propose. 
A large percentage of these questions relate to social and political 
problems. The discussions are more like conferences than formal 
classroom exercises. Their value as a preparation for citizenship 
will be understood by all who know the college. 

Summarizing, we find that the political studies at Amherst equal 
thirteen and a half full terms of four exercises each week. Of 
these three and a quarter are in the department of public speak- 

1 Quoted fiom statement of Dr. Tuttle. 
* Statement of Pix>fed9or Garman. 



246 EDUCATION. [December, 

ing, eight and a half in the department of history and political 
economy, one and three (quarters in the department of pliilosophy. 
Most of these studies belong to junior and senior years; were 
they equally distributed, there would be one and a fraction for 
each terra of the course. 

To what extent do the students come under the influence of 
these studies? Debates, moral science and discussions with the 
President are required; the others are elective. The present 
divisions in oratory include all the class except eight members. 
All of '88, excei)t three, and of '89, except two, elected at leiist one 
section of the general course in history ; and of these, nearly all 
elected the three torms. On the other hand, the division in 
political and constitutional history is smaller than in any other of 
the studies named; in the class of '89 which has ninety-eight 
members, it numbers forty-one. About half the last class elected 
political economy and international law ; in the present class, the 
proportion is somewhat greater. 

But long before the extended introduction of political studies^ 
a college course was justly considered a valuable preparation for 
citizenship. To explain this, account must be taken of factors, 
such as the influence of teachers, of classical studv, and of re- 
ligious instruction, whose bearing on [political education is too 
often overlooked. Their importance in this respect is very great. 
A strong teacher who is himself a good citizen, invariably devel- 
ops good citizenship in his pupils. Many of the selections from 
Plato, — the Apology and Crito^ for example, — Thucydides, Demos- 
thenes, Cicero, and Tacitus, concern the citizen even more than 
the scholar. Moreover, the study of the classics, through acquaint- 
ing the student intimately with the thoughts and acts of great 
men and great peoples, tends to free him from the tyranny of 
petty interests, and creates in him a liking and aptitude for public 
affaii's. The political service of religious instruction consists 
in part in the theory of the stute which it teaches. The difference 
between the good and bad citizen begins with different conceptions 
of the state ; to the latter it is an association for the furtherance 
of private ends; to the former, an organism in wliich the function 
of the individual is to work for the welfare of the whole. Not 
until a man has learned to feel as well as "think organically'* 
can he be a good citizen; but religion and rational religious 
instruction promote, perhaps more than all other influences united^ 
this kind of feeling and thinking. 



1888.] THE TEACHINO OF MATHEMATICS. 247 



THE TEACHING 01^ MATHEMATICS.^ 

IV. 

TEACHING ALGEBRA TO BEGINNERS. — U. 
Br JOHN F. CASEir, ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL, BOSTON. 

DR. PEABODY in his " Reminiscences of Harvard," says of the 
late Professor Peirce, " In one respect I was Mr. Peirce's 
superior, solely because I was so very far his inferior. I am certaia 
that I was the better instructor of the two. No one was more cor- 
dially ready than he to give such help as he could, but his intuition 
of the whole ground was so keen and comprehensive that he couli 
not take cognizance of the slow and tentative processes of mind by 
which an ordinary learner was compelled to make his step-bynstep 
progress. 

"In his explanations he would take giant strides, and his fre- 
quent 'you see ' indicated what he saw clearly, but that of whict 
his pupil could get hardly a glimpse. 

" I, on the other hand, was so far from being a proficient in the 
more advanced parts of the course, that I studied every lesson as 
patiently and thoroughly as any of my pupils could have done. I^ 
therefore, knew every short step of the way that they would be 
obliged to take, and could lead them in the very footsteps which I 
had just trodden myself." 

A great amount of energy and ammunition is wasted in firing 
over the heads of pupils, — a course which mystifies rather than 
enlightens, and discourages by disclosing apparently unfathomable 
depths. 

In solving simple equations with one unknown quantity^ at least 
twenty-five lessons of one hour each can be profitably employed. 
And all this time, not one word should be said about addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, or division as such, or any instruction 
given as to the processes by which these four fundamental opera- 
tions are performed. If the pupil has an equation in which occurs 

^ Copyright, 1888, by Eastern Eduoational Bureau. 



348 EDUCATION. [December, 

the expression 2x-\-Zx-= 20, his common sense, with his knowledge 
of arithmetic, will enable him to form from it the equation t>x = 
20 and from that a: = 4 without any knowledge of the principles 
of algebraic addition or division. So, also, if the sign minus 
occurs, he has already used it in arithmetic, and, for all problems 
or equations that he will meet for the first few months, it has the 
same meaning in algebra and will be handled as readily, except 
when it comes before a fraction having a numerator of more than 
one term. In this case, the teacher must show him how to find 
out what to do, not in order to satisfy any technical algebraic 
demands, but must appeal to his common sense and his knowledge 
of arithmetic to lead him by well-known processes to form an 
equation less complex. He can also be readily tauglit to clear 
from fractions any simple equation that he ought to meet in the 
first few months, without knowing that there is such a process as 
algebraic multiplication. 

When he can solve these equations readily, it is time to say 
something about addition, subtraction, etc., as such. He has al- 
ready been adding and subtracting when he united terms in such 
expressions as bx-\-2x — 82; = 60, it is but a step which he will 
readily take, to unite these same terms when placed in column, and 
but one more to adding any polynomials. 

The old method now in common use, of teaching first the gen- 
eral operations of algebra at considerable length, and then supply- 
ing as an application of them concrete problems, is open to many 
objections. 

In the first place, a polynomial looks to a beginner very much 
like Chinese writing and pupils might be taught to successfully 
perform operations on either with equal profit as to mental gym- 
nastics and with about equal profit as to acquisition of useful 
information. 

The pupil may learn to add polynomials correctly in a few days, 
but, as he cannot realize what a polynomial is and why there 
should be such an expression till he has actually formed them in 
making equations, his addition must be mechanical and more or 
less distasteful. 

On this point, a few words from Herbert Spencer: "This need 
for perpetual telling is the result of our stupidity and not the 
child's. We drag it away from facts in which it is interested and 
which it is actively assimilating of itself; we put before it facts 



1888.J THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS. 249 

too difficult for it to understand, and therefore distasteful to it; 
finding that it will not voluntarily acquire these facts, we thrust 
them into its mind by force of threats and punishment. By thus 
denying it the knowledge it craves and cramming it with knowl- 
edge it cannot digest, we produce a morbid state of its faculties 
and a consequent distaste for knowledge in general." 

After the four fundamental operations should come equations of 
two or more unknown quantities, avoiding, for the present, any 
complex literal equations for the proper solution of which a knowl- 
edge of factoring and fractions would be desirable. 

Not till he has teen studying algebra for five or six months 
should factoring, greatest common divisor, least common multiple 
and fractions be taken up. By this time he will have become 
familiar with algebraic expressions, will know how and why they 
are used and can appreciate the advantages of factoring, etc. 

Having finished fractions, he will have obtained enough knowl- 
edge of the fundamental operations of algebra, to proceed readily 
and rapidly to the consideration of radical quantities, affected 
quadratics, etc., in the treatment of which not so much care will 
be necessary, for the pupil has now sufficient algebraic knowledge 
to be able to investigate for himself and follow the reasoning of 
new theories. 

One other point deserves special mention: that new subjects 
should be introduced by concrete work and inductive method as 
far as possible. In affected quadratics, for example, begin with an 
easy problem which will introduce an affected quadratic; with 
books closed, build on our algebraic knowledge already obtained, 
draw from it materials for solving the new problem. After solv- 
ing several similar ones, generalize the facts obtained, make our 
own theory and deduce a rule for the solution of all similar exam- 
ples. Do not leave the subject till the class understands it 
throughout, theoretically and practically, and can apply the prin- 
ciples to the solution of examples in the form of affected quadrat- 
ics, to equations with exponents or coefficients, either monomial or 
polynomial, numerical or literal, positive or negative, integral or 
fractional. 

It is in the first few months that pupils are either well fitted and 
well disposed to proceed with algebraic study, or are spoiled by 
too great speed, or by demands made beyond their ability or com- 
prehension, or are confused by bad methods and inexperienced 



250 EDUCATIOX. [December, 

teaching, when to the ordinary difficulties of the subject are 
brought minds unwilling, because uninterested and convinced of 
their own inability. 

While more than one author has made some attempt to break up 
the old practice of beginning algebra with the definitions and the 
four fundamental principles of addition, etc., no work, with which 
I am familiar has been so successful throughout in ananging the 
topics and in introducing them in the manner most easily under- 
stood by the pupil as the Franklin Algebra. 

Whatever textbook may be used, the teacher, besides such ex- 
amples as he may invent to meet the subject under consideration, 
will find it most convenient to have a collection of problems from 
other authors at hand. An abundance of such may be found in 
Todhunter, Hall and Knight, Ficklin's Problems, Loomis' Alge- 
braic Problems, Capel's Tips in Algebra, and an excellent collec- 
tion in Wentworth and Hill's Manual. The teacher will also find 
of great service for beginnei's, and for introducing new topics, a 
little work published for the use of the Blind Asylum in South 
Boston, containing easy problems intended to be solved mentally, 
entitled Intellectual Algebra, written by David B. Tower and 
published by Lee and Shepard. 

What is the best method of conducting the recitation so as to 
ascertain the exact knowledge of and amount of work done by 
each pupil ? Every teacher knows that the number of solutions 
correctly worked out on a pupil's paper offers but little guide to 
ascertaining how much he has done and can do without any 
assistance. Work done in the presence of and under the super- 
vision of the teacher offers an accurate test of a pupil's acquire- 
ments and ability. 

Some blackboard work is desirable at every recitation to 
present a few examples to be explained to the class by the class 
and to be criticised by pupils and instructor. Every member of a 
class can be tested at every recitation in a very few minutes by the 
following method. The instructor distributes to the class a pack 
of cards numbered and containing work similar to that prepared 
for the lesson. Each pupil thus solves a different example and 
after a few minutes reports the number of his card and the answer 
obtained, which should agree with the answer to the coiTcspond- 
ing number on the instructor's list. The same pack will serve for 
many days by giving out the cards in a different order. This test 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS. 251 

takes but a few minutes, is comprehensive and convincing. If the 
pupil understood his lesson, he can readily do other problems sim- 
ilar to those learned. 

All explanations made by the instructor should be repeated by 
the pupils one after another many times and penalties should be 
imposed upon those pupils who do not ask for further explanation 
and yet when called upon are themselves unable to explain. 
Every class contains pupils who will at times apparently give the 
instructor the closest attention, and yet not hear a word he says, so 
intent are their minds on some more interesting topic. Also the 
explanations may be mechanically repeated by the pupil, if they 
have first been made by the instructor. It is, therefore, desirable 
to draw from the class by leading questions and suggestions as 
much as possible all explanations of new principles. 

Marking pupils for their daily recitations is an inconvenience to 
the teacher and as it requires the exercise of his judgment on 
every recitation and some clerical work to keep a record and 
summarize it, he would be glad to dispense with it on his own 
account, regardless of the effect of the system upon his pupils. 
And, yet, in ordinary schools, so far as I can ascertain, better 
results are obtained with it than without it. 

Pupils wlio are fitting themselves for examination for admission 
to college, and some, from their interest in the study or from a 
conscientious desire to do their whole duty, do not require any 
stimulus, and no tutor feels the need of either marking or exam- 
ining his private pupils. For they are generally students working 
for an object and, being few in number, he can keep track of them 
and knows pretty accurately their standing. But the ordinary 
high school pupil studies algebra simply because it is a part of the 
prescribed course of study. 

The ordinary system of marking furnishes a ready and accurate 
means by which pupils can compare themselves with each other, 
and affords the teacher information as to the standing of the differ- 
ent members of his classes, and also furnishes an easy means of 
informing parents about the progress their children are making. 
I have never seen in operation any system to take its place that 
seemed to me free from serious objections both as to results ob- 
tained and as to the effect on the pupils. 

If, as in some schools, you dispense with the daily marks and 
rank or judge of the pupil's progress only by monthly or occasional 



252 EDUCATIOX, [December, 

examinations, you have a system easier for the teacher but unsatis- 
factory to the pupil. For the pupils, feeling that their standing 
depends upon the result of these tests, when beginning them are 
brought into a nervous condition very unfavorable to mathemati- 
cal work or, indeed, good work of any kind and especially if the 
time be limited do they, as a rule, feel that they have not done 
themselves justice. 

If these tests are frequently made, then time is taken in exam- 
ining which ought to be given to teaching. Again many pupils do 
not possess the faculty of rapidly and correctly expressing them- 
selves in writing and, while they can orally make a perfect 
recitation, are unable to do themselves justice in written work. 
It seems to me, therefore, fairer to mark the daily recitations and 
to incorporate the marks thus given with marks given for examin- 
ations and other written work. 

To pass creditably examinations for admission to Harvard 
College or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology a period 
of study covering at least two years is necessary, with three or 
four recitations a week during the first year and two or three rec- 
itations a week during the second year. 

The class should be examined two or three times a year; not 
oftener, because examinations take up good teaching time. The 
examination should be made out by some competent person other 
than the instructor ; it should be written and sliould take place in 
the morning and should have ample time allowed it, not less than 
two hours. The examinations should contain from six to ten 
questions and, in justice to the dull pupils, an option should be 
given on some questions, either to do them or others less difficult, 
for doing which only a partial credit would be given. 

The paper should not be made by the instructor, because every 
one teaches somewhat in grooves, bearing down especially on 
points interesting to himself, and liis examination would natural- 
ly follow his teaching, whereas the examination ought to be 
broader, and the topics of algebra are so distinctly marked that no 
injustice can be done the teacher or the class by a fair and compe- 
tent examiner. The examination also, coming from outside, tends 
not only to disclose failures of tlie pupils but also omissions in the 
teaching and tends to keep the teacher intent to see that every 
point is finally covered, whatever may be his method of teaching or 
order of subjects taken up. 



1888.] THE TEACHERS PBEPAJRATIOy. 263 

The study of algebra develops certain powers of the mind better 
than any other study. The pupil who has mastered this subject 
must have obtained patient concentration of the attention, courage 
in attacking difficulties, a power of analysis and attention to de- 
tails, qualities which are useful elsewhere as well as at school. 
And it is a subject that can be mastered by nearly every one when 
it is properly taught. 



r//B TEACHERS PREPARATION. 

BY JOHN E. BRADLEY, PH.D., 
SuperifdendtnJt of Schooltt Minnecq>oHi, Minn. 

ORGANIZATION and new methods have brought great im- 
provement in the work of our public schools, but their 
efficiency depends upon what the teacher puts into them. It is as 
true today as it was thirty years ago, " As is the teacher, so is the 
school I " Indeed, this maxim is more emphatically true today 
than it ever was before. The more complex the system, the more 
important the office of the teacher. A mere routine of book les- 
sons, hearing recitations, may be conducted with little thought 
and no feeling. But if the teacher is to do more than turn a crank, 
if he is to infuse heart, vitality, inspiration into a system, he must 
possess within himself the necessary resources. The office of the 
teacher is not to pour into an empty receptacle, but to waken dor- 
mant energies. Reading, language, and number — Latin, litera- 
ture, and physics — are not so much the subjects which he teaches, 
as the tools with which he works. Only mind can quicken mind. 
Careful grading and elaborate systems of instruction, instead of 
taking the place of fresh and vigorous teaching render it the more 
indispensable. 

One of the first conditions of success in teaching is a genuine 
interest in one's work. This is the foundation upon which we 
build, the motive which animates our efforts. Some teachers are 
at a disadvantage in tliis particular. The)'' hate teaching. They 
count it diudgery and dread its details. With such patience as 
they can command, they await the day when they shall be rescued 
from its dire necessity by their father, or brother, or some other 
man. Their work usually lapses into a routine, whose dreary 



S54 EDUCATION. [December, 

round they daily run with meekness and resignation. Poor teach- 
ers are not all alike ; but there is a surprising similarity in their 
schools. Nothing is so monotonous as indifference. Such a teach- 
er is only something to hang a method on I She has no prefer- 
ences. Like the wire frames of the milliner and dressmaker, she 
wears whatever is in style. She will teach that the world is 
round or flat, according as the School Board directs. Before she 
can tell whether she prefers the Word or the Sentence method, 
she must see what the coui-se of study prescribes. Consciously or 
unconsciously, she has trained herself to a state of apathy. She 
ought to know the joy that always accompanies the best work, but 
she does not. She ought to know that the mind tends to become 
interested and act with spontaneous force upon those subjects to 
which it willingly devotes its energies. Duties, which were at 
first distasteful, may, at length, by their faithful perfonnance be- 
come attractive. Much of the world's best work is done by men 
and women wliose interest is only acquired. It in hard, at firsts to 
be compelled to earn a livelihood in an occupation for which one 
has no apparent ajjtitude, but kind Nature soon comes to the res- 
cue and supplies an interest, and often an enthusiasm for work 
which is done with fidelity and zeal. But the element of feeling 
may, at first, l)e easily turned Jigainst tlie unwelcome work. It is 
like those springs upon the summits of the water-sheds, of which 
teachers tell their geography classes, tliat a few strokes of the 
spade might turn their stream in the opposite direction, and cause 
them to flow with an ever-gathering force down some other and 
far distant valley. If one's work is not reinforced by a willing 
spirit, the interest which Nature contributes is soon found running 
down the dismal slope of discontent, disappointment, and fruitless 
repining. 

What are the elements which constitute tliis attitude of mind? 
What are some of those things which will contribute to a helpful 
interest in our work ? 

First in order of time, if not of imi)ortance, is a due apprecia- 
tion of the value and dignity of our calling. No one likes to ex- 
pend his energies upon unworthy objects. It is an inferior mind 
which lacks amlntion. 

I do not wish to indulge in empty rhetoric on this subject. 
Audiences of teachers are often addressed as if their calling sur- 
passed in importance that of the statesman, the soldier, and the 



1888.] THE TEACHER'S PREPABATION. 266 

preacher all combined. We are told that our future prosperity is 
secure because " the schoolmaster is abroad in the land," and so 
glaring has been the exaggeration that modest men and women 
have been in danger of going to the opposite extreme and taking 
an unworthy view of their oifice. They are conscious that the 
effusive orator, who welcomes the Teachers' Association by setting 
forth, in alternate periods, the attractions of the town, and the 
distinguished character of his audience, may not be wholly sin- 
cere. They are therefore in danger of accepting the ignoble view 
of the teacher's oifice wliich has been embodied into classic litera- 
ture by Shakespeare, Dickens, and Irving. 

But we cannot afford to forget that it is our work to train the 
faculties and mould the character of the young. The schools of 
today shape the civilization of tomorrow. Blending with other 
influences, the work of the teacher forms the future citizen. It is 
his office to bring the intelligence, the taste, the imagination, the 
capacity for obedience,, the love of truth into fullest vitality. He 
seeks so to train the pupil that none of his intellectual or moral 
resources shall be wasted. It has — and what calling has not? — 
its hard work, its exactions, its trials and discouragements. What 
will better enable the teacher to bear them than an elevated ideal 
of his profession and a strong faith in the possibilities which lie 
concealed in the nature of the child ? 

Again, the teacher must be in sympathy with children. No 
spirit of fidelity, no painstaking devotion, can make up for the 
lack of this quality. A subtle magnetism enables the teacher who 
is in hearty sympathy with her pupils, not only to draw them to 
herself in loyal affection, but also to attract them to those things 
in which she is interested. They delight to render a service to 
such a teacher and find it easy to do the work which she prescribes. 
Incited by this motive they make progress and improvement which 
would be impossible to them without it. Moreover, the teacher is 
herself stimulated and encouraged. Work cannot long remain 
distasteful when one is in hearty sympathy with its object. Du- 
ties otherwise heavy become light. There is no cure, no preven- 
tive of worn and irritated nerves, like a spirit in ready sympathy 
with childhood. Such a teacher sees something besides the hum- 
drum in her work. Her voice, her language, her wit, are to her 
scholars like the play of fountains in a sultry day. She knows 
how to give them a laugh when they need it, how to be cheery, 



256 EDUCATIOX. [December, 

how to make the atmosphere harmonize with their youthful spir- 
its. If an artificial gravity of demeanor is appropriate to any 
calling, it is not in ours. The teacher needs buoyant spirits and 
buoyant health. 

Another condition is self-control. A person must have his 
powers under command if others are to have the full benefit of 
them. This is true in all the relations of life — preeminently true 
if one wishes to teach as well as govern large numbers! But» 
unfortunately, the difficulty of self-mastery usually increases with 
its necessity. It is not easy to preside ^vith composure amidst 
conflicting interests and be calm when one's patience has been 
long and severely tried. But it is in just these circumstances that 
this virtue is most essential. Deficiency in self-command will 
speedily unsettle the very foundations of school discipline. A 
single lapse in temper will often so weaken a teacher's self-respect 
as to make a manly self-assertion impossible for a long time there- 
after; will so forfeit the confidence of pupils as to exclude 
obedience from any higher motive than fear. No one can safely 
assume the office of teacher, who is not so fortified in self-control 
as to be able to meet sudden and repeated annoyances with clear- 
headed composure. 

The second prerequisite to success in teaching is an adequate 
knowledge of child-nature ; its powers, its needs, and its conditions 
of growth. Teachers cannot all become deeply versed in the 
metaphysics of pedagogic science. But no one can minister to 
the child's needs who does not comprehend them. And any ade- 
quate comprehension of the activities of a child's mind must be 
the result of study and observation. Considerable instruction in 
the fundamentals of the science is indispensable to a favorable 
entrance upon the work of teaching. Some persons possess great 
aptitude to perceive and interpret the wants of the learner. 
Hence has arisen the saying that the teacher, like the poet, is born, 
not made ; but fortunately no such difficulty is involved in ac- 
quiring normal principles and laws as to render success in teach- 
ing unattainable by most of those who will make the necessary 
effort. A mere knowledge of the subjects to be ttiught, however, 
will not suffice. Pride of int<illectual attainments is only a hin- 
drance. Such teachers are like musicians who are familiar with 
the music to be played, but ignorant of the instrument upon which 
it is to be rendered. I once knew a primary teacher, graduated 



1888.] THE TEACHES JS PBEPARATION. 257 

with honor from one of our best colleges, queenly alike in pres- 
ence and in accomplishments, who was utterly unable to adapt 
her work to the children under her care. In spite of any aid or 
guidance which she could receive, inattention and disorder reigned 
in her school ; both teacher and scholars were fretful and bewil- 
dered, and she resigned in defeat. She was succeeded by a lady 
of far less mental force and culture, a young girl of fair education 
and ability, but whose normal training and study of children had 
given a ready insight into their needs. Her advent immediately 
changed the whole aspect of affairs. Interesting occupation was 
found for every child. Irritability and mischief gave place to 
quiet and enjoyment. Rapid progress in school work followed, 
and when, at the end of the year, she took leave of her pupils, 
they were filled with grief and overwhelmed her with expressions 
of their attachment. 

Such incidents do not lessen our appreciation of a broad and 
liberal culture in the teacher. But they do illustrate the neces- 
sity of understanding not only the knowledge which is to be im- 
parted, but also the minds which are to receive it. 

But it is time to turn from these more general features of the 
teacher's equipment to speak of his daily preparation. Our mental 
no less than our bodily strength needs to be constantly renewed. 
No teacher's instruction can be fresh and vigorous whose prepara- 
tion is not recent and thorough. The moment a person ceases to 
be a systematic student, he ceases to be an effective teacher. He 
cuts the bond of sympathy which binds him to the learner. There 
are those who listen to such statements with incredulity. They 
have taught five, ten, it may be twenty years, and they know their 
work by heart. What nonsense to suppose that they need to study 
their lessons. They are not going to spend their time in any such 
way. They have enough of school in school hours. 

Most of us have seen such teachers ; have watched how, year by 
year, their work grew thin, like the successive layers of a certain 
vegetable, until it became so weak and attenuated that it would 
scarcely hold together. We have seen how they themselves dwin- 
dled in brain power and worthy purpose till they became the jest 
of their former and the antipathy of their present pupils. 

Few teachers are more familiar with the work of their grade 
than Agassiz was with his fossils and fishes, or Doctor Arnold with 
his history and beloved classics. What was their view of this mat- 



258 EDUCATION. [December, 

ter ? See Agassiz dredging Vineyard Sound each day for some- 
thing new to show his classes. Listen to Arnold as he replies to 
the friend who asks him why he spends so much time in studying 
familiar subjects. " Because," he says, ** I prefer to hare my pu- 
pils drink from a running stream, rather than a stagnant pool.'* 
Charles Lamb mirthfully relates the experiences of a teacher who 
by dint of hard study always kept one day in advance of his class. 
But even this {(/noramus had one advantage, in the freshness of his 
knowledge. It is by the act of acquiring knowledge ourselves that 
we become able to help others acquire it. Great as is my respect 
for learning and thoroughness, I would cheerfully abate something 
from these in an instructor, could I be assured of a fresh and glow- 
ing interest in the work to be done. The moment a teacher's 
methods become fixed and inflexible, they lose a measure of their 
vitality. When they cease to require fresh thought^ they are a 
machine which the teacher works. No longer vivifying forces, 
they have become dead formulas. Our experience, valuable in 
itself, constantly t<3nds to settle into rules by which we guide our 
work. The new method, the bright, fresh thought embodies itself 
into a law of action. Like a plant it ripens, goes to seed and dies- 
New thought, originality, requires effort, routine does not. And 
so schools, and colleges, and pulpits may be found, all over the 
land, in which teachers have outlived their usefulness. They are 
suffering the inevitable penalty of letting their work lapse into a 
routine. There is no sadder picture in the history of education 
than that of Pestalozzi in his old age. In hLs early life he had 
given a fresh impetus to thought and kindled a new enthusiasm in 
the training of children. But later in years, his work settled into 
-empty forms. What had been inspiring and full of life in his dayB 
of invention became at length a mere petrifaction. Michel Br^al 
who visited him in his old age relates of liim that he would stand 
at the blackboard, pointing to his diagrams, his figures, and his 
names of the qualities of objects, while the children mechanically 
repeated his favorite watchwords which they had learned by heart. 
But the exercise had lost its value because it had ceased to require 
mental activity. His thought ran round and round in its well- 
worn groove. The cliildren's eyes no longer sparkled with inter- 
-est. What had once been full of meaning had become dead for- 
mulas. His pet system of instruction was already only the length- 
•ening shadow of a greatness tliat was past. Thus will it be with 



1888.] THE TEACHERS PREPABATION. 259» 

any teacher who thinks that his methods are so good as to require 
no further improvement. 

Teachers should each day prepare themselves upon the subject- 
matter which they are to teach. They should make sure of a fresh 
and thorough knowledge of all its details. It is not enough to 
know its leading facts, or to have a general outline vaguely in 
mind, expecting that it will all come back to them as they need it. 
They must acquire the habit of finding new lessons, new meaning 
in familiar objects. Each year's added power ought to enable 
them to see more in a subject than ever before. If they do not- 
thus gain additional insight, discover new facts and principles- 
year by year, the alternative will inevitably be true ; they will see 
less and less in each subject, will become superficial and lose 
power to stimulate their pupils. 

When Garfield was president of Hiram College, a young teacher 
once asked him how to hold the attention of his classes. His reply 
was : " See to it that you do not feed your pupils on cold victuals. 
Take the lesson into your mind anew, rethink it and then serve it 
hot and steaming, and your pupils will have an appetite for your 
instruction." The late Doctor Taylor of Andover, was not in all 
respects a model teacher, but he possessed a marvellous ability to 
keep his classes interested and make them thorough. He mod- 
estly attributed any power which he might possess to his love of 
the subjeots that he taught, which, he said kept him " always dig- 
ging away at them." What shall we say of a teacher who con- 
ducts the recitation with textbook in hand to verify the pupil's 
ans Wei's, and to see what comes next ? Who refers from time to 
time to his old normal school notebook to recall what was said 
there on that subject ? Imagine Doctor Taylor or Emma Willard 
thus feeding their scholars, not merely on cold victuals, but on the 
veriest dry husks of knowledge. 

The teacher's daily preparation should include, in the second 
place, the selection of illustrations, anecdotes, pictures, and objects 
by which the lesson may be enforced. Textbooks seldom give 
enough illustrative examples. Much of our school work employs 
no textbook. Whether a book is used or not, a teacher should 
always follow Nature's order of instruction. Facts must precede 
explanations. Individual objects, phenomena, and experiments 
come first, afterwards with many a correction and amendment, we 
reach the broad, comprehensive, and beautiful law which governs 



260 EDUCATIOy. [December, 

them. " The mind," says Herbert Spencer, " like all things that 
grow, progresses from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous; 
and a training system, being an objective counterpart of this sub- 
jective process, must exhibit a like progression. We must proceed 
from the single to the combined in mastering each branch of 
knowledge ; the mind must be introduced to principles through 
the medium of examples." Here, then, is a most important part 
of teachers' preparation. Casual occurrences witnessed by them- 
selves, or by the children, familiar phenomena of nature and facts 
gained from reading, should all be brought under tribute to enable 
them to vivify their teaching. They who thus come to look at 
things through their pupils' eyes will never lack attention. 

Thirdly, the teacher should prei)are a plan of each lesson, should 
determine beforehand how to proceed from step to step. Unless 
there be a distinct conception of both the end to be attained and 
the method by which it is to be reached, systematic progress is 
impossible. A good plan for teaching a lesson will regard it as 
one of a series, designed to develop certain faculties in the child, 
and also as an individual lesson designed to teach a specific thing. 
The method needs to be carefully adapted to the age and capacity 
of the class. The development, the illustration, the drill, the 
mode of emphasizing important points, all need to be determined. 
This surely requires study, and i&tudy too, in the light of peda- 
gogic principles and laws. The lesson must be connected with 
previous lessons; it must start from sometliing already knotvrn, 
and it must engage attention by exciting interest at the outset. 
Professional training and practice will give a teacher facility in 
the preparation of lesson plans, but will never render such plans 
unnecessary. Fruitful experience will rather teach one the dan- 
ger of allowing them to become stereotyped and monotonoiis. 
Variety of method is as essential as unity of purpose. 

Fourth, the teacher needs preparation in order to properly as- 
sign work from day to day. This is a very important, but oft- 
neglected item in a teacher's duties. Every exercise from the 
busy-work of the lowest grades to the original investigations of 
students in high schools and colleges needs to be judiciously di- 
rected. Aimless work discourages pupils. How often do scholars 
complain that they do not know what they are to study, or how 
they are to study it. Now and then some brave little fellow tells 
how he has studied for hours on something wliich it turns out that 



1888.] THE TEACHERS PREPABATION, 261 

he was not expected to learn. What wonder that pupils whose 
work is thus vaguely or thoughtlessly assigned leave school ! The 
question is often asked whether it is possible to make every grade 
of school work attractive. When the kindergarten and object 
lessons are outgrown, must the pleasure and interest in school 
work cease? Many claim that it must. Bam says: "There 
comes then the stern conclusion, that the uninteresting must be 
faced at last. The age of drudgery must commence ; we begin 
the discipline of life by inuring the child, gradually, to severe and 
repugnant occupations." Too often, alas I have teachers resigned 
themselves to the same conclusion. We protest against it. Such 
an admission robs both teacher and pupil of all enthusiasm, all 
gladness in their work. In opposition to this depressing philoso- 
phy, we claim that the normal action of each faculty and power, 
whether of mind or body, was designed to be, and i«, a source of 
enjoyment. Absolute idleness is always irksome. The sense of 
triumph in a boy or girl who has accomplished an allotted task, 
often affords the keenest happiness. Let the schoolroom be made 
attractive ; let it be pervaded by a bright and sunny spirit ; let the 
instruction and the tasks be properly adapted to the capacity of 
the pupils and they will not deem the work " drudgery," nor the 
occupation " repugnant." 

In the assignment of lessons, good judgment will not only adapt 
the amount and difficulty of the work to the ability of the class, 
but will give just enough explanation of difficult points to enable 
pupils to master them. It is also well to stimulate their habits of 
observation and love of independent work, by giving different ones 
something to look up and report to the class — never forgetting 
to drop a hint as to where the desired information can be obtained. 

The men and women who have done most to make the name of 
teacher honorable, have reflected much upon the laws and condi- 
tions of mental growth. They who would attain the highest 
excellence in this profession must thoroughly understand the pro- 
cesses through which they would conduct their pupils. And they 
must know the pupils individually as well as collectively ; must 
know their wants and adapt their instruction to each. And that 
they may do this they will closely observe each pupil's traits of 
character and habits of thought and expression. They will seek 
to know something of their home surroundings and other mould- 
ing influences. They will become acquainted \vith their parents 



262 EDUCATIOX. [December, 

when practicable, and will secure their cooperation in their work. 
With some children this is not necessary ; but if pupils are dull, or 
willful, or peculiar, a friendly understanding with the parents is 
often of the greatest value. Teachers who thus make friends of 
the people of their district will not only enlarge their usefulness 
and gain a firmer hold upon their pupils, but will also find their 
own life enriched and stimulated. 

In general we need to remember that the qualities of mind and 
character which are desired in the pupil must be in the teacher. 
" Men do not gather grapes of thorns, nor figs of thistles." If a 
teacher lacks integrity, refinement, earnestness, or courtesy, he 
cannot inspire his pupils with these virtues. An unconscious in- 
fluence emanates from him which tends to fix the standards of 
excellence in their minds. Every teacher should distinctly under- 
stand that the prime condition of successfully inculcating any ex- 
cellence, whether of morals or manners, of habits of thought, or 
habits of speech, is to possess it one's self and uniformly practice 
it in the schoolroom. Especially contagious are such qualities as 
cheerfulness, earnestness, and courtesy, virtues of fundamental 
importance in themselves as well as intimately related to intellec- 
tual growth. Neither teacher nor pupil can work at the best ad- 
vantage in a school where any fundamental duty is disregarded. 



YESTERDAY now is a part of forever ; 
Bound up in a sheaf, which God holds tight. 
With glad days, and sad days, and bad days which never 
Shall visit us more with their bloom and their blight. 
Their fulness of sunshine or sorrowful night. 

Let them go, since we cannot relieve them. 

Cannot undo and cannot atone ; 
God in his mercy receive, forgive them ! 

Only the new days are our own. 

Today is ours, and today alone. 

— Susan Coolidge, 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANOUAOES. 263 



TUB TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL 

LANGUAGES,^ 

IV. 

" ANCIPITI." 

Cesar's De Bello Gallico, 

book i., chapter xxvi., line i. 

BY PROF. W. S. SCARBOROUGH, LL. D. "^ 

ITA ANCIPITI PRCELIO DIU ATQUE ACRITER PUGNATUM EST. 

DOES andpiti in this passage means doubtful or douhle f On 
what ground is one signification preferable to the other? 
These are the questions that suggest themselves to one's mind as 
he reads this twenty-sixth chapter, and especially the part quoted 
with the comments on it. I have examined several editions of 
Caesar by various editors, and find that all more or less agree that 
andpiti should be rendered double^ on the ground that the battle 
was fought in two places, at the top and at the foot of the hill. 

To be more specific, I quote the language of a few of the edit- 
ors mentioned: — 

^^ Andpiti^ two-headed, thus facing two ways at once." — Allen 
and Greenough. 

''^ Andpitiy two-fold, because the Romans were fighting in two 
fronts." — Kelsey. 

" Andpiti pradio^ the battle is called anceps^ double^ because the 
Romans were contending with enemies, both in front and in the 
rear." — Ancb-ews. 

" Andpiti proelio^ in a double battle — so-called, because fought 
on different fronts. " — Harkness. 

" Andpiti prcelio is equivalent to dubio marie (according to Da- 
vies), because they were ignorant to which side the victory in- 
clined. Others say the engagement was fought in two places — 
at the top and at the foot of the hill." — Spencer. 

1 Copyright, 1888, by Eastern Educational Bureau. 



364 EDUCATIOy. [December, 

" Ancipiti proelio^ in doubtful battle ; i. e., victory inclining to 
neither side." — Bullions. 

*' Ancipiti proelio^ in a double conflict." — Cliiise and Stuart. 

'' Ancipiti proelio^ in a double conflict." — Leighton, in his ex- 
tract of the Helvetian war (Latin Lessons). 

It will be observed that Spencer is in doubt ; forms no opinion 
of his own, but simply dismisses the subject with (in substance) 
a remark — some say one thing and some another. Bullions states 
positively, " in a doubtful Ixittle." 

Though the trend of the argument of a majority of these and 
other commentators favors the rendering of ancipiti as double^ I 
am of the opinion, after a careful reading of the lines and the con- 
text, that ancipiti should be translated ilouhtful^ with the sense of 
uncertain or critical. To adopt any other meaning seems to be 
straining a point to make out a case. The position of the troops, 
though of importance, is not first as it seems to me ; it is the out- 
come, the result, that is of the greatest moment, and in a hard 
fought battle like this there was doubtless great anxiety on the 
part of the Roman commander-in-chief as to which way victory 
was inclining. And, too, tliis thought seeuLs to l)e brought out by 
the context: "Diutius quum nostrorum impetus sustinere," etc. 
When they could not withstand the attack of our men longer, one 
party retreated to the mountains and the other to their l>aggage 
and wagons, for during this entire battle, though fought from the 
seventh hour till evening, no one was able to see the retreating 
enemy. They fought till late at night, even to the baggage, be- 
cause they had employed these (their wagons) for ramparts and 
from vantage-ground were hurling down javelins upon our men 
(the Romans) while advancing, and some were discharging jave- 
lins and darts from below, between the wagons and wheels, and 
were wounding our men. After a long fight, our men captured 
the baggage and camp. A daughter and son of Orgetorix were 
captured. From this battle about 130,000 men survived whom our 
men, says Caesar, were not able to follow because of the wounded 
soldiers and the necessity of burying those already dead. The 
fact that the Romans did not follow up this victory shows that it 
must have cost them dearly. 

The sense of the passage, then, I should think, requires that we 
translate anceps in such way as to express the uncertainty of the 
contest. This is not done when we say it was a double contest. 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES. 205 

We learn from the latter part of the preceding chapter that the 
Roman army was drawn up in three lines (triplex acies) ; the first 
and second lines formed one division which advanced against those 
who had been defeated and were compelled to retreat, i. e. the 
Helvetians : the third line sustained the attack of those advancing 
(venientes) upon them : — 

"Romani con versa signa bipartito intulerunt; prima ac secunda 
acies ut victis ac submotis resisteret ; tertia, ut venientes excip- 
eret." 

May we not surmise that the battle between the contending par- 
ties had been raging for some time, the details of which having 
been admitted, Caesar, with his usual vivacity in describing an 
event, dashes into the subject as here recorded : Ita andplti proelio 
. . . . pugnatum est^ thus they fought long and valiently — 
with victory inclining neither way. Ita^ in this case, would refer 
not to the position of any of the contending lines (acies), but 
rather to the degree or intensity with which the battle was fought. 
In the seventy-sixth chapter of Book VII., a similar construction 
occurs : — 

"Praesertim ancipiti proelio, quum ex oppido eruptione pug- 
naretur, foris tantae copiae equitatus peditatusque cernerentur." 

According to some authorities, ancipiti in this passage is ex- 
plained by the two clauses following : '' quum ^.r," etc., ^*' foris tan- 
tae^'^ and consequently with the meaning of double ; a double 
battle, 

Andrews, in his Latin lexicon, says that anceps in general has 
reference to an object whose qualities have significance in two 
respects — double^ that extends on two opposite sides ; while duplex 
refei*s to an object that exists in separate form, twice. *^Thu8," 
oontinues he, '^ aneeps sententia is an opinion which wavers^ fluctvr 
<ites between two decisions^ while duplex sententia is a twofold opinion." 
After giving some examples illustrating this use, he adds, that 
since everything which oscillates in two different directions has no 
stability, anceps signifies ivavering^ doubtful^ uncertmn^ unfixed^ un- 
decided^ and further, since hesitation in the issue of an undertak- 
ing frequently causes danger, anceps also signifies dangerous, per- 
ilous, critical. There are examples in Livy, Cicero, Tacitus, 
Horace, Nepos, Ovid, Sallust, etc., illustrating these different 
meanings, though, as it seems to me, etymologically speaking, 
anceps ought to convey the one idea of doubtful or uncertain^ i. e., 
as in No. 3 of Andrews' division. 



966 EDUCATIOy. [December, 

Anceps is derived from an-eaput^ the an being equivalent to the 
Greek afKJyC, and with caput literally meaning " having a head on 
each side," or " heads all around." There are other words of simi- 
lar derivation, prceceps^ headlong ; biceps^ two-headed, triceps^ three- 
headed, all with caput as the radical, and prce^ 6e«, and tris as pre- 
fixes. In anceps appears the root cap which is the same as the 
Indo-European root kap^ signifying grasp, and which is also seen 
in caputs capitalist capitolium^ capitulum^ capillus^ eapillaris^ and in 
«c€^Xf7, K€if>d\at,(yi^ aK^<f>a\o^ of the Greek. The root " cap " (kap) 
as suggested by Professor Halsey,^ " is probably connected with 
cap " in capio. As we find it in caput and words derived from it, 
the meaning seems to be secondary and not primary, for in the 
primary sense of to hold, to grasp, from the ablant cap (kap), 
come anceps^ particeps^ princeps^ and similar words with genitive 
in is signifying birdcatcher, sharer, chief, etc., etc. 

Now, if having " heads all around " means anything at all, it 
must mean instability^ uncertainty, " A double-minded man," says 
one of the sacred writers,^ " is unstable in all his ways." In other 
words, the man who halts between faith and unbelief is not a safe 
man, he is not to be relied on ; for he is indecisive. The idea I 
wish to emphasize is the doubleness^ the twofold ness^ and hence, the 
doubtfulness^ as here implied. In the Vulgate for the expression, 
a double-minded man^ we have, vir animo duplici ; in the 'H Kat,vr) 
AiaOi^Kt] (Greek New Testament), avrjp Sn/rtf;^o«?. Doubtless the 
vir animo duplici^ the avr^p hiy^vxp^ and anceps are similar in thought 
and may mean the same thing, so far as the result is concerned. 

The following are a few passages in which anceps seems to have 
the meaning of double according to the authorities consulted and 
the text itself : — 

"Milites Romani perculsi tumultu insolito capere alii, alii se 
abdere pars territos confirmare trepidare omnibus locis ; vis magna 
hostium, ctclium nocte atque nubibus obscuratum periculum an- 
cepsr — Sail. J. 38-5. 

Some, however, render anceps indiscernible, thus, danger was 
indiscernible, meaning, I suppose, that the struggle was of such a 
nature as to make it uncertain where the greatest danger lay. 

"Talia magniloquo tumidus memoraverat ore, ancipitemque 

1 Etymology of Latin and Greek. 
* St. Paul, Epistle to James (i : 8). 



1888.] THE TEACHING OF THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES. 267 

manu toUeiis utraque securiin institerat digitis, primos suspensiis 
in artus." — O. M., 8-397. 

" Hie etsi pari proelio discesserant, tamen eodem loco non sunt 
ausi manere : quod erat periculum, ne, si pars navium adversari- 
orum Euboeam superasset, anciplti premerentur periculo." — Ne- 
pos. Them. 33. 

"Bestiarum autem terrenae sunt aliae partim aquatiles aliae 
quasi aneipites in utraque sede viventes; sunt quaedam etiam, 
quae igne nasci putentur, appareantque in ardentibus fornaeibus 
saepe volitantes." — Cic. De Natura Deorura, Bk. I., 37. 

" At vero curia, maesta ac trepida ancipiti metu et ab cive et ab 
hoste, Servilium consulem, cui ingeniura magis populare erat, 
orare, ut tantis circumventam terroribus expediret rem publicam." 

— Livy, 2, 24. 

"Sed quod erant quidam eique multi, qui aut in re publica 
propter ancipitem, quae non potest esse seiuncta, faciendi dicen- 
dique sapientiam florerent, ut Themistocles, ut Pericles, ut," etc. 

— Cic. De Oratore, Bk. III., 16. 

" In qua velim sit illud, quod saepe posuisti, ut non necesse sit 
consumere aetatem atque ut possit is ilia omnia cernere, qui tan- 
tummodo aspexerit ; sed etiamsi est aliquando spissius aut si ego 
sum tardior, profecto numquam conquiescam neque defatigabor 
ante, quam illorum ancipitis vias rationesque et pro omnibus et 
contra omnia disputandi percepero." — Cic. De Oratore, Bk. 
III., 36. 

Watson, in his translation of the orators, renders ancipiti doubt- 
ful^ and not twofold^ as in the sixteenth chapter. I give his ran 
dering : — 

"In regard to which (in qua) I could wish that that were true 
which you have often asserted, that it is not necessary to consume 
our lives in it, but that he may see everything in it who only turns 
his eyes toward it ; but even if the view be somewhat obscure, 
or I should be extraordinarily dull, I shall assuredly never rest, or 
yield to fatigue, until I understand their doubtful (ancipitis) ways 
and arts of disputing for and against every question." 

Again : " Tertium dubitandi genus est, cum pugnare videtur 
cum honesto id, quod videtur esse utile ; cum enini utilitas ad se 
rapere, honestas contra revocare ad se videtur, fit ut distrahatur 
in deliberando animus adferatque ancipitem curam cogitandi." — 
Cic. De Officiis, Bk. I., 3. 



968 EDUCATION. [December, 

To illustrate further another thought, that anceps may hare a 
derived or figurative signification which seems to be in harmony 
with its etymology, I quote from Virgil a passage in the ^Eneid 
where this word occurs with the peculiar meaning of treacherous 
or intricate. It is found in Bk. V., 589. Reference is made to 
the Labyrinth with its numerous cells, winding avenues, so ar- 
ranged as to lead back and forth in a maze, thus bewildering those 
who enter it and preventing their finding their way out of it : 

Ut quondam Creta fertur Labyrinthus in alta 
Parietibus textum caecis iter, ancipitemque 
Mille viis habuisse dolum, qua signa sequendi 
Falleret indeprensus et irremeabilis error. 

Another illustration is found in the same book where the poet 
represents the Trojan matrons excited by Iris (tlirough Juno) as 
applying the torch to the fleet of uEneas as it lay moored along' 
the Sicilian coast in the port of Drepanum : — 

Ab matres primo ancipites, oculisque malignis 
Ambiguae spectare rates miserum inter amorem 
Praesentis terrae fatisque vocantia regna : 
Quum dea se paribus per coelum sustulit alis, 
Ingentemque f uga secuit sub nubibus arcum. 

— ^Eneid V., 654, etc. 

Doubtless the meaning of anceps in this passage is the same as 
that of infestae^ hostile. There are many other similar examples 
to be found, both in prose and poetry. It may be reasonably con- 
cluded (from what has been said that anceps has no fixed meaning, 
but so far as one signification is more permanent than another) 
from an etymological standpoint, that ancepn m^ans doubtful in the 
sense of critical or uncertain, rather than double, and that meaning 
is by far more in keeping with the context of the lines quoted 
from the twenty-sixth chapter of Caesar's Commentaries. 



Life's more than breath and the quick round of blood : 
It is a great spirit and a busy heart. 
One generous feeling — one great thought — one deed 
Of good, ere night, would make life longer seem 
Than if each year might number a thousand days. 

— Bailey. 



1888.] EDITORIAL. 289 



EDITORIAL. 

THE late meeting of the New England Superintendents of 
schools in Boston, Nov. 9th, was devoted to the general 
topic of the examination of pupils and teachers. The latter phase 
of the subject was thoroughly treated by State Superintendent 
Draper of New York. No state east of the AUeghanies has made 
so important an advance in this direction as New York under the 
lead of Judge Draper, — by all odds the most effective of the 
superintendents of education in the Empire State. In a subse- 
quent number of Education we hope to give a complete account 
of this important movement, as described by Superintendent 
Draper. At present, it is largely a voluntary consent, by all the 
county commissioners of education, including the whole of rural 
New York, and a few of the cities, to establish a uniform system 
of examination for three grades of public school teachers. The 
examination papers and rules of proceduie are prepared at the 
department and uniformity is secured through that portion of the 
state most in need of the reform. The most important feature is 
the examination for the lowest class of teachers, who are given a 
certificate for a short time, with the expectation that a subsequent 
trial will improve their standing, as this certificate can only be 
once renewed. In this way thousands of incompetent persons, 
who are now clogging the wheels of progress, will be thrown out 
and the ground floor of the profession steadily lifted up. It is to 
be hoped that, in due time, this voluntary arrangement may be 
made the fixed policy of the state by legislation. There is already 
a system of granting state certificates in New York, and Superin- 
tendent Draper is hard at work to bring all the states to an agree- 
ment for mutual recognition of each other's endorsement of the 
superior class of instructors. 

"TTTHETHER our New England States are prepared for the 
V V concentration of power in the state department of Edu- 
cation, which a system like that already adopted in some of the 
western states, and in process of establishment in New York, im- 
plies, may be questioned. The township system of local govern- 
ment, peculiar to our six northeastern states, is at the bottom of so 



a70 EDUCATIOy. [December, 

much of the success and fame of New England in the past and, in 
itself, such an admirable training-school of citizensliip, tliat we 
cannot blame our i>eople for their jealousy of concentrated power 
or the tenacity with which they hold fast to the idea of local man- 
agement of the common school. One imj)ortant step has been 
taken in two of these states out of the old district system, which, 
once a necessity, is now a mischievous olistruction to educational 
progress. The movement for town and district super^'ision, if 
successful, will tell powerfully on the examination of teachers. 
In some way, the outrage of wasting the people's money for the 
support of incompetent teachers, elected for any and every motive 
excepting comj:)etency to teJich, must be abated. 

No question in public education is now half so imi)ortant as the 
elevation of the teaching force in every grade of school. Without 
this, all our improvements in method, organization, and extension, 
will only be a new burden to the cliildren and a disapi)ointment 
to the zealous disciples of educational reform. Not what new 
things can l)e added to the curriculum, but how can the teachers 
be fitted to handle the present course of study, is the fundamental 
question of the hour. 

NOW that we are l)eyond the exigencies of i>olitical jmrtisan- 
ship, we may perhajw indulge the hope that our "scholars 
in i)olitics" will give some attention to the fact^ of public school 
life <lown South, and not Ijefog the people with such preposterous 
"buncomb" as during the past few montlis. When a leading 
economist of New Englan<l seriously contrasts the public school 
affairs in Maine, the state which leads the Union in the i>er cent, 
of average attendance of children between six and fourteen, with 
South Carolina and Louisiana, — the latter at the nether extrem- 
ity in this res{>ect; or when another accomplished scholar 
flourishes Georgia, — the state which, in. proportion to its val- 
uation, does least of all for public education, — above New 
England, we may well inquire if the schoolmaster is "•abroad." 
And when grave college i)rof essoins insist that a reorganization of 
the whole system of the common school, to in(»ludc comi)ulsory 
manual training, can alone save it from i)oi)ular disfavor; wliile 
another would reconstruct American pojmlar education on the 
European basis of class instruction ; to say nothing of the 
monthly crop of alxsurd suggesticms ventilated in the popular 



1888.] EDITORIAL. 271 

magazines ; we may well ask, whither ha^ common sense and com- 
mon fairness of judgment departed? In this strait we realize the 
real importance of the average School Board, composed of a fair 
representation of the mass of people whose children are the sub- 
jects of instruction. They and the majority of intelligent teachers 
can still be trusted to save the schools from their fussy, impracti- 
cal, and half-hearted friends. 

ONE of the most interesting educational relics of the far-oflP 
days of the Southern Confederacy is a pamphlet containing 
an address to the trustees of Hollins Institute for young women 
in Virginia, by Prof. Ed. S. Jayues, dated August, 1864; on the 
establishment of a normal school for southern women in this 
Institution. The confidence with which the speedy success of the 
new "Nation" is assumed illustrates the absolute faith of even the 
educated class of the southern people in the ultimate triumph of 
their enterprise. But this admirable letter, apart from the pecul- 
iar circumstances of its authorship, reads now like a chapter of 
prophecy in the great educational awakening that has come to the 
reunited south; in which no leadership is more conspicuous than 
that of Professor Jaynes. With great force the Professor, in his 
adtb-ess, urges the absolute necessity of Univei'sal Education ; the 
enlarged sphere of woman as teacher and the peremptory need of 
professional training; with anticipation of the evils that any 
period of civil war brings upon childhood and youth; the result 
of the suspended education of one generation and the necessity of 
some opening for the large number of superior women imi)over- 
ised by the wreck of civil strife. All this has the same significance 
to-day in Virginia, and every other southern state, as in the month 
of its writing, twenty-four yeai*s ago. The professor has the 
pleasure of seeing his own initiative, one of the first in the south, 
so far along towards realization. He is, himself, one of the lead- 
ing spirits in the establishment of what promises to become the 
State Normal school of South Carolina at Columbia. We believe 
every southern state, now, except Delaware and Georgia, has 
made some provision for the state support of normal instruction. 
Maryland, Missouri, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Ten- 
nessee, Florida, West Virginia and Virginia have established 
special normal schools for teachers of both races ; while the other 
states, with the two exceptions named, if these be exceptions, 



272 EDUCATION. [December, 

attempt to provide for this want by a Professorship of Pedagogy 
in the State University. Every southern state has naturalized the 
Summer Institute. The latest important movements are the 
endorsement of the Winthrop Training School at Columbia, 
South Carolina, by a state subsidy of thirty-four free scholar- 
ships; — the establishment of a state normal school for boys at the 
old William and Mary College in Williamsburg, Va. ; and the 
planting of a new Chautauqua Assembly with large promise of 
success in the suburbs of Atlanta, Ga. 

THE chronic ecclesiastical misapprehension of character-train- 
ing in schools is not an exclusively sectarian infirmity, but 
breaks out continually among the clergy of every religious sect 
and the leaders of every anti-religious organization. It is the 
notion that character-training in schools depends chiefly on 
preaching, religious services, catechising, and the whole machinery 
of ecclesiastical propagandism. So far as indoctrination in reli- 
gious or atheistic sectarianism is concerned, this notion is probably 
true. But, in the character-training that gives to American 
civilization a generation of righteous young men and women with 
the moral equipment of good citizenship, this ecclesiastical fancy 
is notably untrue. Children in school, as everywhere, including 
college students, are cliiefly trained to right feeling, willing, think- 
ing and acting by the organization, discipline, environments and 
moral atmosphere of the school itself, in connection with the 
character, the '*walk and conversation," of the teacher. 

ONE feature in the school work of the late Mr. E. C. Camgan 
has not received at home the consideration it deserves. 
While more active, in some directions, than any young man in 
Boston and Massachusetts, he was foremost in a broad sympathy 
with and a constant effort for the enlargement of educational life 
through the southern states. His zeal for National aid was a con- 
stant rebuke to the local provincialism that would withhold from 
the six millions of southern children and youth that assistance by 
which the Northwest has l>eeome what it is, and insist on applying 
abstract right theories in the wrong place. In the death of Mr. 
Carrigan our southern school-men will deplore the loss of one of 
their most enlightened, energetic, and unwearied supporters and 
friends. 



1888.] MISCELLANY 275 



OLD SOUTH LECTURES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. 

THE course of Old South Lectures for the summer of 1888 had the 
general title of '' THE STORY OF THE CENTURIES." These 
Lectures are devoted primarily to American history. But this object ia 
liberally construed, and a constant aim is to impress upon the young 
people the relations of our own history to English and general European 
history, and our indebtedness to the long past. Next year will be the 
centennial both of the founding of our own national government and of 
the beginning of the French Revolution. 

In connection with the lectures, the young people were requested to 
^yi in mind certain dates, observing that in most instances the date comes> 
about a decade before the close of the century. An effort has been 
made in the Leaflets for the year to make dates, which are so often dull 
and useless to young people, interesting, significant, and useful. 

The Old South Lectures in American History for November and Decem- 
ber, by Mr. John Fiske, on Scenes and Characters in American History. 
Thomas Hutchinson, last Royal Governor of Massachusetts ; Charles> 
Lee, the Soldier of Fortune ; Andrew Jackson, Frontiersman and Sol- 
dier; Andrew Jackson and American Democracy Sixty Years Ago; 
** Tippecanoe and Tyler Too''; Daniel Webster and the Sentiment of 
Union. 

The Old South Leaflets for the year, corresponding with the several 
lectures, are as follows: 1. ''The Early History of Oxford," from 
Green's History of the English People, 2. '' Richard Coeur de Lion 
and the Third Crusade," from the Chronicle of Geoffrey de Vinsauf. 

3. "The Universal Empire," passages from Dante's De Monarchia. 

4. "The Sermon on the Mount," WyclifTs translation. 5. "Coper- 
nicus and the Ancient Astronomers," from Humboldt's Cosmos. 6. " The 
Defeat of the Spanish Armada," from Camden's Annals. 7. " The Bill 
of Rights," 1689. 8. " The Eve of the French Revolution," from Car- 
lyle. These selections are accompanied by very full historical and biblio- 
graphical notes by Mr. Edwin D. Mead, and it is hoped that the seriea 
will prove of much service to students and teachers engaged in the gen- 
eral survey of modern history. The leaflets are sold for five cents a 
copy, or three dollars per hundred ; the series of eight, neatly bound in 
flexible cloth cover, fortv cents. Address Directors of Old South Studies, 
Old South Meeting House, Boston. Schools and the trade supplied by 
D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, New York, and Chicago. 



574 EDUCATION. [December, 

The subjects proposed for the Old South essays, the present year, are 
the following: I. ^* England^s Part in the Crusades, and the influence 
of the Crusades upon the development of English Liberty." II. '* The 
Political Thought of Sir Henry Vane. Consider Vane's relations to 
Cromwell and his influence upon America." The competition for the 
prizes is open to all who have graduated from the Boston High Schools 
in 1887 and 1888. A prize of forty dollars is awarded for the best essay 
on each of the subjects proposed, and twenty-five dollars for the second 
l)est, four prizes in all. 



*' LIBRARIES AS BELATED TO THE EDUCATIONAL 

WORK OF THE STATE r 

THIS is the title of an article in ** Library Notes," for June, 1888, 
being ** Notes of an Address by Melvil Dewey, before the Convo- 
cation of the University of the State of New York, July 1 1 , 1888." The 
•whole article is a very suggestive one, which will amply repay a reading 
b}' any thoughtful teacher. He gives a ver\' shaip description of the 
'* old " and the '• new " library, as follows : — 

" The old library was passive, asleep, a reservoir or cistern, getting in but 
not giving out, an arsenal in time of peace; the librarian a sentinel before the 
doors, a jailor to guard against the escape of the unfortunates under his care. 
The new library is active, an aggressive, educating force in the community, a 
living fountain of good influences, an army In the field with all guns limbered; 
and the librarian occupies a field of active usefulness second to none.^' 

Read what Doctor Dewey says of : — 

" OUR TWO-SIDED TRIANGLE. 

*^ Beading is a mighty engine, beside which steam and electricity sink into in- 

«ignlficance. Four words of five are written : ' it will do Infinite ' : It 

remains for us to add * good ' or * ill.' What can we do? Good advice and ex- 
ample, encouragement of the best, addresses, all these help, but no one ques- 
tions that the main work is possible only through the organization and econo- 
my of free public libraries. Many have practically accepted this fact without 
clearly seeing the steps that have led to it. It is our high privilege to live 
when the public is beginning to see more than the desirability, the absolute 
necessity, of this modern, missionary, library work. With the founding of 
New England it was recognized, though opposed to the traditions of great 
powers In church and state, that the church alone, however great its pre- 
•eminence, could not do all that was necessary for the safety and uplifting of 
the people. So side by side they built meeting-house and school-house. The 
plan has had a long and thorough trial. None of us are likely to question the 
wisdom of bringing the school into this prominence, but thoughtful men are 
today, more than ever before, pointing out that a great something is wanting 
and that church and school together have not succeeded in doing all that was 



1888.] MISCELLANY. 275 

hoped or all that is necessary for the common safety and the common good* 
The school starts the education in childhood ; we have come to a point where 
in some way we must carry it on. The simplest figure cannot be bounded by 
less than three lines; the lightest table cannot be firmly supported by less than 
a tripod. No more can the triangle of groat educational work now well begun 
be complete without the church as a basis, the school as one side, the library 
the other. The pulpit, the press, and wide-awake educators everywhere are 
accepting this doctrine. There is a general awakening all along the line. The 
nation is just providing in the congressional library a magnificent home for our 
greatest collection of books; the states are passing new and more liberal laws 
to encourage the founding and proper support of free libraries ; individuals are- 
giving means for establishing these great educational forces, as never before." 

Every one will read the following with interest : — 

^^ As with the free school, so again, New England leads in free libraries, but 
her example is being followed with constantly increasing rapidity. 

THE LIMITATIONS OF THE SCHOOLS. 

^* Our fathers had to revise their ideas and introduce the free schools as ai> 
essential factor. The time has come when we must revise our conceptions of 
education or refuse to recognize very significant facts. 

^^ Education is a mutter of a life time. We provide in the schools for the first, 
ten or fifteen years and are only come to the threshold of seeing our duty to 
the rest of life. We begin to see that the utmost that we can hope for the 
masses is schooling till they can take the author's meaning from the printed 
page. I do not mean merely to pronounce the words or pass the tests for illit- 
eracy, but to understand. Observation has convinced me that the reason why 
so many people are not habitual readers is, in most cases, that they have never 
really learned to read; and, startling as this may seem, tests will show that 
many a man who would resent the charge of illiteracy is wholly unable to re- 
produce the author*s thoughts by looking at the printed page. And even with 
this tremendous modifier of the real number of readers we lose ground. I am 
no pessimist. I have no sympathy with croakers. I am proud to the last de- 
gree of the great work that is being done. But we cannot shut our eyes to the 
census. In 1870 fifteen per cent, of illiterates seemed an ugly item, but it had 
grown to seventeen per cent, in 1880, in spite of all our millions and all our 
boasts. Of the children of school age in this great state, how pitifully few get- 
beyond the grammar school? And of those who become academic pupils how 
many enter college? And to the saving remnant that graduates from college, 
how much of the knowledge of after life came from schools, and how much 
from reading? We must face the facts. We must struggle to teach our masses 
to read in our schools. Then they must become bread winners; and if we carry 
on their education we must do it by providing free libraries which shall serve 
as high schools and colleges for the people. Our schools, at best, will only 
furnish the tools (how rudimentary those tools for most people now) ; but in 
the ideal libraries, towards which we are looking today, will be found the ma- 
terials which, with these tools, may be worked up into good citizenship and 
higher living. The schools give the cliisel ; the libraries the marble ; there can 
be no statues without both. As this fact becomes more generally recognized 
the time draws nearer when the traveler will no longer ask, have you a library^ 
but where is the library, assuming its existence as much as he now assumes that 
there must be a church, and school, and post-office.^ 



»> 



276 EDUCATION, [December, 



FOREIGN NOTES, 

People's Palace, East London. — The first annual report of the 
operations of tlic '* People's Palace " at the East -end of London, reads 
like an eastern tale Something over a million and a half of people have 
visited the institution during this time, and the numbers who have been 
turned away for want of room would swell tlie total considerably. The 
institution provides both instruction and recreation. The facilities for 
the former consist of technical, art, and science schools, general classes, 
and free library. The latter is providc»d by shows, concerts, and fBtes 
of various kinds. The swimming bath and the gymnasium partake of 
both characters. The large new technical schools, opened October 5th, 
are the gitl of the Drapers* Company. These schools have accommo- 
dations and equipments for five thousand evening students, and the indi- 
cations ore that every place will be filled. Although the enterprise has 
been wonderfully' successful, much yet remains to be done to place it 
upon a sound basis. The site is only partially paid for, while at least 
£25,000 will be required to replace certain temporary buildings with per- 
manent structures. 

Hospftal for Owens College. — The governing bo<ly of Owens Col- 
lege, Manchester, has received from the residuary legatees of Sir Jose[^h 
Whitworth, the offer of a site for a general hospital, thirty-five thousand 
pounds towards the erection and equipment of the same, and an annual 
income of one thousand pounds. The hospital is needed for practical 
instruction in medicine and surgery 

English vs. German Pharmacists. — In his address at the opening of 
the forty-seventh session of the School of Pharmacy', London, Sir Henry 
Roscoe called attention to the fact that the German pharmacists greatly 
excelled the English in the discovery and preparation of simples. He 
attributes this to the more ample opportunity afiforded the German stu- 
dent for the pursuit of chemistrj'' in its higher stages, and in its applica- 
tion to pharmacy. 

Free Schools in Prussia. — One of the last acts signed by the late 
emperor of Germany was that making the schools of Prussia free in 
fact as they had long been in law. The act went into operation, Octo- 
ber 1st. 

Centennial Celebration of the University of Bologna. — Inter- 
est in the remarkable history of the University of Bologna has been 
revived by the recent centennial celebration. The *' Revue InternatioQ- 



1888.] THE NATIONAL MUSEUM AT WASHINGTON. 277 

ale De L'Enseigneraent" publishes an exhaustive article upon the sub- 
ject, from which the following particulars are drawn : With the excep- 
tion of the University of Paris, that of Bologna is the oldest in Europe ; 
its origin is lost in tradition ; the statutes of the corporation were men- 
tioned for the first time in 1224 in a letter of Pope Honorius III. ; but it 
was not until 1253 that the}* received the approval of the Pope, bj which 
it will be seen that the corporation has not yet completed its seventh 
century. 

The school of liberal arts and the law school, however, date from much 
earlier periods, and it is with reference to the latter that the recent cele- 
bration was characterized as the eighth centennial. The day chosen for 
the festival, viz., June 12th, commemorated the evacuation of Bologna 
by the Austrians. In memory of this event, the city had decided to in- 
augurate a statue of Victor Emanuel, and it was determined to join with 
this the celebration of the Universit}'. Two days were occupied with 
the ceremonies, the most interesting part of which took place on the 12th, 
when the foreign delegates presented their addresses to the rector in the 
presence of the royal family. The delegates wore their official robes and 
carried various insignia, presenting altogether a brilliant and impressive 
spectacle. 

Tradition recalls a time when Bologna numbered ten thousand students. 
At present it ranks third among Italian universities in this respect, hav- 
ing 1,338 students as against 2,102 at Turin, and 4,083 at Naples. The 
teaching force numbers 128 professors. Tiie annual expenses have 
reached the sum of $137,416, of which the state contributes a small por- 
tion, and the city and province of Bologna the larger portion. 

A. T. 8. 



THE NATIONAL MUSEUM AT WASHINGTON. 

BY A. TOLMAN SMITH. 

IN his opening address before the Anthropological section of the Brit- 
ish Association, Lieutenant-General Pitt- Rivers said : ^^ A national 
museum, created and maintained at the public expense, should be availa- 
ble for public instruction, and not solely a place of reference for savants ; " 
and again, '^ The one great feature which it is desirable to emphasize in 
connection with the exhibition of archaeological and ethnological speci- 
mens is evolution." 

These two ideas are so fully embodied in the National Museum at 
Washington that it is difficult to resist the impression that the words 
quoted were uttered with this in mind. The supposition appears the 
more probable from the fact that referring to the series of annual exhibi- 



278 ED UCA TlOy. [December, 

tions for which London has become famous, the speaker said farther : 
'* Throughout the whole series of these annual temi)orary collections, only 
one, viz., the American department of the Fisheries Exhibition, was ar- 
ranged upon scientific principles, and that was arranged upon the plan 
adopted by the National Museum at Washington." By adherence to the 
same principles, the Museum, as it stands today, illustrates more effect- 
ively than any other collection in the world, *' the continuity and his- 
torical sequence of the arts of life." 

We ma}' consider, for example, the case of musical instruments in 
which are brought together some of the crudest and some of the most 
complicated pieces of mechanism ever devised b}' man. Under ordinary 
arrangements their number and variety would be confusing, and the im- 
pression made by any particular piece would be quickly effaced by its 
neighbor ; here, however, each ap{)ears as a link in an historical chain, 
and the mind, animated by the association, seizes and retains the image 
of the object in inseparable union with its ethnological relations. 

The rude instrument upon which an African minstrel has celebrated, 
perchance, the triumphs of a savage conqueror, has little charm for a 
cultivated ear, but as evidences of the universality of the musical instinct, 
and the part which man's environment plays in its expression, the wood- 
en keys, the row of gourds beneath, and the hammer that sets them into 
vibration, assume a fascinating interest. 

A higher type of the same instrument is seen in a specimen obtained 
fi-om an Indian tribe. This has keys of resonant wood and a graduated 
series of long gourds. Near the base of each gourd is a small hole sup- 
plied with a stopper. The purpose is evident, the gourds being filled 
with water it can be run off at the holes until the desired tones are se- 
cured. On one occasion since its arrival in the Museum, this hydraulic 
organ has actually been put into working order and a few airs evoked. 
The Indian instrument, its rude prototype, and primitive forms of the 
wind organ are steps in a continuous progression, as 

" Ever by symbols and slow degrees 
Art childlike creeps to the dear Lord's knees.-' 

The relations of the several objects in a collection could not, of course, 
be readily discerned by the ordinary visitor without explanations. These 
are measurably supplied b}' the descriptive labels attached to each speci- 
men. As fast as the resources of the Museum permit, additional helps 
will be provided in the form of printed statements setting forth the sali- 
ent characteristics of each collection. None of these helps, it is true, 
can take the place of the living teacher, and he who is fortunate enough 
to view a single section under the guidance of the curator of the Museum, 



1888.] THE NATIONAL MUSEUM AT WASHINGTON. 279 

Prof. G. Brown Goode, will experience an intellectual treat never to be 
forgotten. 

To the scholarly mind nothing in the Museum surpasses in interest the 
study collection of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities whichis the joint 
work of the Museum and Johns Hopkins University. 

The great difficulty in the way of beginning the collection was the 
dearth of material. A happy thought has overcome this difficulty. Al- 
most every oriental traveller brings home a seal or two with now and 
then a rarer fragment. Measures were taken to secure copies of these 
objects or the loan of them for copying from every part of the country. 
The idea took well and the work of collection is rapidly progressing. The 
study of the inscriptions and figures has been facilitated by^ a device 
which I believe is original with the Museum. A professor from Johns 
Hopkins, nosing about the collections one day, observed the methods em- 
ployed by Prof. Otis Mason for the display of Indian writings and carv- 
ings, and was immediately struck with its adaptation to the oriental rel- 
ics. There are undoubtedly secrets in the process by which the final 
result is affected, but it appears simple enough to the casual observer.. 
A plastic plate is prepared upon which the cylinder is rolled, leaving an 
intaglio impression of its surfaces. From this a relief is obtained, and 
the three pieces together, viz., the duplicate of the seal, the intaglio, and 
the cameo plates mi\ke up a complete and unique reproduction of the 
original. It is worthy of note that the authorities of the Berlin Museum 
have asked for precise information as to the mode of treatment here 
described. 

The importance of this collection can only be fully appreciated by 
those who know what is being done in the line of Assyrian research in 
our universities and theological schools. A brief statement of the facts 
will be found in the address of Dr. Paul Haupt, of Johns Hopkins, de- 
livered on twelfth Commemoration Day, and published in Vol. VII., No. 
64, of the University circulars. 

Doctor Haupt, who perhaps leads the work in this country, has super- 
vision of the arrangement and cataloguing of the Assyrian collection of 
the National Museum. 



i 



9B0 



EDUCATlOy. 



[December, 



BIBLIOGRAPHT OF CURRENT PERIODICAL LIT- 
ER A TURE UPON ED UCA TION. 



The following bibliogniphy of current perio<Hcal literature includes articles upon 
•dneation and other subjects calculated to interest teachers. Only articles from peri- 
odicals not nominally oducutional are mentioned. Articles of special importance to 
teachers will, as a rule, be mentioned in notes. 



After Us — What? J. R. Kondrick. 
Fbrum^ November. 

Apologia pro Fide Noj^ira. Freder- 
ic Harrison. Fortiwjhtly Jievirw^ No- 
vember. 

A defence of the religion of Posi- 
tivii^m. 

Arnold, Matthew. Augustine Bir- 
rell. Srribni'r*8y November. 

Arnold, Matthew, As an English 
Writer. T. W. Hunt. Xew Princeton 
HevieWy November. 

Arnold, Matthew. Quarterly Re- 
^eic, October. 

Arnold, Matthew, llie Poetry of. 
Edinburfjh Review ^ October. 

At Last: Six Days in the Life of 
an Ex-Teacher. Second Day. —The 
Teacher is Taught. John llabberton. 
Lippinc.otVSy November. 

Barbarism, The Renaissance of. 
George R. Stetson. Xnc Princeton 
Beviewy November. 

Browningism, Esoteric. Andrew 
Lang. Forum^ November. 

Calirulating Boys, Some Strange 
Fears of. R. A. Proctor. Knowledge^ 
November. 

Calvary. Where was "the Place 
called Calvary"? Charles S. Robin- 
son. Century^ November. 

Canada and the United States, 
Qoldwin Smith. Forum^ November. 

Catholic University, A Chat about 
the. John J. Keane. Catholic Worlds 
November. 

Catholicism and Public Schools. 
Gail Hamilton. North American Re- 
view^ November. 

Catholics in Seientiiic Matters, The 
Liberty of. John Gmeiner. Catholic 
Worldy November. 

Charity, The Organization of. Mrs. 
J. Shaw Lowell. Chautauqitan^ No- 
vember. 

Children as Suicides. Agnes Rep- 
pller. Catholic Worlds November. 

Readable and suggestive. 



Churchill, A Foreign Estimate of 
Jjord Randolph, \ational Review^ No- 
vember. 

Clergy. **The Quarterly Review" 
and the Culture of our Clergy. G. B. 
Lancaster Woodburne. Dublin Re- 
nVir, Oc'tober. 

A defence of the education of the 
Catholic clergy. 

(.'ole and his Work. W. J. StillmaD. 
Century^ November. 

College Work, Economy in. John 
Trowbridge. Atlantic^ November. 

Common School Conflict, The. M. 
J. Savage. Unity l^tJpit Sermons^ 
November Ifi. 

Country Help for City Charities. 
Miss /ilpha I). Smith. Lend a Hand. 
November. 

Credir Exchanges We Use, The. 
Henry C Adams. Chautauquan^ No- 
vember. 

Criminal^. Creating Criminals. 
Charles Dudley Warner. Forum^ No- 
vember. 

A forcible argument for an indeter- 
minate sentence. **The time will 
come, I have no doubt,'* says the au- 
thor, '* when the world will look back 
with astonishment to the period when 
it was thought either just or economi- 
cal to let criminals prey upon society, 
and when it was not thought the high- 
est act of mercy to make, if necessary, 
a life-long eflfort for their reforma- 
tion.'' 

Culture, Creed, and Christianity. 
Ernest H. Crosby. Andover Review^ 
November. 

Culture, Possibilities of. James 
Donaldson. Foruniy November. 

Darwin. W. Preyer. Deutsche Rund- 
schaUy November. 

Drummond, Professor, and Athletic 
Christianity in our American Colleges. 
T. Gold Frost. Andover Review^ No- 
vember. 



1888.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 



281 



An interesting account of Professor 
Druminond's valuable work in Ameri- 
ca last year. 

Education Commission, Report of 
the. Canon Gregory. Contemporary 
Beview, November. 

Education, New Principles in. Chas. 
G. Leland. New Princeton Beview^ 
November. 

Valuable. The writer urges ** the 
practit^ability of teaching or forming 
memory and quickness of perception.*' 

Education of th»* Masses, The. 
James P. Munroe. New Princeton Be- 
view^ November. 

Economic Uses of the Telegraph and 
the Telephone. Edward Everett Hale. 
Chautauquan^ November. 

Egypt, Our Task in. Fortnightly 
Bevipw^ November. 

Contains a brief account of educa- 
tion in Egypt. 

Elementary School Teaching as a 
Profession. Edith Simcox. Woman^s 
Worlds November. 

Engineer, The Education of an. 
Robert Louis Stevenson. Scribner^s^ 
November. 

England. Is the Power of England 
Declining? A. Vambery. Forum, 
November. 

Ethics, The Reaction of, upon Eco- 
nomics. James Morris VVhiton. Yale 
Beview^ November. 

Ethik, Zur Reform der. Th. Achel- 
is. Unsere Zeit^ November. 

Examination, The Sacrifice of Edu- 
cation to Examination. 1. A Signed 
Protest. 2. By Prof. Max Muller. 
3. By Professor Freeman. 4. By 
Prof. Frederic Harrison. Nineteenth 
Century^ November. 

This protest against the present sys- 
tem of Competitive Examinations in 
England is signed by a large number 
of prominent educators. The writers 
mentioned above are emphatic in con- 
demning the evils of the examinations. 
Professor Harrison says: ** Exami- 
nation has grown and hardened into 
the master of Education.'' 

Examinations, Effect of Competi- 
tive. A. C. Ranyard. Knowledge^ 
November. 

Factory Life, Studies of: Black- 
Listing at Fall River. Lillie B. Chace 
Wyman. Atlantic^ November. 

Fortunes. Les grandes, en Angle- 
terre. — IIL M. C. de Varigny. Be- 
vue des Deux Mondes, November. 

French Traits.— Manners. W. C. 
Brownell. Scribner's^ November. 

Gebrauche und Aberglauben beim 



Essen, Ueber. Carl Haberland. ZeU- 
schrift fur Vdlkerpsychologie^ Heft 4. 

Gravelotte to Sedan, From. GreD. 
Philip H. Sheridan. Scribner's, No- 
vember. 

Gravelotte Witnessed and Revisited. 
Murat Halstead. Century^ November. 

Guilds of the City of London, The. 
Norman Moore. Century^ November. 

Handicraft, The Revival of. Will- 
iam Morris. Fortnightly Beview^ No- 
vember. 

Harvard University, The Fast Set 
at. Aleck Quest. North American Be- 
view^ November. 

Ueroclitus, A Further Study of. G. 
T. W. Patrick. American Journal of 
Psychology, August. 

An interesting and valuable contri- 
bution to the literature of Greek phil- 
osopliy. 

Hexengeschichten, Zwei. W. 
Schwartz. Zeitschrift fur Volkerpsy- 
chologie^ Heft 4. 

Hexenglaube, Der, und seine Nach- 
folger. Leon Wespy. Unsere Zeit^ 
November. 

Home, Evolution of the. J. Max 
Hank. Andover Beview^ November. 

Idealism and Christianity. Henry 
Graham. Methodist Beview^ Novem- 
ber. 

Independence, The Eve of. John 
Fiske. Atlantic^ November. 

Intellectual Life of America, The. 
Charles Eliot Norton. New Princeton 
BevieWy November. 

Invalidism as a Fine Art. A. B. 
Ward. Harper's^ November. 

Ishmael, The Tribe of. Oscar C. 
McCulloch. Lend a Handy November. 

*' A study in social degradation." 

Italy. The makers of New Italy. 
Wil liam Roscoe Thayer. Atlantic^ No- 
vember. 

Job, The Interpretation of the Book 
of. John F. Genung. Andover B^ 
vieWy November. 

Kant a Is Mystiker. Carl du Prel. 
SphynZy September and October. 

Kunstgewerbes, Das Arbeitsgeblet 
des. Julius Les sing. Deutsche Bund^ 
schaUy November. 

Landless, The Last Resort of the. 
H. J. Desmond. Forum^ November. 

Langage, L' Evolution phonetique 
du. B. Bourdon. Bevue Philosoph' 
ique^ October. 

Language-Culture : A Symposium. 
Daniel Steele, et al. M^hodist Be- 
viewy November. 

Lincoln. J. G. Nicolay, John Hay. 
Century^ November. 



382 



EDUCATION. 



[Decern ber. 



Marriage, Ideal. Mona Calrd. West- 
minster Jievietp, November. 

Medk'iner, Der Biidiingsifi^ang der. 
J. H. Baai«. Unspre Znt^ Novemher. 

Memory, Talk* on. I. Wilbert W. 
White. Chautauquan^ NovemJK*r. 

Mental Science. Notes on lIy|)not- 
Iwn. Abnormal Hense-Peroeptions. 
Science^ November 9. 

Morale, La crUe de la, et la crUe du 
droit penal. G. Tarde. Revue Fhilu- 
sophique^ October. 

A review of recent literature relating 
to crime. 

Music in Early Scotland. J. Cutb- 
bert Hadden. Scott ink liecietc, Octo- 
ber. 

Mu9ik. Berlin und die deut^che 
MuAik. R. V. Lilicncron. Deutsche 
Bundschau^ November. 

MythBof the **Dark" Age.<», Tho. 
Charles G. Herbermann. Catholic 
Quarterly Review^ Oi'tober. 

Naturalization ]^aws and their En- 
forcement. C. C. Bonney. Yale Re- 
vievj^ November. 

Nonsense an a Fine Art. Quarterly 
Review^ October. 

Novel. The Religious Novel. Ran- 
dall T. Davltison. Contemporary Re- 
view^ November. 

Novel. The Romantic and the Realis- 
tic Novel. Hjiilmar lljorth Boyeseu. 
Chautauquan^ November. 

Our Little Enemies. John A. 
Mooney. Catholic World, November. 

A popular account of recent inves- 
tigations in bacteriology. 

Oratorv of the House of (^ommons. 
The. C.W. Rad(?lim-Cooke. Nation- 
al Review^ November. 

Our Better Halves. Lester F. Ward. 
Forum^ November. 

An attem|)t to show from a bio- 
logical standpoint that, in the econo- 
my of organic nature the female sex 
is the primary element. '*Tru<» 
science teaches that the elevation of 
woman is the only sure road to the 
evolution of man."' 

Painters. Boston Painters and 
Paintings. William Howe Downes. 
Atlantic^ November. 

Philosophic. Introduction a la sci- 
ence philosophique. III. La science 
et la croyance en pbilosophie. Paul 
Janet. Revue Philosophique. October. 

Plague and Pestilence. R. A. Proc- 
tor. Knnipledge^ Novenib«»r. 

This article, reprinted from the New 
York Tribune^ was the last written by 
Professor Proctor. 

Pontes Contemporains de la France. 



Sully-Prudhomrae. Bibliotheque Uni- 
verselle^ October. 

Political Exiles and Common Con- 
victs at T<Mnsk. George Kennan. 
Century^ November. 

Poor. The I^ondon Poor. Arthur 
F. Marshall. Catholic Quarterly Re- 
view, OctolH»r. 

Prior, Matthew. Austin Dobson. 
New Princeton Review, November. 

Psychische Infection, Ueber. Rob- 
ert Wallenlwrg. Archis fur Psychia- 
trie, Bd. XX., IL L 

To thi*« article is appended a valua- 
ble bibliography of literature upon 
psvchic contagion. 

Psychologie. I^*i pretendue evolu- 
tion du sens des couleurs. G. Pou- 
chet. Rerue Scientijique^ Hi October. 

Psychologie Politique, Essais de: 
Gambetta. Marquis De Castellane. 
NouFelle Rerue, Noveml)er. 

Puritan Ideal, The G«*nesis of the. 
A. M. Fairbairii. Contemporary i?c- 
view, November. 

Railroad Men, The Everyday Life 
of. B. B. Adams, Jr. Scribner^s^'So- 
vember. 

Ramabai Movement, l^e. John C. 
Sundberg. Ocerland, November. 

Red Man, I'he Rights of the. Our 
Day, Novenibi'r. 

Gives the platform adopted by the 
M(»honk Conference. 

Religion in Fiction, 'l^e Sarcasm of. 
T. T. Monger. Century, November. 

An '*Open Letter.'' 

Religions Instruction in Schools, 
I>aws concerning. George Shipmau 
Pay son. Our Dati^ Noveml>er. 

Religion-* Tliouifht in England — A 
Stu(iy of Three Men. Charles C. Star- 
buck. .•l/j(/or*»r Review^ November. 

The three men studied are Richard 
Holt Huttou, Frederic W. H. Myers, 
and Matthew Arnold. 

Reformation, The New. Lyman 
Abbott. Century^ November. 

A valuable account of the present 
tendency of religious thought. 

Rire, F^e. Causerie Psychologique. 
Adrlen Nauille. Bibliotheque Univer^ 
scUe, Octoher. 

Robert Elsmere and Christianity. 
Qnarttrly Review, Octolier. 

*• Robert Elsmere" and its Critics. 
James T. Bixby. Unitarian RevieWy 
November. 

Rome, Reason. IL R. G. Inger- 
soU. North American Revieic, Novem- 
ber. 

'* A reply to Cardinal Manning." 

Schopenhauer and Omar Khayyam. 



1888.] 



BIBLIOQRAPHT. 



283 



William Lyon Phelps. Tale Review^ 
November. 

Science-Teaching in the Schools. 
Wllliara North Kice. American Nat- 
uralist^ September. 

Soeialism in the Church of England. 
W. D. P. Bliss. Andover Beciew^ No- 
veml)er. 

Societe, Nature et fin de la. Th. 
Ferneull. Bevue Philoaophique^ Octo- 
ber. 

Stanley. Where U Stanley? H. H. 
Johnston. Fortnightly Bevievo^ No- 
vember. 

The writer believes that Stanley is 
safe, and gives an interesting account 
of Stanley's method of dealing with 
the savage child-man. 

Storms, The Law of. Edinburgh 
Betiew^ October. 

Struggle for Subsistence, The. Ed- 
ward Atlcinson. Forum^ November. 

Suffrage. Etude Plillosophique et 
Historique sur le suffrage universel en 
France. Renouvier. Critique Philo- 
Bophique^ October. 

Sweating System, Possible Reme- 
dies for the. Arthur A. Baumann. 
National Bevieio^ November. 

Tariff. How the Tariff Affects In- 
dustry. W. C. P. Breckinridge. Fo- 



rum, November. 



TaritI, The American. Albert Shaw. 
Contemporary Beviexc, November. 

Technical Education and Foreign 
Competition. Quarterly Beview, Octo- 
ber. 

Themistocles. Thomas D. Seymour. 
Chautanquan, November. 

Theology in Fiction. Atlantic^ No- 
vember. 

Thrift Movement on the Continent, 
The. Westminster Beview, November. 

Tokio — Jgukz. Skizzen und Erin- 
Derungen aus der zeit des geistigen 
UmschwuDgfl in Japan, 1871-1876. 



T^opold MUller. Deutsche Bundschau^ 
November. 

Tyrrell's Correspondence of Cicero. 
Edinburgh Bevieio, October. 

Unemployed, A Scheme for the. 
Samuel A. Barnett. Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, November. 

The writer suggests *^an agricul- 
tural training farm — a technical school 
in land work — a work-fleld as a sup- 
plement to the workhouse." 

Universities Bill, The. W. Peter- 
son. Scottish Beciew, October. 

University, The Income of a. G. F. 
Browne. National Beview^ November. 

Statistics in regard to the University 
of Cami)ridge. 

Useless Knowledge, The Cry for. 
Lord Armstrong. Nineteenth Century^ 
November. 

An answer to the advocates of tech- 
nical education. 

Wagner Bubble, ITie: A Reply. C. 
Villiers Stanford. Nineteenth CentU" 
ry, November. 

Wall Street as an Economic Factor. 
Brayton Ives. North American Be^ 
view, November. 

Wanted — A New Textbook. John 
Gilmary Shea. Catholic Quarterly 
Beview, October. 

The writer urges the need of politi- 
cal instruction in the parochial 
schools. 

Winter, Where Shall we Spend Our? 
A. W. Greeley. Scribner's, November. 

Woman's Day, The Dawn of. 
Frances E. Willard. Our Day^ No- 
vember. 

Women on School Boards. M. W. 
Shinn. Overland, November. 

Articles from the Popular Science 
Monthly mentioned in our Bibliogra- 
phy last month were from the Novem- 
ber number. By an error they were 
dated October. 



384 EDUCATION, [December, 



AMONG THE BOOKS. 

From HoaghtOD. Mifflin & Co., we have received the following choice works : 

(10 The Critical Period of American History. 1783-1789. By John 
Fiflke. Pp. 3GS. Price, 92.00. 

Those who are familiar with John Fi.ske*8 historical works need not be told 
how thoroughly accurate or how intensely interesting he is as an author. The 
title of this book itself tells an important fact, that the critical period of our 
history lay between the treaty of peace and the inauguration of a new govern- 
ment under the constitution. His description of " the results of Yorktown,'* 
"Drifting toward Anarchy," " Germs of Political Sovereignty," "the Federal 
convention," and "Crowning the Work" are as interesting as any romance. 
Of the men who formed the federal constitution he says : " There were fifty- 
five men, all of them respectable for family, and for personal qualities, — men 
who had been well educated and had done something whereby to earn recogni- 
tion in these troubled times." Twenty-nine were university men ; twenty-six 
were not university men. llie oldest was Benjamin Franklin, now eighty-one 
years of age, and the youngest was Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey, aged 
twenty-six. Hamilton was thirty, and Madison thirty-six. Of the latter two^ 
Mr. Flske says: " Among political writers these two men must be ranked in 
the same order with Aristotle, Montesquieu, and Locke, and ' Tlie Federalist,' 
their joint production, as the greatest treatise on government that has ever 
been written." This book Is highly commended to all students of American 
history. 

(2.) Two superb volumes of 581 pages, elegantly printe<l, entitled The Life 
OP Young Sir Henry Vane, Governor of Massachusetts Bay. and I^eader 
of the Long Parliament; with a consideration of the English commonwealth 
as a forecast of America. By James K. Ilosmer, Professor in Washington 
University, St. I^uis. Price, $4.00. 

This new life of Vane will, from its Intrinsic merits, challenge the attention 
of the great body of literary students and historical scholars, both in our land 
and in the mother country. Seldom will any reader come across a description 
more graphic, more vivid, than the account here given of the battle of Xaseby. 
The book is not merely the life of Sir Henry Vane, it is rather a history, and 
that one of the best, of England and of New England, during that wonderful 
half century from 1612 to 16G2. It is a history of Cromwell and of Milton, of 
Winthrop and of Koger Williams, of Gustavus Adolphus and John Cotton, of 
Anne Hutchinson and Miles Standish, of the Star Chamber and High Commis- 
sion Courts, of Cavaliers and Roundheads, of Baptists and Quakers, of Alger- 
non Sidney and Adam Smith, of James Otis and Benjamin Franklin, of the 
Bump Parliament and of written constitutions. Both in matter and in man- 
ner this is a rare book, and one of the greatest value to students of history. 

(30 The Divine Comedy of Dante, translated into English verse with notes. 
By John Augustine Wilstach. In two volumes. Pp. 502 and 509. ^.00 
per set. 

The translator of this immortal poem is evidently well qualified for his task^ 

difficult though it be. Very many will rejoice to find this poetical translation 



1888.] AMONG THE BOOKS. 285 

BO fairly done and with sach fidelity to the Italian poet. The notes at the end 
of each Canto are of great value; and not the least among the good qualities 
of the book will be found the very valuable and extensive ^^ general index" of 
more than twenty-five pages, fine type, in double columns. 

Mr. John C. Sickley, Librarian of the City Library^ Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
has issued nine ^' Lists of Books, recommended for Pupils^ Reading." These 
are severally for the first primary grade, and the various grades of the gram- 
mar and high school?. They are evidently selected with care, and the move- 
ment is one of great practical value. ^^ The books recommended have no con- 
nection with the studies of the pupiU, and are only to serve as a guide for those 
who use the library in choosing the books adapted to their age and understand- 
ing." We hope the good example here set may have a wide following. 

Peloubet's Sunday School Series: — 

Peloubet's Select Notes on the International Lessons. 1889. Pp. 347. 
Price, $1.25. 

International Question Book. Part I., for the older scholars. Part II., 
for the children and youth. Part IIL, for little learners. Price of each, 15 
cents. 

Children's Sunday School Quarterly. Four cents each, or 16 cents a 
year. 

The Sunday School Quarterly and the Intermediate Quarterly. 
Teacher's edition, 10 cents a copy, or 40 cents a year. Scholar^s editi(»n, 5 
cents a copy, or 20 cents a year. 

Golden Text and Bible Facts. $2.00 per hundred. 

Our Sunday Afternoon ; a children's Sunday School paper issued fortnightly. 
Forty cents a year; twenty-five copies to one address, 30 cents; also issued 
weekly, 75 cents a year. Twenty-five copies to one address, 60 cents a year. 

Peloubet's Class Book and Collection Envelope. Cloth lined, 60 cents 
per dozen. Published by W. A. Wilde & Co., 25 Bromfleld Street, Boston. 

A company of young people were rhyming, when one says, ** 1 can give you 

a word that vou cannot find a rhyme for.*' '* What Is it?" "Peloubet." A 

bright young man instantly replied : — 

** Mr. and Mrs. Peloubet 
Can make a good question book, — you bet; 
With pertinent facts they chink up the cracks. 
But they can 't tell the length of a cubit." 

After examining with some care this entire set of " Mr. and Mrs. Peloubet's " 
Sunday School Books, we're inclined to think that young man was right. 
They certainly have the tact necessary for preparing excellent, popular Sun- 
day School question books. This is not an experimental series. They have 
been widely used for years in every state in the Union, and are universally ap- 
proved by those who have used them. 

From Ticknor & Co.. Boston, we have received the following: — 

The Youngest Miss Lorton, and other stories, by Nora Perry. Illustrated. 
Pp. 290. Price, 3150. 

These stories, — and there are ten of them in the volume, — are fresh, bright, 
natural, and healrhy, »s everything is that Nora Perry writes. They are par- 
ticularly adapted for Christmas presents to girls. 

Xenophon's Hellenica. Books I.— IV. By Irving J. Manatt. Boston: 
Ginu & Co. 1888, Pp. 280. Price, $1.75. 
The editor of these new classical books thinks that the Hellenica '^ is worthy 



i 



286 EDUCATION, [December, 

a pince by the side of the Anabasis in the fitting Rchools.** The type is excel- 
lent, notes full and critical, with an appendix on manuscripts, index of proper 
names, and a Greek-English index in parallel columns. 

Thanatopsis and other Favorite Poems. By William Cullen Bryant. 
Compiled by Sara £. llusted Lockwood. Boston : Glnu & Co. 1888. Price, 
13 cocts. 

A choice collection of the best of Bryant's poems. 

Botany for Academies and Colleges. By Annie Chambers-Ketchum, A. M. 
Philadelphia: J. B. LIppincott Co. 1889. Pp. 11)2. Price, «1.00. 

This book is for advanced study, and consists of plant development and 

structure from seaweed to clematis. It has two hundred and fifty illustrations, 

and a valuable manual of plants, including all the known orders with their 

respective genera. Mrs. Ketchum is a member of tlie New York Academy of 

Sciences, an enthusiast in the scieuce of Botany, and has modelled her book 

upon the inductive method of A. L. de Jussieu. Students of this science will 

find this work of great value. 

From D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, we have the following : — 

(1.) Preparatory French Reader. By O. B. Super, Ph. D. 

The author believes that the best method of learning to read French is to 
read French; hence, this book is, In no sense, a •* classical '* French reader, and 
Is not intended to serve fur a stu<iy of French literature. The first six selec- 
tions are not from French sources at all, but are translati<ms; five of them be- 
ing from Andersen's tales. The selections are designed to create an interest 
on tlie part of the pupil. The notes appear to be judicious and the vocabulary 
is full. 

(2.) Goethe's Torquato Tasso. Edited by Calvin Thomas. Pp. 181. 

Besides the German, this book has an extended introduction upon the gener- 
al character of the work and contains a very good biography of Goethe and 
the characters of Tasso. The notes will be found discriminating and useful. 
The appendix contains a valuable bibliography of literature bearing upon 
Goethe's Tasso. 

(3.) Selected Poems from Lamartine's Meditations. Edited by Prof. 
George O. Curme, A. M., Iowa. Pp. 178. 

This edition of J^amartlne's MediUitions is evidently prepareti with great care. 

The editor certainly regards TiHrnartine as the dea?*est of all French poets. He 

calls him the ** Christian Virgil, only greater, and just as pure and refined." 

There is an extended biographical sketch by the author, and copious notes. 

(4.) An Introduction to German at Sight. By Eugene H. Babbitt, Har- 
vard University. Pp. 29. Paper covers. 

This is a short syllabus of elementary German grammar, to be used in con- 
nection with the ordinary textbooks. 

Pen's Venture. By Elvisten Wright. Boston and Chicago : Congregational 
Sunday School and Publishing Society. 12mo. Pp. 278. Price, $1.25. 

Penelope Randolph was always having adventure. One day something un- 
usual did happen to her. Something she saw 'v\ the condition of the cash girls 
in a certain store gave her a thought; the thouijjht became a plan ; the plan be- 
came a venture — Pen's Venture. It was nothing more or less than to equip a 
reading-room for cash girls. The venture was successful and led to other good 
things. It is amusing, touching, and instructive. 



1888.] AMOXG THE BOOKS. 287 

The Jolly Ten, and Their Year of Stories. By Agnes Carr Sage. . Bos- 
ton and Chitrago : Congregational Sunday School and Publishing Society. 
Pp. 299. Price, $1.23. 

The Jolly Ten is the title assumed by a band of cousins who were accustomed 
to meet monthly at the '* Pinery," with ** Aunt Roxy." At her fireside the 
Jolly Ten play merry games, have suppers flavored with innocent fun, and lis- 
ten to stories — twelve stories during the year — each with its lesson. This 
volume will make a capital Christmas or New Yearns present to the young. 

Ruth, the Christian Scientist; or The New Hygeia. By John Chester, 
M. D., D. D. Boston : H. H. Carter and Karrick. Pp. 343. 

This is a treatise on " Christian Science/' which the author says has usually 

been treated with ill-advised panegyric or bitter ridicule. The ** treatise " is 

under the guise of a love story. Tiie author endeavors to represent the views 

of ^^ Christian Scientists " and of ^* faith-healing." It is still a question whether 

a philosophical discourse upon an intricate theory can be effectively carried on 

under the guise of a love story. 

D. Appleton & Co. send us a new volume (No. 8) in their International 
Edmation Series, edited by William T. Harris, LL. D. It is entitled MEMORY; 
What it is, and How to Improve It. By David Kay, F. R. G. S. Pp. 334. 
Price, ^1.50. 

This book is an elaborate treatise upon the subject of Memory by the dis- 
tinguished author of the article on ** Mnemonics" in the encyclopaedia Brl- 
tannica. The discussion of the memory has been common to all philosophers, 
from Aristotle to Herbert Spencer. We have for a long time needed ju<»t such 
a treatise as this, one which shall treat the metaphysical subject physiologi- 
cally, and the physiological subject metaphysically. This book discusses 
matter and mind, the body, the sense, mental images, attention, association of 
ideas, and memory — how to improve it. It has very numerous quotations 
from the best authors of all countries and all ages, and will doubtless prove to 
be a most valuable addition to our literature upon this important subject. 

Clement's Civil Government. Studies of the Federal Constitution, ar- 
ranged for use in Public Schools by R. E. Clement. New York: A. Lovell 
& Co. Pp. 232. 

Tills new treatise on the United States Constitution begins with a brief his- 
tory of the colonial government. Then comes an account of the revolutionary 
government, which is followed by a discussion of the confederate government, 
all of which is included in Part I. Part II., which is the principal part of the 
book, treats, somewhat in detail, of the national constitution. Its plan Is to 
group under one section the various clauses relating to a single topic, giving 
each clause, the discussion thereof, and ending with questions for review. lo 
the main, so far as we have examined, the author is generally correct in his 
statements. Occasionally, as in every book, especially the first edition, may 
be found some slip. For instance, on page 155 it is stated that '* the electors 
of each state are now required by law to meet at their respective capitals and 
there cast their vote for President and Vice-President.'' This is not true. For 
example: Electors in Khode Island meet by law in the town of Bristol, and 
not at the capital. On page 212 it is stated, '^The eleventh amendment makes 
it impossible for a state to be sued by an individual.'" Is that correct? The 
increased attention which is now being given to the study of Civil Government 
in our schools is one of the most encouraging signs of the times. 



288 EDUCATION. [December^ 

P. Terenti Afri Andria et Heavton Timorvmenos. Edited by Prof. An- 
drew F. West. New York : Harper Brothers. Pp. 265. 

This new addition to Harper's Classical Series will be welcomed by all lov- 
ers of Terence. The long introduction by the author throws great light upon 
the work, and the textual notes at the end of the book will prove of the high- 
est value to the student. 

The First Four Books of Cjesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War, 
consisting of the original and translation arranged on opposite pages. New 
York : A. Lovell & Co. Pp. 143. 

This is the first volume of the '' Parallel Edition of the Classics.*' That 
large class of teachers who approve of this method of teaching will find this 
edition of Ctesar's very convenient. The translation is good. The book is 
well printed, on good paper, and well bound. It will doubtless have an ex- 
tended sale. 

Memory Systems, New and Old. By A. E. Middleton, author of ^* Memory 
Aids and How to Use Them.'' New York: G. S. Fellows & Co., 25 Bond 
Street. Price, 50 cents. 

First American edition from the second English edition, revised. Enlarged^ 

with Bibliography of Mnemonics, 1325-1888, by G. S. Fellows, M. A., of the 

Washington High School. This little work under the title of «'A11 About 

Mnemonics " has already pa«>sed through two editions in England, and, with 

important additions, it is now presented to the attention of American readers. 

All Memory Systems are here treated quite impartially. Both Loisette and 

"I^isette Exposed'' receive their share of attention. 

Impressions Dk Theatre. By Jules I^maitre. Paris : H. Lec^ne and H. 
Oudln. Pp. 354. Paper. 

In each of the informal essays which M. I^maitre has included in this vol- 
ume, he has based his criticisms on some particular representation of a great 
dramatist like Cornel He or Racine. While in general his observations may not 
be open to serious objt?ction, his estimate of M. Kenan's *' Abesse de Joiiarre '* 
as a delightful book would certainly be astounding, did it not come from a 
Frenchman. 

Der Zwerg Nase. By Wilhelm Hauff. Pp. 38. 
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. By Dr. Gustav Weil. Pp. 53. 
Boston : Charles H. Kilborn. 

The ability to read rapidly **at sight" should be the first aim of ever}' one 
who desires to learn a language. That it may be attained, the selections chosen 
for study should be interesting. And surely HauflTs stories meet this require- 
ment, wliile the tale of Ali Baba more than satisfies it, for will not a German 
translation of the Arabian Nights seem a little piquant to the beginner? 

From Cassell & Co., we have two more of their original novels. The As- 
tonishing History of Troy Town, by Q. ; Nu. 29 of the " Rainbow Series," 
and The Admirable Lady Biddy Fane. By Frank Barrett; No. 18 of the 
"Sunshine Series of Choice Fiction." Price, 25 cents. For sale by W. B* 
Clarke & Co. 

Riverside Literature Series. No. 38. The Building of the Ship, ANn> 
OTHER I'OEMS. liy Heiiry W. Longfellow. With Introduction and Notes. 
Extra number. Literature in School. An Address and two Esaays, by 
Horat^e E. Si^udder. Sioi^le numbers, 15 cents. Yearly subscription (six 
numbers), 90 cents. Bo:*ton and New York: iIou)|^hton, Mifflin & Co. 



1888.] AMONG THE BOOKS. 289 

The CoQgreKatioDal Publishing Society have issued Pocket Lessons for 
Sunday Schools, 1889, containing only the scripture of the International 
I^iessons, with Golden Texts and Memory Verses. 

The Child Immanuel ; A Christmas Carol Service, and The Pilgrim Al- 
manac FOR Bible Searchers, for 1889. 

Pansies for Thoughts. From the Writings of " Pansy " (Mrs. G. R. Al- 
den). Compiled and arranged with an appropriate text for each day, by 
Grace Livingston, author of *'A Chautauqua Idyl.^' Boston: D. Lothrop 
Co. Price, 76 cents. 

Mrs. Alden's earnestness and fervor are magnetic, and all people are charmed 
with her bright, strong, helpful stories. This volume, compiled under ^* Pan- 
sy's *' own eye, will prove a treasure to all who appreciate her writings. The 
exquisite cover with its golden pannies is fitly symbolical of the contents, and 
the book will make a charming gift book for all times. 

Beginner's Hand-Book of Chemistry. By John Howard Appleton, A. M., 
Professor of Cheniistry in Brown University. New York: Chautauqua 
Press, C. L. S. C. Department, 805 Broadway. 1888. 

Professor Appleton is well known to students of chemistry from his very 
accurate and scienrific textbooks, on Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, not 
to speak of ^^The Young Chemist,'" a book especially adapted to the experi- 
mental work of younger pupils. But this volume ought to give him a very 
much wider reputation. The lamented Richard A. Procter did incalculable 
good in his popularization of science, and Professor Appleton is following in 
his footsteps, though taking a different branch of science. This volume is 
prepared for the C. L. S. C, and though none of the inaccuracies of most so- 
called " popular works '* are noticeable, still the style is exceedingly well 
adapted to the readings of the "Circle.'' The first feature apparent is that of 
the fourteen colored plates, illustrating such subjects as '^The photographer 
at work," ** Arctic explorers employing dynamite to open a channel,'' and 
"The process of refining sulphur." Besides these plates and the usual neces- 
sary illustrations, there are several full-page portraits of Lavoisier, Beryelnis, 
Dalton, Black, Davy, and others. Professor Appleton has limited himself to 
the non-metals, and promises a similar work on the metals. The order of sub- 
jects is scientific, the historical and biographical sketches are full, and the ap- 
plications to the affairs of every-day life are found throughout the volume. 
The book is a very great addition to the unusually large list of valuable popu- 
lar works that have been issued under the auspices of the " Chautauqua." 

A College Algebra. By G. A. Wentworth, Professor of Mathematics in 
Phillips Exeter Academy. Boston : Ginn <fc Co. 1888. 

Neither author nor publisher need any introduction to mathematical teachers 
the world over. No better series of mathematics could be found or even de- 
sired than Wentworth*s, comprising several volumes each in Arithmetic, Al- 
gebra, Geometry (Plane and Solid), Trigonometry, Surveying, Analytic 
Geometry, and Logarithms. When "A College Algebra" was placed upon 
our desk, no recommendation seemed to us necessary except to mention the 
fact of its publication. A short space is given to a review of the principles of 
algebra preceding Quadratic Equations, thus allowing plenty of space in a 
year's course for a very careful and full treatment of Higher Algebra, includ- 
ing Surds, Imaginaries, Inequalities, Ratio, Progressions, Indeterminates, 
Binomials, Logarithms, Interest, Choice, Chance, Continued Fractions, Scales, 



390 EDUCATIOX. [December, 

Theory of Numbers, Variables. Series, Determliiniits, General Properties, etc. 
One of the best features in the volume is the reference at the close of each 
chiiptcr to ways In which the student may pursue the subject further. The 
book should be In the liands of all teachers of al|^ebra, whether In Collef^e or 
High School. 

St. Nicholas. An Illustrated Ma^^azine for Vounjf Folks. Conducted by 
Mary Mapes Dodge. Volunje XV. November 1887, to October, 1888. In 
two parts. New York: The Century Company. Pp. 900. Price $4.00. 

These two volumes for Christmas presents to the ytmng folks are really some- 
thing superlative. It would be impossible to tell all the excellences of ^^ ThU 
primer of juveniles." The sixteenth volume, which begins In November, will 
be what the editor calls •* An All-aroiind-the- world Year." 

Of course the bulk of the contents, as heretofore, will relate to American 
subjects; but young America is always glad to learn what goes on in the world 
outside, and the stories and skeU'hes of foreign life which St, Xicholcu is to 
present will be a remarkably attractive feature. We have space here for only 
the more prominent announcements. There will be ever so many articles on 
** America"; lots of stories from £urope; Papers on Siberia, China, Japan, 
etc. ; .Vfrica, Australia, the Arctic Regions^ and the Islands of the Sea. Inhere 
can h.'irdly be a more attractive or pouplar juvenile than the great favorite 
•with all the young folks, "St. Nicholas." 

Thk Centuky iLLi'STRATEi) MONTHLY Ma<;azixk. Mav, 1888, to October, 
18S8. Vol. XXXVI. New York: The Century Compahv. Pp.960. Price, 

8:{.oo. 

This is a superb volume of nearly a thoui^and pages of large size and fllled 
with the most valuable and entertaining matter. The paper and print are of 
the best and the illustrations simply superb. Besides stories, essays, and mis- 
cellaneous illustrated articles, etc., during the year, beginning with the No- 
vember number, will be "'Gallery of Italian Masters,** the papers by W. J. 
Stillman with Illustrations by Timothy Cole; ** The Sil>enan Exile System," 
by Mr. George Kennan: *' Stories of I>ouisiana,'' by George W. Cable; *' The 
Romance of Dollard,"* by Mrs. Mary Hartwell Catherwood; '* Lincoln in the 
War," by Nicolay and Hay; ** Supplementary War Articles"; articles on 
*' Japan," ** Ireland," and much other valuable nmtter. Surely never before 
was there such an array of talent concentrated in one magazine. 

The Essentials of GEOGRAriiv fou School Yeak 1888-9. By G. C. 
Fisher. Fourth Annual Publication. Boston: N. E. Publishing Company. 
1888. Pp. 88. With perforated maps, 50 cents. Without maps, 40 cents. 

This book is an annual publication, revised every August, to make it author- 
itative, noting the geographical changes that are continually occurring. It 
contains all the political and descriptive geography that a pupil should be 
required to memorize. As a concise textbook to be placed in the hands of the 
pupil, the book is Invaluable, and no teacher of geography should undertake 
Co do without it. 

Among the special features of the book are the following: I. Productions 
■are taught by belts as determined by latitude and elevation, instead of the old 
way by states and countries. Knowing what belt a country is in, a child 
ehould know what its productions are. II. The Topical System is carried 
Into the study of the maps in a manner to avoid that loss of time which has 
been occasioned in the past by requiring the pupil to search laboriously for 



1888.] AMOXG THE BOOKS. 291 

this or that bay, cape, strait, etc. III. Perforated Maps for map sketching;' 
are sold either with the book or separately. They reduce the amouat of time 
to be devoted to Geography, by substituting visible for verbal descriptions. 
IV. The Statistical Tables contained in the appendix give mileage of rail- 
roads, population, reigning sovereigns, and other information revised and 
renewed every year. 

Excellent Quotations for IIome and School. Selected for the use of 
teachers and pupils, by Julia B. Hoitt, California. Boston : Lee & Shepard. 
Pp. 329. 

A capital collection of gems, as ** Guides to Conduct," ** Glimpses of Na- 
ture," '' Patriotic Selections," '• Biographical Eulogies," '' Recitations for 
Younger Pupils," and " Proverbs." These selections are well chosen and 
make a book of great value, not only to the schools but the general reader and 
families. 

Elements of Composition and Rhetoric, with copious exercises in both 
criticism and construction. By Virginia Waddey, teacher of Rhetoric In the 
Richmond High School. Rlchmoncl, Va. Richmond: Everett Waddey, 
Publisher. 1888. Pp. 399. 

This new Rhetoric begins, as it should, with the simple sentence and pro- 
ceeds through complex and compound sentences to the transformation of 
elements, sentences into paragraphs, Concord, Expression, Style, Figures of 
Speech. Prose, Poetry, etc. It appears to be methodical, carefully written, 
and to be the result of long, practical work in the schoolroom. Its quotations,, 
selections and examples are numerous and of value. It is cordially commended 
to the careful examination of teachers. 

Boston and Its Suburbs. A Guide Book. Boston: Stanley & Usher. 1888. 
Pp. 204. With a map. 

This is a capital little guide book for Boston and vicinity. It gives numer- 
ous ^^ walks about Boston," thus reaching by the shortest way the most 
conspicuous places. The descriptions are brief, clear, and just what one wants. 
It should have a large sale and will be found of value to teachers. 

Annual Report of the Board of Education and the SuPERiNTENDENr 
OF Public Instruction of New Jersey for 1887. Newton : The John L. 
Murphy Publishing Co., Printers. 1888. 

A very sensible report containing much valuable information concerning 
education in this state and some excellent suggestions on important subjects.. 
Special attention is called to the following topics: School Libraries, At- 
tendance, Terms of Service, Modern Certificates, and Increase of Salaries. 

Forty-Ninth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion OF the State of Michigan for 1887. Lansing. 1888. 

Superintendent Estabrook makes in this report many important suggestions, 
especially upon The Function of the Public School, County Supervision, Tem- 
perance Teaching, The Township System, and Teachers' Institutes. The 
schools of Michigan are evidently in good condition. 

Civil Government for Common Schools. Prepared as a Manual for Public 
Instruction in the State of New York. By Henry C. Northam. Syracuse: 
C. W. Bardeen. 

This little textbook has passed through three editions. It begins with the 
smallest municipal divisions, districts, and townships, and passes on through 
counties and states to our national government. It contains a large amount ot 



292 ED UCA TION. [December, 

useful matter, historical and political. Too much attention cannot be paid to 
this sort of teaching in the public schools. 

The Dime Question Book in Bookkeeping. By C. W. Bardeen. Syracuse, 

N. Y. 1888. 

In this little book for ten cents, sixty^hree important topics are brieflj 
treated. If you are teaching this subject, send for a copy. 

*' The Table is Set.'* A Comedy in one Act. Adapted from the German, bv 
Welland Hendrick, A. M. Syracuse, N. Y. : C. W. Bardeen. 1888. T«i 
cents. 

A capital little play, with its moral so easy that anybody can see it. 

Town and Country School Buildings. A collection of Plans and Designs 
for Schools of various sizes, graded and ungraded, with descriptions of con- 
struction of sanitary arrangements, light, lieat, and ventilation. By £. C. 
Gardner, architect. New York: E. L. Kellogg & Co. 1888. 

This entirely new work will be welcomed by multitudes. It will prove a 
^^ God send*' to all those towns and districts throughout the country, which 
have schoolhouses to build. The plans begin with a cheap building of logs 
for pioneer wants. It then describes how temporary expedients may be re- 
sorted to by a cheap building of one room built of rough lumber. Then a sin- 
gle room with abundant conveniences; then the same plan with a different 
exterior; then a country schoolhouse adapted to a multitude of cases, with 
different elevations, perspective, floor plans, and details. After this the archi- 
tect gives us a great variety of houses for village and town schools, some 
cheaper, some more ex|>ensive, some of wood, some of brick, and some of 
stone. These plans are for neat, comfortable, artistic buildings. The value 
of different materials for building is discussed, and such important matters as 
lighting, heating, and ventilation arc thoroughly considered. The influence of 
these plans should unquestionably be great in improving the style and the 
comfort of the school buildings of the land. The book is excellently printed 
on the best paper, with elegant engravings, and the publishers are deserving 
of high praise for the volume. 

We are in receipt of the last six numbers of O Ensino, — ** Instruction," pub- 
lished by Theophilo Ferreira, in Lisbon, Portugal. It is a bright little octavo 
sheet of sixteen pages, devoted to the discussion of educational topics. It is 
issued every fortnight, and is now in its fourth year. While far more limited 
in scope than the educational journals of America, it contains serviceable dis- 
cussions of such questions as the following: ^^ Inspection of Primary and 
Secondary Instruction"; ^* Examinations for Admission to the Lyceums"; 
*' Characteristic Differences between the Pedagogical Schools of France, Grcr- 
roany, and England '* ; ^* Polymathy, a Study of the Psychical Development of 
the Cliild " ; " The Teaching of Sewing and other Branches of Women's Work 
in the Higher Schools " ; besides book reviews, prnetical problems in mathe- 
matics, grammar, etc., and a resumh of offlcial acts and documents bearing 
upon the subject of education. We send greeting to our younger sister across 
the sea, and wish her a constantly widening sphere of usefulness, and all pos- 
sible success in bearing onward the sacred torch of learning in the land of 
da Gama and Camoens. 

The latest numbers of Cassell's National Library are No. 139. Thr 
Schoolmaster, by Roger Ascham. No. 140. Plutarch's Lives of Dion, 



1888.] AMONG THE BOOKS. 203 

Brutus, Artaxerxes, Galba, and Otho. No. 141. Tour through the 
Eastern Counties OF England, 1722. By Daniel Defoe. No. 142. Kmo 
Henry V. By William Shakespeare. No. 143. Complaints. By Edmund 
Spenser. No. 144. The Curse of Kehama. By Robert Sou they. No. 145. 
Essays on Mankind and Political Arithmetic. By Sir William Petty. 
No. 146. The Taming of the Shrew. By William Shakespeare. No. 147. 
Essays on Burns and Scott. By Thomas Carlyle. No. 148. Plutarch's 
Lives of Nicias, Crassus, Aratus, and Theseus. 

Metric Tables and Problems. By Oscar Granger. Syracuse, N. Y. : C. 
W. Bardeen. Paper. Pp. 23. 

Self-Teaching Needlework Manuals. Adapted to the latest require- 
ments of the New Code. By Emily G. Jones. London and New York : Long- 
mans, Green & Co. 

Manuals on the teaching of needlework are seldom seen in this country. 
This reliable and enterprising firm have given to the public a series of pam- 
phlets on this subject that are of great value. In Germany and England, 
works on the art of needlework and dress-cutting and fitting are much more 
numerous ; but here these clear and concise manuals will be of great assistance 
to the teacher of sewing, and also to all interested in the best method of mend- 
ing and dress-cutting. The series consists of five books, each one being pro- 
fusely illustrated with diagrams. The exercises are given In language that the 
youngest children can hardly fail to comprehend, and made still more simple 
by means of the various cuts of the work at all stages of progression. The 
books teach how to hem, seam, tuck, and gather; how to knit, darn, button- 
hole, and mend, and also show the first rudiments of cutting out. 

Dress Cutting Out; with Diagrams on Sectional Paper. A simple system 
for Class and Self-Teaching. By Mrs. Henry Grenfell and Miss Baker. Lon- 
don : Longmans, Green & Co., and New York: 15 East 16th Street. 

This system of dress cutting out would be found useful in schools and fami- 
lies throughout the land. Many a woman would not only find it possible, but 
easy to make her own dresses with this aid. The diagrams are full-size and 
very clear, and each step in the work is clearly stated and will be found very 
simple. The diagrams tell where to take each measurement and how to use it 
after it has been taken. We feel sure that any one who tries this system will 
be delighted with it. 

A Common Sense Elementary Conversation Grammar of the German 
Language; with Exercises, Readings, and Conversations. By Dr. Oscar 
Weineck. New York: F. W. Christern. Boston: Carl Schonhof. Pp. 
225. Price 31.00. 

Well printed, well planned, well executed. It will evidently keep the inter- 
est of the pupils and improve their powers of conversation. The teacher of 
German should examine this new work. It is the outgrowth of the public 
school work of New York City. 

GiNN & Co. are to be the American publishers of the Classical Review 
which is published in London, and numbers among its contributors the moat 
• eminent classical scholars of Great Britain. American scholars will be asso- 
. elated in the editorship. 



294 EDVCATIOy. [December, 

MAGAZINES RECEIVED. 

The followingr artlcleH iu the current nuinbera of our leading magazines are tbooght 
to be of special Interent to the reader.** of thit* niagiizine : — 

The opening article in the November number of the ('entuty i8 one of particular valae 
and intereMt. It in entitled "Th<.' GuiUN of the City of London," written by Norin&n 

Moore, with numerouH illustrationa by Joseph I'ennell. The December number of 7%« 

Atlantic Monthly containa a timely article on "The Future of the County College. 

Among the* g»>od thingH,*' in the'Deeember IIarp*'r' s, H.re a story by Walter Besant, — 
" The Last Mass,*' — a farce by Howellf*,** A ChrlHtnuis Mystery in the Fifteenth Century," 
and a cliarmingtv written and beiiuiifullv illustrated article on the appearance of the 
woods and meuifows at midnight, t>y WilliHin Hamilton (tibson. The opening arti- 
cle alone, in the December number of .SVr»^/i«r, ' Winter in the Adriondacks,** is well 
worth the price of the magazine, it is beantil'ully written with excellent illustrations^ 
and maikes one long to take Just such a trip as di«*l the author, Hamilton Wright Mabie. 

••The City of a Prince." a romantic chapter in Texas history, is ctmcluded in the 

November number of The Magazine, of American HUtory. One of the interesting aiticles 
in this valuable magazine is ** lionton* in 1741, and Governor Shirley," by Justin Winsor. 
Some valuable infornuition will be found in an article, entitled "The Largest Es- 
tate in the World," in the November Overland Monthly. Gail Hamilton has contrib- 
uted an article on "Catholicism and I'ublic Schools," In the November number of the 

North Ame.rican lieview. A particularly attractive article on "The Househohl of John 

Quincy Adams," is to be found in the Ifide Atcake for November. BiXik Chat for Octo- 
ber contains a well-selected and valuiible list of .>*tandard books in all departments of 

literature, with their prices, suitable Cor holiday gifts and the library. An article on 

*• Harvard College," by Charles Ibicon, will be lound in thti December number of Frank 

Ltmlie'ii Illuntnite.l Mmjazine. /tliii'kwjiHpH Edinburg Maifozine for October, contains an 

article on the " Kngllsh Peasantry." In the American ..lffij7aciii<' for November is an 

article on the " Fir.nt American Kml)'isj*y to I'ekln." J. li. Lippincott Company are 

publishing in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine, (voni month to monlh, *' Our One Hundred 
Questions." Kach month contains four or five questions, such as " Who was the origi- 
nal of Sam Weller? " "What bridge does HootI celebratti as the Hri<lge of Sighs?" 

and answers t^) the same. In the December number of the Forum is a bright ai'ticle 

on " A Uuigu of Law in Spelling." 

PAMPHLETS RECEIVED. 

The Bryant Literary Union, Krening Pont Building, New York, have issued a choice 
pamphlet describing their lecturers antl lectures. Those who are arranging " courses " 

wouUI do well to send for a copy. lt<*i)ort ot the Women's Educational and Industrial 

Union, 1H88, Boston. state Normal School at Bridgewater, Mass. Catalogue and Cir- 
cular, July 1, IHSs, Forty-eighth year. Number of students for the year, young men» 

G<>; young women. 1D4; total, '2.VI; numb(;r of instructors. 14. The Koman Cathidio 

Church and the School Question. By Eilwin 1>. Mead, Boston. George H. Ellis. 1888. 
15 cents This is an address delivered by Mr. Mead, t»ctober 1, before the Woman Suf- 
frage League, in Boston reviseil and expanded. Ills a viz^orous anil masterly discus- 
sion of the subject of which It treats Let every teacher interested in the present con- 
troversy sen»l tor a copy a-id read It. Papers t>f the American Historical Association. 

Vol. 111. No. 1. Iteports of the proceedings of the American Historical Association in 
Boston and Cambridge May. 1K*<7. By Prof. Herbert B. Adams. Secretary of the Asso- 
ciation. A capital report of a brilliant and valuable convention. Monographs of the 

Iniluslrial K<lucation Association. Ai*pect$ of Education. By Oscar Browning. England. 

iO cents. Annual i{«?porl of the Sehool Commitlee of I'rovidence, June, 1888. With 

reports from the superintendent and the several branches of the High School course of 

study of the Public Schools of Adams, .Mass., 1888. A Memorial 0<le. Written for the 

25ih anniversary of the First Congregational Church, Hyde Park, Mass. Annual Re- 
port of the Superintendent of Public Schools of the cityof Boston, 1888. The Obliga- 
tions of Ih" (.Mtizen. By Hon. Edward L. Pierce, Boston. A capital address, on a timely 

subject atid treated in' a masterly manner. itinu.'tallism in Europe. Reports from 

the Consuls of the United States.* No. 87. December. l^»<r. Washington: Govennnent 
Printing 0!!lce. Marietta Centennial Number of the Ohio Arclueological and Histori- 
cal Quarterly. June, I8S8 $1 (Hi. A graphic anti exceetllngly interesting hlstorj' of this 

great celebration. Many teachers wouhl be greatly intereste*! in it. The Swain 

Free School. Seventh year. New B<Mlfor<l. .Mass., 1888. Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 

N.Y. 1888. A full descriptive circular, giving a clear insight into the work and the work- 
ing of this excellent institution. — Some Theohigical Kurdens lteinove<l. By William 

Birrows, D. D. Itepublished Irom The .Andover Review^ September, 1>88 Monosyllabic 

Word?*, resulting from the EKcrcises on Drill Charts. Bv Miss Sarah Fuller. Hortice 

Mann School for the Deaf, Boston. D. C. Heath & Co., Publishers, Bos'on. Manual 

Training and the Blair Bill. By A. P. .Marble, Ph. D., Snpt. of Schools, Worcester, Mass. 
Read at the National Etlucational Association Departm«'nt of Superintendence, Wash- 
ington, I). C. Fel)riiary, lf<88. Boston. George B. .Melenev. 9 Franklin street, Bos'on. 
Pnce. 15 cents. A vij^orous diseussion r>f a vital subject. Wln*ther one agrees with the 
autlior or not, he will reatl this pamphlet with Interest. Beatty's Short Method of Com- 
puting Int«*rest. By Henry I'eatty, Massilhm, Ohio. Public Schools of the District 

of Columbia. Cooking. Three years course. Teachers* .Manual The N. E. Associa- 
tion of Colleges anil Preparat<)ry Schools. Addresses and Proceedings at the Third 
Animal Meeting, Boston, 8-8. — ^ University of Michigan. Philosophical Papers Sec- 
ond seri«?s. No. 4. The Ethics of Bishop Butler and Iminanuel Kant. By Webster Cook. 
1888. Fourt«?enth Annual Keport of the Denin B«>ard of Education, SepU'inber, 1888. This 
valuable report, in a<lilition to other important matters, tells us that the city of Denin 
has made provision for a large public library, which shall occupy one wing of the Pub- 
lic High School Building, oiie of the flnestpublic school houses in the whole country. 
Superintendent Gove expresses his loyalty to the American Public School system, and 
of manual training he says: " For a munber of boys, a manual training school is an- 
questionably the best, but for the great mass of boys and girls, a well-conducted ele- 
mentaiy school is most needed." 



€i)iicrATion, 

DEVOTED TO THE SCIENCE, ART, PHILOSOPHY, AND 

LITERATURE OF EDUCATION. 



Vol. IX. JANUARY, 1889. No. .5. 

TRAINING THE SENSIBILITIES. 

BT GEN. THOMAS J. MORGAN. 

'^ The heart has as good a right as the mind to a special training." — COM- 

PATRE. 

IN company with a group of travellers, I once visited the famous 
old church at Freiburg, to listen to the great organ which 
gives it its fame. The organist took his seat before the dumb 
instrument, and passed his hands lightly over the else silent keys. 
At his touch they responded, now sweet as the notes of a bird, 
now soft as human voices, and now loud and jarring as the noise 
of a thunder storm. It was an hour never to be forgotten, as it 
revealed to me possibilities slumbering in the organ of which till 
then I had no conception. The work of the teacher is not unlike 
that of the skilled organist. He is to awaken in the heart of the 
child emotions and feelings ranging from the tenderest pity for 
helplessness, to the most august reverence for the Creator of the 
universe. 

Not infrequently the teacher's work is conceived of as that of 
merely imparting instruction, or at most of training the intellect. 
But this is a one-sided and narrow view of his office. He has to 
do with the sensibility no less than with the intellect. He is to 
awaken feeling as well as to impart instruction. 

The soul is a unit. It cannot be separated into parts, as can the 
body. Its three great functions, knowing, feeling, and willing, 
are inter-related and mutually dependent. Knowledge awakens 
desire, and desire influences the will. There can be no act of 
knowing, or of feeling, which is not also an act of willing. Train- 



396 EDUCATION. [January, 

ing to think must affect to some degree the capacity for feeling, 
as well as influence the will. It is impossible to reach the sensi- 
bility except through the intellect. We do not desire that which 
we know nothing about. 

Nevertheless, there is a broad line of distinction between the 
sensibility and the intellect on the one hand, and the will on the 
other. The consciousness of knowing is one thing, that of feeling 
pleasure or pain is quite another. The two states are wholly 
unlike. Not less dissimilar are an act of willing, and an act of 
feeling or of knowing. 

These three great elements of being may exist in different indi- 
viduals in very unequal proportions. In some, they are very 
evenly balanced, in others, the propensity for knowledge predomi- 
nates over both sentiment and action ; in some, the feelings are 
uppermost, while in others the will is the dominant factor. 

The ideal of human culture is that condition in which the intel- 
lect, sensibility, and will are each well developed, and all stand in 
harmonious relationship. To know broadly and accurately, to feel 
quickly and keenly, and to act with promptness and effectively is 
the prerogative of the well-cultured man. 

While increasing attention is paid by intelligent teachers to the 
systematic training of the intellectual powers, the senses, memory, 
imagination, thinking, reasoning, very little attention is given to 
the proper cultivation of the sensibility, the appetites, desires, sen- 
timents, emotions. This is largely not only a neglected field, but 
even an unknown territory. The attention of the student of 
Psychology in the Normal school is directed rather to the faculties 
of knowledge than to the capacities for feeling. The laws of 
memory are much more clearly known than are the laws of the 
desires. In elaborate treatises on psychology it is far more diffi- 
cult to find a satisfactory discussion of the feelings than of the 
intellect. I know of no books of methods for training the feel- 
ings at all comparable with those for training the senses. The 
" model lessons " given in training schools are models of instruc- 
tion, and seek to illustrate the best way of stimulating the intel- 
lect, and seldom refer to the culture of the feelings. Even books 
of model lessons on Morals, are apt to be devoted to an exposition 
of teaching moral truth, rather than to the mode of awakening 
right sentiments. Candidates for the position of teacher are ques- 
tioned as to their knowledge, methods of instruction, and modes 



1889.] TRAINING THE SENSIBILITIES. 297 

of discipline, but not on their manner of calling into proper exer- 
cise the child's wonderful endowments for feeling pain at sight of 
falsehood, deformity, and evil, and pleasure at exhibitions of the 
true, the beautiful, and the good. 

That the training of the sensibilities should claim the serious 
attention of the educator will be made evident by the following 
considerations : — 

1. The capacity for feeling is one of the greatest factors in the 
constitution of the human soul. It is not practicable in a brief 
sketch like this to do more than outline the feelings, without 
attempting a detailed description. For convenience the various 
feelings will be grouped, and the most important ones named. 

a. The Appetites. The lowest group comprises those cravings 
that are most closely connected with the welfare of the body, such 
as hunger, thirst, suffocation, ennui, weariness, etc. These are 
animal, and man shares them with the brutes. 

h. The Desires. This group embraces the desires of life, prop- 
erty, society, approbation, liberty, power, truth, and others. This 
class loses its physical character and becomes more distinctively 
psychical. 

c. The Affections. In this are found love for self, for parents, 
for children, conjugal and fraternal affection, friendship, patriot- 
ism, philanthropy, gratitude, benevolence, pity, and piety, or love 
of God. This group is marked by a moral element which is ab- 
sent from the others named. 

d. The esthetic emotions of beauty, grandeur, sublimity, con- 
stitute another group. 

e. A fifth is made up of the moral feelings of obligation, a 
sense of duty, remorse, shame, and self-approbation. 

/. Into a sixth may be gathered the religious emotions, patience, 
faith, hope, repentance, reverence, and adoration. 

g. We may bring together into a separate class what may be 
called the passions, avarice, ambition, envy, jealousy, hatred, anger, 
revenge, pride, vanity, and others. 

This list, though by no means exhaustive, is suggestive of the 
large place in the human soul which is occupied by the feelings. 
They form an integral part of our constitution, and claim no less 
consideration than does the intellect. To ignore the feelings is to 
ignore the soul itself in the realm of its greatest activities. 

2. If a contemplation of the soul's varied capacity for feeling, 



EDUCATION. [January, 

embracing so wide a range of possibility of pain and pleasure, 
does not establish its claim to be considered by the educator in 
any comprehensive scheme of symmetrical culture, consider the 
part it plays in the life of the soul. Without endorsing the epi- 
curean notion that pleasure is life's end and aim, it must be ad- 
mitted that the practical test that most men apply in estimating 
the value of any experience is the aggregate of happiness or 
pleasurable feeling enjoyed. 

8. The brain is the servant of the heart. Men think in order 
that they may feel. They accumulate knowledge chiefly for the 
sake of the emotions it awakens. 

4. The feelings are a truer index of the soul than is the intel- 
lect. ^^ As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he.'' What a man 
feels, rather than what he knows, is a criterion of his worth. In 
the realm of feeling lies his true greatness. The marvelous na- 
ture of his soul is shown by its capacity for countless varieties of 
feeling, and infinite combinations of emotion. He is capable of 
an ambition that covets the world, and of a self-abnegation that 
courts a martyr's death. He listens with delight to the sweet 
notes of a bird, and rejoices in the midst of a mighty storm at sea. 
He spares a spider for pity, and depopulates a city for revenge. 
The most conflicting emotions often contend for the mastery within 
his breast. The supreme command laid by the Saviour upon men 
is to love God supremely, and their neighbors as themselves. 

5. The importance of the feelings is still further shown by the 
fact that action springs out of feeling. The will is largely de- 
pendent upon motive. We usually act as we feel. The will is 
little more than the heart's executor. If one would know how a 
man will act, let him learn how he feels. The great aqhievements 
of men are traceable to their desires. Ambition prompted Alex- 
ander to conquer the world; love of adventure sent Magellan 
round the globe, love of gold peopled California. Patriotism gave 
the world a Washington, and philanthropy a Lincoln. 

6. Feeling issues in action, actions become habit, and habits 
crystallize into character. The formation of a good character, 
therefore, is largely dependent upon the right unfolding of 
feeling. 

7. It is especially noteworthy that in human conduct the evil 
passions, hatred, revenge, ambition, avarice, jealousy, and the like> 
play a great part. Vice and crime stain human annals, and sicken 



1889.] TBAINING THE SENSIBILITIES. 299 

the student of history. The unwelcome suggestion is often forced 
upon us that vice is triumphant and that evil predominates. 

Along with this is the other sad fact that with multitudes of 
human beings life is rather a series of sorrowful experiences, than 
a succession of pleasures. So awful is the amount of human suf- 
fering that some serious-minded men have earnestly contended 
that '* life is not worth the living." 

The human heart may be compared to a fertile field, capable of 
producing fruits in great profusion, and flowers in endless variety. 
Under proper care it yields all that can be desired for comfort and 
pleasure. But if neglected the weeds root out the flowers, the 
tares supplant the wheat, the garden becomes a desert, and the 
field a wilderness. The heart of man, which is capable of exer- 
cising the noblest desires, the tenderest affections, the finest sen- 
timents, and the sublimest emotions, is likewise capable of being 
ruled by the most depraved appetites, brutish passions, and fiend- 
ish emotions. 

Enough has been said to suggest the unspeakable importance of 
right feelings to the individual and to society. Language is in- 
adequate to portray its full significance. Nothing more than our 
susceptibility of suffering, and our capacity for enjoyment, shows 
how "fearfully and wonderfully we are made." Only the con- 
scious revelations of eternity can fully unfold to us the awful 
depths of suffering into which a soul may descend, or the unimag- 
ined heights of joy to which it may soar. The murderer on the 
scaffold, awaiting the fatal word, and the seraphic evangelist de- 
picting the glories of *' Jerusalem " the golden, are types of the 
extremes of which man is capable. 

The question may here arise — What has the teacher to do with 
all this ? The answer is at hand. In each child lie all the possibili- 
ties of pain and pleasure. The sensibility is an integral part of 
the human soul. The chords of the heart are all there, waiting 
to be swept by the master hand. They can give out the harshest 
discords, and they can pour forth the harmonious strains of the 
sublimest oratorios. The original endowments of capacity for 
feeling are all present in childhood, simply waiting to be called 
into exercise. As the child grows it gains no new capacities for 
feeling, it simply experiences the use of its original endowments. 

Very young children manifest a great variety of feelings : curi- 
osity, love of society, desire of liberty, desire of property, love of 



300 EDUCATION. [Janiuiy, 

approbation, affection, hope, fear, together with envy, jealousy, 
hatred, and many others: In the schoolroom, where a large num- 
ber of children mingle freely together, the feelings are likely to 
have a rapid development. 

It is in childhood that the greatest spontaneity and artlessness 
are exhibited in the manifestation of emotion. Men learn to con- 
ceal or counterfeit their feelings, children seldom do either. They 
carry their hearts upon their sleeves. By word and gesture, 
tones of voice, and facial expression, they reveal the real nature 
of their inward promptings. As light and shade chase each other 
in unrestricted freedom over the landscape, so the swift waves of 
varying emotions follow each other in quick succession over the 
child^s face. 

The intimate association of children of widely diversified dis- 
positions, in all the varied employments of the school, affords an 
exceptionably favorable opportunity for calling into healthful 
activity almost all the emotions suitable to childHiood. 

Under skilful training right feelings can be evoked, and evil 
feelings checked. Wise discipline awakens love of order, desire 
of knowledge, self-reliance, trust, love of the beautiful, love of 
truth, and a sense of obligation to duty, together with scorn of 
meanness, hatred of deceit, shame and remorse. On the other 
hand, flattery may awaken conceit, too much attention develops 
vanity, too rigid discipline arouses resentment and deceit, lax 
discipline brings out recklessness and disregard for authority. 

The teacher unconsciously arouses, directs, or depresses feel- 
ings. The manifestation of feeling is a potent agent for arousing 
the same, since feeling is contagious. The teacher's tone of voice, 
manner of speech, methods of instruction, and mode of discipline, 
are all forceful in awakening or lulling emotion. 

The feelings of children when once fully awakened tend to 
persist and to grow. That which today seems only a harmless 
ripple on the surface of the young child's soul, by-and-by appears 
as a deep and dangerous current drawing into its impetuous rush 
all his energies and carries him on to destruction. An approving 
and sympathetic smile from the teacher may awaken in the mind of 
the young child aspirations and hopes which are only the precur- 
sors of great attainments. Many an eminent career in science, 
literature, art, or business, is traceable to some childish emotion 
fostered by a sympathetic parent or teacher. And it is doubtless 



1889.] TBAININO THE SENSIBILITIES. 301 

also true that many an otherwise brilliant career has been pre- 
vented by a lack of kindly sympathy, when sympathy and encour- 
agement were most needed. The child heart is very susceptible 
to outward influences, and feelings are easily aroused and directed 
which may become dominant forces in unfolding character, and 
fixing destiny. 

It is a consideration of great weight that there are opportune \ 
moments for awakening, deepening, modifying or directing feel- j 
ing, when much can be done. At such times the soul is plastic in / 
the hands of its guide, and readily yields to wise direction. / 
These golden moments come intermingled with the child's work 
and play, often without any effort on the part of the teacher to 
prepare them, while at other times they come as the direct result 
of the teacher's plans and efforts. Happy is he who can seize 
such occasions and use them wisely for training to healthful ac- 1 
tivity the feelings that tend toward duty, virtue, and happiness. 
These opportunities unimproved may never return. The iron 
must be welded while it is hot, the clay be moulded while yet 
plastic on the potter's wheel, else the clay grows brittle, the iron 
hardens, and the coveted results can never be attained. If a de- 
sire for knowledge is not awakened in childhood it is not likely to 
be in manhood. If a child acquires a dislike for study it is diffi- 
cult to overcome that dislike in later life. Love of the beautiful 
in all its varied forms is denied to those in whose hearts it has not 
been awakened in youth. Unless the feeling is aroused in con- 
nection with simple object lessons, and lessons in color, form, 
music, manners, and morals peculiarly adapted to the child's 
capacities and experiences, and thus grows with his growth and 
intertwines itself with all that he sees, hears, reads, thinks, and 
does, running like a golden thread through all life's woof and 
warp, it can never come. Thought and feeling should grow I 
together. Each new acquisition in knowledge should awaken its 
appropriate emotion, and each new desire give rise to new attain- 
ments in knowledge. The growth of feeling is not something 
that can be neglected with impunity, or postponed at pleasure. 
It should proceed pari passu with the unfolding of the intellect. 
Thoughts and emotions should be blended in all the stages of their 
development, so that thought may have its flowering in sentiment, 
and sentiment have its firm basis in knowledge. 

The tendency of school life is toward a dry, hard intellectual- 
ism. The goal of endeavor is knowledge. The reasons for this 



302 EDUCATION. [JanuAry, 

are evident. Limiting the teacher's work chiefly to instruction 
renders it comparatively simple ; it brings results within the range 
of tests, and where these results are looked for principally in feats 
of memory they can be reduced to percentages and tabulated. 
But where it is required that the teacher's work shall include the 
culture of the feelings, it becomes more complex and difficult, less 
subject to rules and routine, and impossible of mathematical meas- 
urement. There is as much difference between the crude process 
of education tliat results in cramming the memory with facts and 
dates which can be called up at pleasure, and those subtler pro- 
cesses that awaken the finer feelings of the human soul that enno- 
ble and beautify the whole nature, as there is between the coal 
that is weighed out by the ton and consumed in the furnace, and 
the diamond that flashes back the sunlight from the brow of roy- 
alty. We do not despise the coal, but we look also for diamonds. 
Education must supply the cliild with facts, and train his intellect, 
but it should not stop here. It is capable of far higher results, 
and should aim at nothing less than the highest. Education that 
stops with mere intellectuality, comes far short of its true aim. 

It may be asked whether a child may not be too much under 
the domination of sentiment ; whether it is not possible to excite 
feeling too early, or too violently ; whether special effort is not 
required to stimulate the intellectual powers ; and whether feeling 
should not ordinarily lead to action ? To these questions a general 
answer may be returned. Yes. What is here insisted upon is 
that the teacher should study each child, and seek so far as possi- 
ble to train its powers symmetrically, giving to intellect, sensibili- 
ty, and will, each its due proportion of care, and seeking to 
educate the whole nature, training the child to tliink, to feel, and 
to act. To train the intellect should not be the sole aim of the 
teacher, as seems so often to be the case. Where a child has an 
'; excess of feeling, it is the business of the teacher to repress it, or 
i to counterbalance it by awakening some opposite feeling. Fear is 
\ to be replaced by love, timidity by self-confidence, love of play by 
love of study, superstition by reverence. 

There is a very general notion that the intellect is subject to 
well ascertained laws, but that the feelings are capricious, and 
subject to no law. This is a hurtful mistake. Feelings are sub- 
ject to law no less than memoiy and imagination. There are laws 
of feeling, as well as laws of thought. We may teach children 
how to feel, as well as how to think. One great psychic law 



1889.] TRAINING THE SENSIBILITIES. 303 

dominates our whole spiritual nature. Each power grows by ap- 
propriate exercise. Capacity for feeling, as well as power to think 
and ability to act, is augmented by its own activity. Another 
well established law peculiar to sensibility is that feeling is con- 
tagious: Love begets love. A teacher's enthusiasm for study 
enkindles a whole school ; disrespect for authority, embodied in 
some strong, rude boy, has a demoralizing effect upon the entire 
body of his associates, unless perchance his conduct is so out- 
rageous as to produce a reaction in favor of good order. There 
are other laws easily ascertainable and readily available for the 
proper cultivation of the sensibilities. 

How shall this great work be accomplished ? It is only possible 
here to suggest in bare outline a method. 

First of all, the teacher must be one whose feelings are sensi- 
tive, strong, and in healthful equipoise. A man without a heart 
has no business to be a schoolmaster. 

In the next place, those who are in course of preparation for 
teaching should make a careful study of the emotional nature, 
with a view of becoming masters of the secrets of the human heart. 
Of what feelings is the human soul capable? How are they 
aroused ? What feelings are peculiar to childhood ? What is the 
function of each feeling ? When do feelings cease to be virtuous, 
and become vicious? How can they be cultivated? How do 
feelings manifest themselves ? These, and similar inquiries should 
be pursued by the study of books, by introspection, and the pa- 
tient and careful study of children, until the student has attained 
a familiarity with this most important element of man's nature, 
and has acquired a deep and lasting interest in the study. 

Third. The training of the sensibilities should be recognized as 
a distinct and important pai-t of the teacher's work. Special fit- 
ness and preparation for doing it should be required in those who 
aspire to teach, and success in this work should be one of the 
criteria by which a teacher's work Ls to be judged. 

Fourth. In the arrangement of programmes for institutes and 
other educational meetings, more prominence should be given to 
the discussion of specific questions pertaining to the culture of 
the feelings. 

Fifth. This subject demands a more thorough discussion than 
has yet been given to it in works on Pedagogy. 

Sixth. In the location of school buildings, in the adornment of 
the grounds, and in the furnishing of the rooms with pictures, 



/ 



/ 



3M EDUCATION. [January, 

cabinets, plants, and other articles of interest to children, increased 
attention should be paid to the development of the esthetic na- 
ture. Imposing architecture, delicious music, landscape garden- 
ing, fine examples of painting, engraving, sculpture, and statuary, 
are all suitable accessories of a school of learning. 

Seventh. In aiTanging courses of study, color, form, music, 
drawing, and other subjects that appeal strongly to the sensibility, 
should find a larger place. One of the delightful and humane 
features of the kindergarten is the liberal provision it makes for 
training the sensibility by systematic lessons adapted to the child 
nature. 

Eighth. The whole course of discipline, the daily programme, 
the administration of justice, should be such as to awaken a love 
of order, neatness, promptness, politeness, honesty, and fidelity. 

Ninth. The method of instruction should be such as to special- 
ly call into exercise the power of feeling. Mere memorizing of 
set tasks has little efficacy in this regard. Constant effort should 
be made to lead the child to use its ovm |)owers of observation, 
and to state in its own language what it thinks and feels in refer- 
ence to what it observes. The use of objects, microscopes, pict- 
ures, vivid narratives, and good literature, each have a place in 
any scheme of instruction designed to reach the heart. Short 
talks in regard to current events, comments on the passing phe- 
nomena of the seasons, improvement of the incidents of school 
life, may be wisely employed. Occasions presented by lessons in 
reading, geography, history, physiology, astronomy, and other 
studies, should be utilized in arousing and directing feeling. 

Tenth. The school should be pervaded by a high moral, and if 
possible, religious tone. There should be awakened a keen ^ense 
of honor, an exalted notion of duty, an unswerving adherence to 
principle, an unconquerable aversion to falsehood, a reverence for 
authority, penitence for wrong, and an honest, simple fear of God 
as maker, observer, and judge. 

This conception of the teacher's work while adding to its diflfi- 
culty, adds also greatly to its dignity. To train the sensibility so 
that it shall respond to all tlie varied influences that affect it in 
such manner as to multiply its sources of happiness, and prompt 
it to right courses of action, is an exalted privilege that may well 
satisfy the loftiest ambition of one who seeks to promote the wel- 
fare of his fellow beings, purify the family, ennoble the race, and 
glorify the Maker of us all. 



1889.] NOBMAL INSTITUTES. 305 



NORMAL INSTITUTES. 

BY J. M. GREENWOOD, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI. 

^^1\T0RMAL INSTITUTES" wiU be discussed under the fol- 
-L^ lowing subdivisions: — 

1, What are the limits f 

2. What instrumentalities are necessary to accomplish the work 
proposed ? 

To ascertain the limits of the Normal Institute, its boundaries 
must be accurately drawn and correctly described. Upon what 
conditions it came into being as an educational force, its actual 
and potential powers, the points where its limits cease in a system 
of instruction, are questions worthy of consideration. The Nor- 
mal Institute is a vague Idea in the minds of many. It is made 
to vary so as to represent, as an educational conception, anything 
and everything from zero to plus infinity. In one sense it is a 
new factor in the American system of public instruction: in 
another it is the realization of a scheme that has been advocated 
and practised by a few of our best educators for twenty or more 
years. 

An object is defined by giving such a description of it as will 
distinguish it from all other objects, or by thinking it in or under 
some more comprehensive genus. Frequently, negative defini- 
tions, that is, by telling what an object is not, are employed. 
Both methods will be used in this discussion. 

The Normal Institute is not a Normal School; it is not an ordi- 
nary county or township institute ; it is not a graded school ; it is 
not a college, or a university. There are resemblances to all of 
these ; but there are also differences which entirely preclude the 
idea of sameness or identity. 

It may he defined as a special kind of Training School^ organized 
for the benefit of a large dass of teachers who have not been regularly 
instructed how to teach and how to manage a school. This is the 
position it occupies ; it is designed to supply a great educational 
want in our school system. 



306 EDUCATION. [January, 

Statistics show that the average time that teachers follow their 
vocation is not far from three years. In some states forty per 
cent, quit, or are dropped out, every year. Of necessity many- 
unskilled teachers are employed, and Boards of Education are not 
always careful in selecting good teachers, and occasionally are 
very indifferent on this point. Hence poor teachers are palmed 
off on thousands of school districts everv year. 

This question forced itself into public notice in this form — 
What can be done to improve this larye clans of unskilled teachers^ and 
how can it he done the quickest? 

Normal schools are doing a grand work, but they cannot supply 
the denaand, and besides too many of them are carrying putrid 
carcasses as instructors, and playing ^^ second fiddle" to academies 
and high schools. 

A stringent law requiring all the teachers of any one state to be 
thoroughly qualified to teach, would reduce the teaching force of 
that state at least sixty per cent. It is surprising how few first- 
class teachers there are in the schools. Even in the most favored 
states, the number is not bewildering, notwithstanding the pro- 
digious efforts many states are putting forth in preparing a 
good corps of teachers to take the place of the unskilled ones. 

Normal schools, normal departments tacked to colleges and 
universities, and the average county institutes, with all the blow- 
ing and striking that can be done, were and are inadequate to 
meet the demand for trained teachers. No state is supplied; no 
city. The demand is wide spread; it is universal. "Give us 
good teachers" is the cry. 

The only speedy and practical way of remedying this defect 
was in the adoption of a State System of County Normal In- 
stitutes. 

Already several states have taken this forward movement, and 
the general results appear to be favorable to the experiments thus 
far tried. For it must be borne in mind that, at most, it is a 
tentative process for supplying teachers that should graduate 
from normal schools. 

INSTRUMENTALITIES AND OBJECTS. 

1. A Live Active Superintendent. 

2. A Couree of Study Authorized by the State. 

3. Qualified Instructors. 

4. The Work to be Accomplished. 



1889.] NOBMAL INSTITUTES. 307 

It makes no difference how good a law is on the statute book, 
it is a nullity unless enforced by a live active county superintend- 
ent. The county superintendent is the custodian of every 
schoolhouse in his county. He it is who watches every door 
and virtually decides who shall enter as teachers. He must be 
the moving and moulding spirit in his county. He inspires, di- 
rects, plans to secure the highest results. More than a mere 
teacher, he must be a man of wisdom, scholarship, business tact, 
high organizing power, and of executive ability. The idea that 
briefless lawyers, big or little-pill doctors, decayed preachers, or 
ward politicians can perform the duties of such an office in an 
efficient manner, is a serious mistake. But enough to say that 
the best school man in the county is the one to be placed at 
the head of its educational interests. 

A course of study is necessary for two reasons, viz., To assist 
the persons whose experience is limited in such work, and have 
been chosen to conduct the teaching; and also as a means of 
securing homogeneous work throughout the state. 

It is as necessary to secure uniformity in this work, as it is to 
have a course of study for graded schools; and a copy of the 
course ought to be in the hands of every teacher who attends. 

The working Institute Program should be well balanced in 
regard to subjects and time. The session should not open too 
early in the morning. Plenty of time should be given for those 
who live out in the country to be present before roll-call. 

There are certain psychological and physiological truths or prin- 
ciples lying at the foundation of all correct methods of education, 
and it is by an application of these principles that methods are 
tested. 

On general principles it may be stated that any system that 
exhausts and wearies the pupil is wrong. If six recitations in five 
hours, with only twenty minutes intermission in hot weather doe* 
not kill, it will cripple. No average school teacher can concentrate 
his whole mind on any one subject for five minutes to the exclu- 
sion of every other thing, and yet many Institute Programs will 
force teachers to work with tremendous energy till they are tired,, 
sleepy, and utterly exhausted before the continuous session closes. 

The arrangement of topics is an important matter. The two 
most difficult branches on the entire list of subjects are English 
Grammar and Arithmetic. I am not speaking of them as they are 



306 EDUCATION. [January, 

usually taught, but as a mental discipline. Grammar and Arith- 
metic should not come together. They ought to be separated. 
Drawing and Writing should come in the forenoon, and Didactics, 
the last exercise in the afternoon. 

Eight-fifty A. M. is a convenient hour to begin. The recitations 
ought not to be longer than forty minutes. For fifteen years I 
have commenced institute work at 8 : 50 A. M. and closed at 4 : 80 
p. M. My plan is to have a recitation of forty minutes, followed 
by an intermisssion of ten minutes, except at noon when we stop 
for two hours. This gives four recitations in the morning, end- 
ing at 12 M., and three recitations in the afternoon. It works 
well and always gives satisfaction. 

Little can be done well without suitable rooms. Much of the 
class-work to be made effective as well as practical must be done 
at the board by the class, hence the first inquiry in selecting a 
place to hold an Institute is, how much blackboard surface is there? 
This query has a double significance when it is remembered that 
^^ brains and chalk" constitute the teacher. Maps, globes, charts, 
are all needed as helps. If no other way, the conductors, the 
same as mechanics, should furnish these portable appliances. The 
teacher must have tools to work with, and so ought professional 
*' Insti tutors." Every teacher knows the advantages of a well- 
• arranged, well-furnished, commodious, convenient schoolroom. 

QUALIFICATIONS OF INSTRUCTORS. 

This is the most difficult element to be reduced in the entire 
discussion. Peter Cooper, it is said, first tried carpentering and 
failed ; next he tried to be a cabinet maker, and he failed at that ; 
next he went into the grocery business and failed again. He was 
now forty, and he commenced manufacturing glue^ and here he 
** stuck," and laid the foundation for the ten millions that he pos- 
sessed at the time of his death. The whole secret of his success 
lies in this, that making glue was the business that he was adapted 
to. I make no application. Draw what inference you choose. 
The Normal Institute is a violent protest against existing methods 
of conducting ordinary county institutes. New blood must be 
transfused into the veins and arteries of the old system. That 
system is already dead. Killed because of hard riding by " one- 
idead men," is an appropriate inscription for its tombstone. 
When a teacher or a fool mounts a hobby, dig a -grave ! 



1889.] NOBMAL INSTITUTES, 309 

An Englishman humorously remarked that if three Americans 
chanced to meet, one, at least, was sure to make a speech before 
they separated. It is scarcely necessary to say that this true 
Briton had been attending a county institute, and took notes for 
reference. 

Well, this statement is not incredible. And as an exhibition of 
the long-windedness that sometimes puffs up educational lecturers, 
I will add by way of parenthesis that a leading educator at a county 
institute delivered forty set speeches in two days, and in conclusion 
said he was sorry that the session closed so soon, as he had been 
obliged to omit much valuable matter which it was very important 
the teachers should know. Think of it! Four thousand instruc- 
tors, assistants, and lecturers turned loose in the United States — 
and nearly all of them the most inveterate talkers the world ever 
produced — to make speeches to the innocent, unoffending, unpro- 
tected, helpless teachers. May he temper the fury of the blast to the 
weak and the manacled ! 

"Carry me," methinks the teacher says, "to the top of the 
mountain peak to be devoured by vultures, or sink me to the 
bottom of the sea to be nibbled by minnows; but save me! save 
me ! from being spoken to death by a one-idead Instructor ! " 

This malady, more deadly than the blast of the sirocco, more 
poisonous than the breath of the fabled Upas, is the ghostly 
spectre that is most to be dreaded in the Normal Institute work. 
It strangled and choked to death the county institutes, and the 
same parties now will mount the "Normal hobby" and kill it too. 
Beware, then, of the talking men in the Institute ! 

Men of action, not of words, are needed. Men who are success- 
ful teachers ; who know how to organize, how to teach ; not only 
how to teach but the best methods of teaching and managing, are 
needed to do this work. This system is designed more particu- 
larly to help the country and village schools, and therefore the 
instructor can not handle the country school problem unless he 
has had several years' experience in that work and that with a 
view to perfecting the system. The country school is the great 
problem to be solved in this country by the educator and states- 
man. Some of our college men have viewed the country schools 
with large sized field-glasses in order to solve the difficulties, but 
with about as much success as a craw-fish would dig a hole in 
a stone jug. 



310 EDUCATIOy. [January, 

System is the key to success in all kinds of business, school 
business included. The instructor must be a systematic, prompt, 
decisive, and a rapid organizer. Let the institute be organized 
the first forenoon and in the afternoon regular work commenced. 
Classes are formed and lessons assigned as in an ordinary school. 
Signals for the movement of classes are to be given and explained 
and practised till all classes move as a single individual. 

In an Institute held hot 180 degrees from the North Pole four 
days were spent in organizing, and the only topic for investigation 
for that birth-period was '* paper," which necessitated no little 
searching of encyclopedias. It was a useful exercise to the teach- 
ers to read up the history of paper, but what that had to do with 
Institute work does not very clearly appear. 

To other necessary qualifications scholarship of a higher order 
is demanded. The Instructor, if of one subject only, ought to be 
master of it. 

Persons of superior ability, activity, good judgment, accurate 
scholarship, broad culture, deep sympathies, and thorough knowl- 
edge of the science and art of education, will succeed well in 
Institute work. 

A critical survey will satisfy any one familiar with school work 
that our graded town and city schools are in fair condition. But 
the country schools are far from being satisfactory. There is little 
or no system among them. They are not half supervised. One 
district has but little in common with adjoining districts, and the 
old adage, " every fellow for himself," is literally true here. In the 
country schools everything appears to work wrong-end fore-most. 

By means of the Normal Institutes the instruction in each 
county may be systematized so far as the common branches are 
taught. The teachers can be put to work to a very considerable 
degi-ee on the same daily program. Instead of having a hundred 
and fifty different schools, conducted on one hundred and fifty 
distinct plans in classification, methods, and objects, there ought 
to be a kinship in the school work of the county; the schools 
should be related and somewhat alike. This is a very important 
matter. Courses of study for the Institutes and for the ungrad- 
ed schools should be arranged at the State Superintendent's 
Office, and followed as closely as possible. Such a scheme saves 
trouble and is also a guide to teachers and County Superintend- 
ents. 



1889.] NOBMAL INSTITUTES. 311 

Last year I picked up a county paper, and in it was published 
a " daily program for country schools." This program was the 
result of some logic chopping propositions, one of which was to 
the effect that an equable division of time should be given to 
each class. This looked all right as a proposition; but when it 
was applied, the principle had a back-action kick dangerous to 
toy with. 

For instance, the most advanced classes in Geography, Arith- 
metic, and Grammar, were aUowed ten minutes for each recitation, 
while the same time precisely was given to the first reader, second 
reader, third reader, etc., etc. Only one recitation occupied over 
ten minutes and that was history of the United States, which, by 
grace, was fifteen minutes. The whole number of recitations was 
about thirty-eight daily according to this schedule. The teachers 
of the county adopted this program, so stated the accompanying 
resolutions, and they still live. 

Normal Institutes will create a laudable ambition among the 
teachers, a desire to excel, to do better work and to stimulate 
further the educational interests of the country. New fields of 
thought will be opened to them ; they will make excursions into 
unknown and to them unexplored regions. Beauty will be seen in 
the dew-drop, the violet, the solid rock, the floating cloud, and the- 
dancing sunbeam. Mind, the true study of the teacher, will be^ 
investigated as the ultimate substratum upon which all educational 
systems rest. Literature will sparkle with a new radiance, and. 
the formulas of mathematics will become vocal with truths, the 
symbols of eternity. Normal Institutes will give the country 
better teachers, better citizens, better scholars, better men and 
women — the object of all education. 



Who 's seen my day ? 

*T is gone away, 

Nor left a trace 

In any place. 

If I could only find 

Its footfall in some mind, — 

Some spirit- waters stirred 

By wand of deed or word, — 

I should not stand at shadowy eve, 

And for my day so grieve and grieve. 

—^ JEmtncL Surt, 



313 EDUCATION. [JuiaAry, 



THE EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN FLORIDA.^ 

BT GEORGE GARY BUSH, PH. D., BELLEVIEW, FLA. 

FLORIDA has reached an interesting period in her history. 
During recent years the growth of a sentiment in favor of 
education has been as rapid as it lias been admirable. Previous to 
the year 1868 there was lack of organization and the educational 
facilities afforded were inadequate to meet the demands of a rap- 
idly increasing population. But during the past twenty years the 
material progress of the state, though very great, has not kept pace 
with the advance in all matters pertaining to education. This state- 
ment finds its confirmation principally in the history of the past 
five yeare, within which time not only the public school system has 
been perfected but educational advantages of the highest order 
have been placed witliin the reach of all. Florida lias now learned 
that the only way to have efficient schools is to provide efficient 
teachers. Hence Normal Schools for both the white and colored 
population Ijave been established and supported by the state, and 
Teachers' Institutes, under the supervision of the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, are regularly held. Until within a very 
brief period there were no studies pursued in the schools which 
would be classed under the higher education. By the strictest 
definition there is still very little collegiate instruction, and yet 
each year witnesses a steady advance, and, should this continue, 
Florida will soon take rank educationally with the older states. 

THE SCHOOL LAW OF 18G9. 

In accordance with authority granted by the state constitution 
of 1868, the Legislature, which convened in the January following, 
framed a school law with such wise and generous provisions, that it 
is still, with only slight modifications, in force, and acknowledged 
to be one of the best school laws of tliis country. It provided for 
a uniform system of common schools and for establishing a univer- 
sity in which instruction should be free. It established a common 

> See the writer's " History of E(lucatioii in Florida," soon to be publislied by the Ba> 
reau of Education. 



1889.] THE EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN FLOBIDA. 313 

school fund out of the following sources : " The proceeds of all 
lands that have been or may hereafter be granted the state by the 
United States for educational purposes ; donations by individuals 
for educational purposes; appropriations by the state; the pro- 
ceeds of lands or other property which may accrue to the state by 
escheat or forfeiture ; the proceeds of all property granted to the 
state when the purpose of such grant shall not be specified; all 
moneys which may be paid as an exemption from military duties; 
all fines collected under the penal laws of the state ; such portion 
of the per capita tax as may be prescribed by law for educational 
purposes; [and] twenty-five per centum of the sales of public 
lands which are now or may hereafter be owned by the state." 
Only the income derived from the fund could be used, and this 
must be applied to aid in the maintenance of common schools, and 
to the purchase of books and apparatus. The law further provided 
that there should be an annual school tax of not less than one 
mill on a dollar of all taxable property in the state : moreover that 
each county should be required to add to this for the support of 
schools a sum not less than one half the amount apportioned to 
each county for that year from the income of the common school 
fund. In place of this last provision each county is now required 
to assess and collect annually " a tax of not less than three miUs 
nor more than five mills on the dollar of all taxable proi)erty." 
The income from the fund was ordered to be distributed among the 
sevei-al counties in proportion to the number of children therein of 
school age ; but the neglect of any school district (i. e. of any county) 
to maintain a school or schools for at least tliree months in the year 
was to work a forfeiture of its poition of the common school fund 
during such neglect. The law of 1869 provided for a Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction, to hold oflice for a term of four years; 
a Board of Education with full power to perform all corporate 
acts for educational purposes, to be composed of the State Superin- 
tendent, Secretary of State, and Attorney General; a County 
Board of Public Instruction, to consist of five members and to be 
also a body corporate and intrusted with all the school property in 
the county ; a County Superintendent, who was to be secretary of 
the county board and agent between the state superintendent and 
the county schools ; and lastly. District Trustees, who were to be 
appointed by the county boards, and have like charge and respon- 
sibility within their narrower spheres. 



314 EVUCATIOy. [Januiuy, 

This law was favorably received by most of the people of the 
state, and no time was lost in putting it in operation. The agent 
of the Peabody fund, whose aid to the schools of Florida was gen- 
erous and timely, referring in 1872 to the operation of the new 
school law, says that ^^ during the three years of its existence it has 
had unusual difficulties to contend with, but a great advance has 
been made, and it is gaining rapidly in popular esteem." In 
1869 there was in many counties an almost total lack of school- 
houses; added to this was the incompetency of teachers and the 
insufficiency of the school funds. Previous to that time, as re- 
ported at least from one county, " the schools were kept in small 
cabins, out-houses, and sometimes in dwellings, by intinerant 
teachers, who scarcely ever professed to teach anything higher 
than Webster's spelling-book and arithmetic as far as compound 
numbers." By helps from the general government, from the Pea- 
body fund, and from other sources, schools rapidly multiplied in 
all parts of the state, so that in the year 1874 the secretary of 
state, who was then acting superintendent of public instruction, 
could say in his admirable report: "A few years ago there were 
no schools outside a few of the larger towns or cities. We have 
now nearly six hundred scattered throughout the state. They are 
springing up by the highways and byways as pledges of future 

improvement and progress This is a revolution that 

cannot go backward. It creates its own momentum. It moves 
by a power within itself, and strikes out the light and heat of its 
own vitality." 

Already the elementary schools had been graded and divided 
into primary, intermediate, and grammar, but up to the year 1877 
the law had been only partially enforced, except in the case of 
schools which received aid from the Peabody fund. In these 
schools benefit from the fund was made conditional upon a sys- 
tematic grading of the school, and a lengthening of the term 
(which had generally been only of a duration of three months) to 
a period of ten months. In the years following 1877 the system 
of grading was rapidly adopted, and it is now found, wherever 
practicable, throughout the state. The school year consists prop- 
erly of three terms of three months each, counting twenty-two 
teaching days for each month. As the State still grants aid to 
schools with an annual session of only three months, it unfor- 
tunately happens that the school privileges enjoyed each year by 



1889.] THE EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN FLORIDA. 315 

many of the children and youth of Florida are limited to this brief 
period. 

The reports of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the 
Hon. A. J. Russell, for the past five years, show aggregate results 
that will bear favorable comparison with the educational statistics 
of any other state. Among these may be specially noticed the 
growth of the schools in public favor; the increased number of 
schools and school children; improved buildings and enlarged 
funds ; a more intelligent and better instructed body of teachers ; 
a lengthened school year; and a ratio of daily attendance, which if 
correctly reported, probably cannot be surpassed in any section of 
our Union. In the report for the year 1887 I find the follow- 
ing statement: "It can be safely said there are but few children 
who live in isolated places now in the state to whom the door of 
the school is not opened without fee or hinderance, of any race or 
condition of the population, and there is every reason for believ- 
ing there are comparatively very few of the youth of school age 
who are not able to read." 

From statistics gathered, it is possible to present in brief some 
exhibit of the growth of the school system. In 1872, three years 
after the passage of the new school law, Florida had a population 
of about 195,000, and expended for public schools $80,000. The 
number of these schools was four hundred ; the value of the school- 
houses, grounds, and equipments $200,000, as reported (though 
this was evidently incorrect); and the permanent school fund 
$300,000. In 1880 the population had increased to 269,493, and 
the number of public schools to one thousand one hundred and 
thirty-one. 

In 1883-4. 

The youth of school age^ numbered 66,798 

The youth enrolled in public schools 58,311 

Average daily attendance 35,881 

Number of public schools 1,504 

The number of schoolhouses 1,160 

Expended during the year for public schools .... $172,178*00 

Value of school buildings, etc., in the state .... $210,115-00 

Permanent school fund $429,984.00 

In 1887. 
The youth of school age enrolled numbered .... 82,453 

Average daily attendance 51,059 

^Tbe enumeration of children between the ages of six and twenty-one years must be 
taken every four years by the county tux assessor. 



816 EDUCATION. [Jaouary, 

In 1887. 

Namber of public »chool8 2,104 

Namb«r of t«M:her. { ^'};«J^1J39 J a.S18 

Expended daring the year for school purposes .... $449,899.16 
Value of school buildings and grounds owned by the state and 

counties $691,000.00 

Value of school furniture 929,399.00 

Permanent school fund ^$500,000.00 

THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

The training of teachers is now recognized as one of the mo6t 
important educational agencies in Florida. Since the organiza- 
tion, in 1879, of the first Teachers' Institute, this work has grown 
rapidly in favor, and its beneficent effects are seen in a greatly 
improved corps of teachers, whose laudable ambition is " to excel 
in everything that tends to make a real teacher." Generous ap- 
propriations have been made by the legislatures to defray the 
expenses incident to holding the Institutes, and the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction has, since 1880, visited annually 
many of the counties and personally organized and conducted 
them. In February, 1886, a State Teachers' Institute was held 
and a State Association organized. At the Florida Chautauqua, 
held each year since 1885 at De Funiak Springs, much profitable 
instruction has been given to a large body of the teachers of the 
state. The subjects have related to the most important methods 
of teaching, and the lecturers have been some of the most eminent 
men who to-day adorn the teacher's profession. In June, 1887, 
the Superintendent organized a corps of five instructors who, for a 
period of sixteen weeks, successfully conducted teachers' institutes 
in thirteen counties. The officer in whose charge this work was 
placed made a most favorable report, showing that the citizens 
generally were disposed to foster and lend it aid, and stated his 
belief that it had already "resulted in giving a new impetus to 
educational thought in our state." 

Allied to the subject of teachers' institutes is that of normal 
school training, and this during the past decade has received much 
attention, the work being largely aided by donations from the Pea- 
body fund. At present, besides normal departments in a few of 
the colleges and secondary schools, there is a Normal College for 
white students at De Funiak, and another, equal in all its appoint- 

^In addition to this there remain 400,000 acres of the lands donated to the ttate for 
oommon schools, having an estimated value of $1.26 per acre. 



1889.] THE EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN FLOBWA. 317 

ments, for colored students at Tallahassee. These are both state 
institutions, and under excellent management. The course con- 
sists of two years in the art of teaching and imparting instruction ; 
at graduation diplomas are given which have the authority of life 
certificates of the first class in the state. Both schools are supplied 
with modem furniture of the most approved pattern, with globes, 
atlases, blackboards, and all other requirements necessary to 
secure the best results. 

THE FREEDMEN. 

In the history of Florida few events have been of greater inter- 
est than those relating to the education of the freedmen. The 
first to take action in this matter were two societies at the North 
which were under the control of colored people. They were 
known as the African Civilization Society, and the Home Mission- 
ary Society of the African M. E. Church, and established schools 
at different points in the Southern states, a few of which were 
opened in Florida. By means of the help received from these and 
other Northern societies, and through the efforts of such freedmen 
as had acquired a little learning in their bondage, some thirty col- 
ored schools were in successful operation at the close of the year 
1865. In January, 1866, a bill was introduced into the Legisla- 
ture of Florida, providing for the education of the children of the 
freedmen, and levying a tax of one dollar each upon " all male 
persons of color between the age of twenty-one and forty-five" 
years, and a tuition fee of fifty cents a month upon each pupil. 
As soon as this became a law a commissioner was appointed by 
the Governor, with authority to organize colored schools and en- 
list in his work the cooperation of all good citizens. This officer 
was everywhere welcomed by the planters of the state, and, during 
the first year, organized twenty day schools and thirty night 
schools. The latter were intended especially for adults who often 
formed weird groups, as they studied their books around the 
changing and uncertain light of the pine fire. There were en- 
rolled in these schools 2,726 pupils, and in addition, as many as 
2000 were thought to be receiving private instruction. In this 
movement for the education of freedmen Florida is believed to 
have taken precedence of all other Southern states. During the 
years 1866 and 1867 the number of colored schools rapidly in- 
creased. The freedmen in many instances erected schoolhouses 



318 EDUCATIOX. [Janiuury, 

at their own expense, and otherwise heartily seconded the action 
of the Legislature. And just at this \yo\nt the Freedmen's Bureau 
proved itself the efficient friend and ally of the colored people. 
This it did, principally, by aiding in the promotion of "school 
societies," whose object was to acquire by gift or purchase the 
perfect title to eligible lots of land for school purposes. Each of 
these lots — not less tlian one acre in extent — was to be vested in a 
board of trustees. This work of the Bureau was ably seconded by 
many landed proprietors who furnished school lots and who other- 
wise rendered moral and material support. Previous to 1869 the 
largest number of schools for colored pupils in any year was 
seventy-one and of teachers sixty-four. Of the latter one-half 
were wliite. The studies were "the alphabet, easy reading, 
advanced reading, writing, geography, arithmetic, and higher 
branches." In the common school law of 1869 no reference is 
made to the comj)lexion of the children for whom it was framed, 
and henceforth it l)ecame the business of the state to see that 
equal school privileges were accorded to the two races. It is 
evident from the annual rej>ort*< that for many years the progress 
of the colored j)eople in ac(iuiring learning was slow and unsatis- 
factor}' ; but, as the years j)assed, l)etter teachers of their own race 
were employed, and their educational condition vastly improved. 
To-day the children of the black man are taught in separate 
schools, but they liave the same help from the school funds, the 
same supervision, and are subject to tlie same regulations as the 
children of the other race. The number of colored teachers em- 
ployed in the state, in 1887, as already stated, was five hundred 
and seventy-nine. It is yet too soon to expect that, in general, 
their qualifications are ecjual to their white co-laborers, but from 
the superior advantages now offered in the Normal College and in 
teachers' institutes, it is fair to conjecture that the inequality will 
ere long be remedied. 

In a few places secondaiy schools have been established for the 
colored {)eople, which, like the Cookman Institute in Jacksonville, 
have met with a good measure of success. In the same city there 
is probably the l)e8t equipped colored school in Florida. During 
1887, through the earnest efforts of the State Superintendent, sec- 
onded by the county board of Duval County, and the colored people 
of the city of Jacksonville, the necessary steps were taken to 
secure from the agent of the Slater fund an annual appropriation 



1889.] THE EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN FLOBIDA. 319 

of one thousand dollars to be used for the teaching of the industrial 
arts. A suitable building was speedily erected, and fully furnished 
with wood-working tools and all other necessary appliances. This 
school is for the industrial training of both boys and girls, and is 
operated in connection with the colored graded school, — by far 
the best of its kind in the state. 

HIGHER EDUCATION. 

In behalf of the higher education little, comparatively, had been 
accomplished in Florida previous to the beginning of the present 
decade. As early as January, 1851, an act was passed by the 
Legislature providing for the establishment of two seminaries of 
learning, "one upon the east the other upon the west side of the 
Suwannee River, the first purpose of which shall be the instruction 
of persons, both male and female, in the art of teaching all the 
various branches that pertain to a good common school education ; 
and next to give instruction in the Mechanic Arts, in Husbandry 
and Agricultural Chemistry, in the Fundamental Laws, and in 
what regards the rights and duties of citizenship." The semi- 
naries provided for in this act were established a few years later, 
and, after varying fortunes, are now well equipped and doing 
most excellent work. The one east of the Suwannee River is lo- 
cated at Gainesville, and, since the year 1883, has been strictly 
military in its organization. Though it does not affect a college 
course, it has a curriculum sufficiently broad to meet the wants of 
its patrons, and under the able management of its superintendent. 
Col. Edwin P. Cater, is growing constantly in public esteem. 
The students enrolled during the past academic year numbered 
ninety-three, and were of an average age of about seventeen years. 
There are within the legal territory of the Seminary twenty-eight 
counties, and each of these is entitled to send "as many free stu- 
dents as it has members in the lower House of the Legislature." 

The Seminary west of the Suwannee River was opened in 1857 
at Tallahassee. A year ago it was reorganized and placed in 
charge of President George M. Edgar, LL. D., who for many years 
had been at the head of collegiate institutions in the South. So 
satisfactory has been his management of the seminary that a short 
time ago public attention was called to it by the Governor of the 
state and the Superintendent of Public Instruction. During the 
past year there were formed in the school two college classes and 



\ 



820 EDUCATION. [Jaooarj, 

two high school classes with seventy-four students in attendance. 
It has power to confer degrees and ^4ts charter is ample in its 
provisions for the maintenance of a university." Unlike the east 
Florida Seminary, it offers free tuition to all Florida youth. 
Both institutions are supported by the income derived from the 
sale of ^^ Seminary lands" which were donated to the state by 
Congress in 1828 and 1845, and by private and public bequests. 

THE STATE COLLEGE. 

Congress, by act passed July 2, 1862, appropriated to the sev- 
eral states ^4and scrip" to the amount of thirty thousand acres of 
the public lands for each senator and representative in Congress 
on the condition that each state, claiming the benefit of the act, 
establish a college ^^to teach such branches of learning as are 
related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, without excluding 
other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics 
. . . . in order to promote the liberal and practical education 
of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in 
life." In accordance with this act the Legislature of Florida 
voted, in 1870, to establish a State College. But the project suf- 
fered various delays, principally through lack of demand for such 
an institution, and it was not until 1884 that an attractive build- 
ing was completed, a faculty chosen, the curriculum of study 
provided, and the college put in full operation. During the years 
that have since elapsed, though the attendance has been small, 
(only forty-two students were reported in 1887) yet the material 
growth of the college has been rapid, and its educational advan- 
tages have each year improved. It now offers to each student, 
besides its classical, literary, philosophical, and scientific courses, 
the opportunity of witnessing the operations in farm, garden, and 
orchard; and also of learning by practice the use of imple- 
ments, and the value of well directed labor. During the past 
year the college grounds have been greatly beautified, a model 
barn has been erected, also a building for the Manual Training 
School, and at the present time a building for the Chemical Lab- 
oratory is in process of construction. The college is located about 
sixty miles west of Jacksonville, at Lake City, a place noted for 
the beauty of its environs and the equability of its climate. Pres- 
ident F. L. Kern, A. M., and his associates form an energetic and 



1889.] THE EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK IN FLOBIDA. 321 

able faculty, and the institution is gaining in public esteem in 
proportion as the advantages it offers are better understood. 

DENOMINATIONAL COLLEGES. 

Since the year 1888 a number of colleges (at least so named) 
have been established by various religious denominations in Florida 
and two of these have already taken high rank among the educa- 
tional institutions of the state. The one bears the name of its 
most generous benefactor, Mr. A. W. Rollins of Chicago, the other 
of its founder, the Hon. H. A. De Land, of Fairport, N. Y. Rol- 
lins College is located at Winter Park, and was incorporated in 
April, 1885, having been founded by the General Congregational 
Association of Florida. The government of the college is vested 
in a president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and auditor^ 
and a board of twenty-one trustees. The Rev. E. P. Hooker, D. D.^ 
a New England man, is at the head of the faculty of instruction, 
and the curriculum of study and methods of teaching employed 
are similar to those in use in Northern colleges. As an indication 
of its prosperity, four attractive college buildings have already been 
erected upon its fine campus ; its board of instruction has increased 
from seven members to twelve; the number of preparatory and 
college students has more than doubled, and the whole esprit de 
corps of the school has undergone a pleasing change. This insti- 
tution is certainly not one of the least of the blessings which have 
followed the train of Northern immigration southward. 

In the year 1883 Mr. De Land established an academy in his. 
town of De Land, and in 1887, under a special charter granted by 
the Legislature, it was organized into a university. Previous to- 
this the institution had been presented to the Baptist State Con- 
vention of Florida, by whom it is now controlled. Its president is. 
Dr. J. F. Forbes of Brockport, N. Y. Under the three years of hia 
administration new departments of study have been added, the 
former curriculum broadened, college classes formed, and, besidea 
generous additions to its endowment fund, one of the finest aca- 
demic buildings in the state has been erected upon the university 
grounds. For the year 1887-88 there were nine professors and 
instructors, and the students registered numbered one hundred 
and three. The object of this institution, as also of Rollins Col- 
lege, is to furnish a Christian education of the highest order to the 
young men and young women of Florida. 



322 EDUCATIOy. [JADoarj, 

There are a number of excellent private and public schools and 
academies in the state of wliich we have not spoken. Of the high 
schools nothing has been said for the reason that, with the excep- 
tion of the one at Jacksonville, and possibly one or two others, 
they are mostly undeveloped. 

In comparing Florida educationally with other states of the 
Union, it should be remembered that the former has a large terri- 
tory, with no centres of wealth ; with no aggregation of the people 
in large cities; with immense tracts of unoccupied lands; with a 
scattered iwpulation and comparatively poor facilities for inter- 
communication ; and with more than a third of the inhabitants 
numbered among the colored race, and bearing still intellectually 
the marks of tlieir bondage. These are hindrances of greater or 
less moment in any effort to build up and perfect a system of edu- 
cation, and in estimating the condition of Florida they should be 
entitled to adequate consideration. 



T//B HORACE MANN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

BY ELSA L. IIOBART. 

IN the Horace Mann School there are about eighty pupils, some 
of whom w^ere Iwrn deaf, while others have been deprived of 
their hearing by disease. 

It is often supposed that a deaf child has some defect in his 
organs of speecli, but this is very rarely the case. Most deaf chil- 
dren are speechless only for the reason that, hearing neither their 
own voices nor those of others, it is impossible for them to acquire 
speech in the usual way. 

Many children enter the Horace Mann School as '* deaf mutes," 
but after a short attendance this name no longer applies to them ; 
for in this school they are taught to communicate with others, not 
through the signs which make them noticeable, but through speech. 
They cannot hear the voice of tlieir teacher, and so the sense of 
touch takes the place of hearing and they are allowed to feel the 
vibration of the vocal cords in her throat. The way in which a 
little child is taught to imitate these vibrations and, watching 
eagerly, to place his own lips, teeth, and tongue as his teacher 
places hers, is wonderful indeed. He learns to follow every slight 



1889.] THE HOBACE MANN SCHOOL FOB THE DEAF, 32^ 

variation of her organs of speech, and as a result, he pronounces 
with her, first sounds and then the names of familiar objects and 
actions. At the same time he learns to read these words from the 
lips of teacher and classmates. The voices of many of the pupils 
are clear and sweet, and when, as sometimes happens, a voice 
sounds strained, or is pitched too high, the child may even be 
taught to modulate it, although this is somewhat difficult for him. 
From words, he passes on to simple sentences. In this part of his 
work, his progress is necessarily slow, as our language contains & 
remarkable variety in forms of expression, and he must fix each 
one in his mind by means of many repetitions. 

As soon as the child begins to speak, he is taught to read and U> 
write as children are taught in other public schools. Indeed, the 
course of study in the Horace Mann is the same as the ordinary 
primary and grammar school course, although the pupil's progress 
is retarded because^ he must acquire the language as well. The 
misfortune of these children seems, in most cases, to render their 
other senses more acute and to increase their capacity for com- 
prehending quickly and remembering accurately. For this reason, 
together with their delight in the knowledge that they gain, it is 
a pleasure to teach them, and they repay an hundred fold the pains 
that is taken with them. The younger classes are at present en- 
joying an illustrated primer which has been published this autumn. 
It has been carefully prepared to meet their needs by the principal 
of the school, and will fit them to read the primers which hearings 
children use. Indeed, it will be found useful in other primary 
schools during those first months when the five-year-olds have been 
confined to reading from the blackboard. 

The benefits of this school are not confined to those who enter 
it without speech. Children often lose their hearing through 
severe illness, and thus have no longer the power of understand- 
ing what is said to them. They still have their speech, but, unless 
special attention is given them, it becomes more and more indis- 
tinct as the years go by, until they cease to make use of it and 
become so-called "deaf mutes." At the school, these children 
rapidly acquire lip-reading and are encouraged to use their speech 
constantly. Thus they are often enabled, after a time, to enter 
other schools and compete successfully with hearing pupils. 

The aim of the Horace Mann School is to make it possible for 
its pupils to mingle with friends and strangers ; to converse easily 



324 EDUCATION. [January, 

and intelligently with them and to lessen, in every way, the disad- 
vantages that arise from their deafness. To this end, and to fit 
them for their work in life, opportunities have been sought and 
found for them to take lessons in various branches of manual 
training. The pupils have had these lessons outside of their school 
hours in classes with hearing children and under teachers who had 
had no previous experience with the deaf. In typesetting, print- 
ing, carpentry, shoemaking, clay modelling, and cooking, the pu- 
pils from tliis school have succeeded as well as those from other 
schools, notwithstanding the obstacles in their way. As in all the 
public schools of Boston, sewing is part of the regular course; 
and the sewing teacher now reports that the older girls have prof- 
ited so well by her instructions tliat there is nothing more, in the 
ordinary school course of sewing, to teach them. 

The results of the instruction given at this school for the deaf, 
are shown in those who have entered as children and have remained 
during the required number of years. On leaving the school they 
have followed various occupations. Some liave entered other 
schools with their hearing friends and are now pursuing higher 
courses of study with pleasure and success. One of these is re- 
markable for the facility wth which she makes use of colloquial 
expressions. She has never heard a sound, and owes the ease 
with which she converses, to the instruction that she received at 
the Horace Mann School. A boy wlio lost his hearing at fifteen, 
learned to read the lips after a short attendance here, and is also 
doing well in another school. A congenitally deaf boy has entered 
a printing office on leaving school, and his employer reports that 
he is much pleased with liim and with his work. One of the girls 
earns remarkably good wages in the tailoring business and is so 
quick to read the lips that her employer can scarcely believe that 
she hears notliing. 

The occupations in which the former pupils of the school are 
proving their ability to take their part in the world, are many. In 
every case, it is noticeable that their associates are hearing men 
and women, and their deafness is but a slight disadvantage com- 
pared with the isolation that might have been their lot. One of 
them writes : "My deafness is tlie very smallest trial that I have." 
I think no one can doubt that this misfortune can in no other way 
be so much lightened. 

The Horace Mann School is a public day school. Deaf children, 



1889.] THE HOBACE MANN SCHOOL FOB THE DEAF. 325 

residing either in Boston or in Massachusetts may attend it with- 
out expense. Indeed, within a few months an act has been passed 
by which free transportation will be provided for any child whose 
parents desire it ; this renders the school absolutely free. The 
school was organized nineteen years ago through the efforts of 
Rev. Dexter S. King, at that time a member of the School Com- 
mittee. This gentleman had become interested in the teaching of 
articulation to the deaf at the Institution at Northampton, then 
but a short time established. Realizing that there were many 
deaf children in Boston whose parents did not wish to send them 
from home, he urged that a public day school be established in 
Boston. 

The school was opened on Nov. 10, 1869, with twenty-five pu- 
pils. In 1875, the school first occupied its present building at 63 
Warrenton Street. On account of the rapid increase of numbers, 
the accommodations were soon found to be insufficient and a pro- 
posal was made for a new building as early as 1879. Nothing was 
done, however, and owing to changes in the School Committee 
through the death of some who were interested in the work of the 
school and the removal of others, the matter was delayed for 
years. In the mean time, classes were obliged to occupy rooms 
never intended for use as schoolrooms and wholly unfitted for the 
purpose. Finally, a lot of land on Newbury Street was granted 
by the state in 1885, on condition that the city should erect a 
suitable building within three years. A sufficient appropriation 
was made and the building will be completed within a few months. 
Those who are interested forget the long nine years that they 
have waited, in their pleasure in the handsome building which is 
to be the Horace Mann School of the future. 

The new building is situated on Newbury, near Exeter Street. 
Preparatory training for industrial pursuits will be given in rooms 
in the lower story. Some friends of the school have kindly offered 
to assist in fitting up these rooms for such classes. The first floor 
will be occupied by the primary department. On the second floor 
are the rooms for the grammar classes and the principal's room. 
The upper story contains a large room where sewing and drawing 
will be taught. It will be pleasant to know that these children 
are enjoying, after so many years, the air and light which they 
need even more than other school children. We trust that no 
chance may longer delay the completion of the building. 



326 EDUCATION, [Jannarj, 



THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

AND LITERATURE.^ 

IV. 

A YEAR WITH LONGFELLOW, AND WHAT HE TAUGHT US. 

BY MAT MACKINTOSH. 

THIS paper is the record of a year's work in the study of Long- 
fellow, with children whose ages varied from six to nine 
years. I was first led to take up the continuous study of one au- 
thor, from reading an article (translated from the French of M. 
Felix Pecaut, by Marion Talbot), which appeared in the Educa- 
tion of March, 1887. Having decided to take up the study of 
Longfellow, I remembered fine work in that line which I had seen 
at the Froebel Academy, Brooklyn, under the leadership of Misa 
Mary Laing. From her work I took the idea of using selectiona 
from " Hiawatha." 

The results in general training were so satisfactory that I am 
emboldened to describe what we were able to accomplish, a little 
every day, during a whole year. 

I have, besides my blackboards all round the walls, eight black- 
boards on the sliding-doors which separate the schoolroom from 
the kindergarten ; and these doors, while inconvenient for general 
school-work, were just the thing for my poetry, as anything writ- 
ten there could remain on the boards for months. 

Each morning, at nine o'clock, we all rose and faced the sliding- 
doors, the older ones reading the lines written there, the younger 
repeating, and the teacher giving any unfamiliar words. At first> 
all read together until confidence was gained, then the elder ones 
singly, and much to my surprise, I found that many single words 
were learnt incidentally by the little ones, who heard the explana- 
tions given to the older children. This was a result of some time 
later, of course. I preferred that as many as could do so should 
read, as in this way two avenues to the mind — Hearing and Sight 
— were opened. 

^ Copyright, 1888, by Eaatem Edaoational Bureau. 



1889.] THE TE ACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 327 

Then, when seated, the older pupils took the poetry for their 
writing-lesson, usually on Monday, or if absent then, later in the 
week. I saw that they were provided with books, into which, 
either with pen or pencil, they copied the words just studied. 

The mottoes for our work we took from Longfellow and Shake- 
speare, and the first board read thus : — 

^^ Lives of ^reat men all remind as 

We can make oar lives sublime 
' And departing, leave behind as 

Footprints on the sands of Time/' 

— Longfellow^ 

** Heaven doth with us as we with torches do, — 
Not light them for themselves/' — Shakespeare. 

I underlined such words as " sublime " and " departing," going- 
over them in many ways, until something like the requisite con- 
ception had been gained, for I do not believe that we shotdd only 
give children what they can easily and perfectly comprehend. If they 
see dimly at first, the grander meanings of life will still grow 
upon them, and the mental habit of looking onward and upward 
will be formed. 

I relied greatly on these Poetry lessons for the Character-build- 
ing part of the education I would fain give all my little ones, and 
so, for the next two weeks' work, I made selections from " The 
Builders : — 

Second Board. Third Board. 

HENRT WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW, Nothing useless Is, or low, 

BORN FEB. STtu, 1807. Each thing In Its place Is best; 

DIED MARCH 24TH, 1882. And what seems but Idle show, 

Strengthens and supports the rest. 
For the struciure that we raise 

Time Is with materials filled ; In the dder days of Art 

Our to-days and yesterdays Builders wrought, with greatest care. 

Are the blocks with which we build. Each minute and unseen part 

For the Grods see everywhere. 

Here our work had special and graphic illustration, for this was 
the first session in a newly-built schoolhouse, and last year we had 
watched the various steps in erecting a house next door to our old 
school. " Structure " and " materials " gave us no trouble when 
read by the light of concrete example. And those of the children 
who had graduated from the kindergarten had loving memories 
of what associated effort could do with "blocks." 

" In the elder days of Art " led to a talk about the wonderful 
pictures, statues, and buildings of old; and a picture of the 



828 EDUCATIOX, [Janaary, 

Parthenon at Athens showed columns, which did beautifully 
"strengthen and support the rest" of the building. And this 
was a foundation for future references to the world of " Art." 

Now I thought we were ready to commence the study of ** Hia- 
watha," and so I wrote on the next board : — 

'* Ye who love the haunts of Sature, 

Love the sunshine of the meadow, 

Love the shadow of the forest, 

Love the wind among the branches, 

And the rainshower and the snowstorm, # 

And the rushing of great rivers 
^lirougli their palisades of pine-trees, 
^nd the thunder in the mountains 

Whose innumerable echoes 

Flap like eagles in their eyries ; — 

Listen to these wild traditions, 

To this Song of Hiawatha ! *' 

The first idea to be gained here was the meaning of " Nature.'''* 
(" Haunts " came incidentally.) Here I fell back on their already 
partially-formed conception of "Art," and told them, '*ART 
means the beautiful things that men make, and NATURE all the 
beautiful and wonderful things made by God." This was the first 
^erm of the idea; it has taken the whole year, and may take 
another to even relatively complete it. I may mention, as a point 
of interest for those who are investigating children's likes and 
dislikes, that this selection was the favorite among the children, 
and every one wanted to say that alone on our Longfellow's Birth- 
day celebration, when each child took a single passage. I found 
that " Hiawatha " was particularly easy for them to learn, doubt- 
less owing to the rhythm and repetition. 

I next told the story of the "Red Pipestone Quarry," and illus- 
trated by all the Indian pictures I could get. Then from " The 
Four Winds" I took short selections telling of Mudjekeewis 
" Father of the Winds of Heaven," and of his three sons, Wa- 
bun, Kabibonokka, and Shawondasee. This incidentally gave rise 
to study of the seasons, and of the points of the compass, where 
these four winds lived. We pointed in each direction, as we said 
the lines relating to each wind. 

Then came the connection of Mudjekeewis with Hiawatha. 
*' Mudjekeewis was Hiawatha's father, and his mother was Weno- 
nah, a beautiful Indian girl. But very soon Hiawatha's mother 
died, and then Nokomis, his old grandmother, took care of himi. 



1889.] THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 329 

You know winds do u't stay long in one place, so Mudjekeewis 
did n't see much of his little son." 

^^By the shores of Gitche Gumee [I^ake Superior], 
By the shining Big-8ea-Water, 
iStood the wigwam of Nokomis, 
Daughter of the Moon, Nokomis, 
Dark behind it rose the forest^ 
Bose the black and gloomy pine-4re€a^ 
Bose the Jirs with cones upon them. 
Bright before it beat the water, 
Beat the clear and gunny water. 
Beat the shining Blg-Sea-Water/* 

" Gitche-Gumee," the " Big-Sea- Water " introduced a talk about 
our great inland lakes, whose names were found on the globe, and 
readily learned, though I made no special point of it, since I was 
only anxious to give associations for the time when they should 
hear these names again. "Wigwam" was explained and pictures 
shown. " Daughter of the Moon " was explained by telling in a 
slightly abbreviated form, suited to the age of the children, the 
legend given by Longfellow. Then I made a special point of hav- 
ing the children show by their voices the difference between the 
three lines telling of the dark forest and the '* black and gloomy 
pine-trees " ; and those other three, telling of the bright, clear, 
shining, sunny water. This they took at once, with a quickness 
of perception that was most delightful and encouraging to their 
teacher. 

The next four boards told of the childhood of Hiawatha, and 
were supplemented by stories, and reading of parts of the poems 
which I did not ask them to learn. 

First Board. Third Board. 

'< At the door, on Suminer evenings, *' Then the little Hiawatha 

Sat the little Hiawatha, Learned of every bird their language, 

Heard the whispering of the pine-trees. Learned their names and all their secrets 

Heard the lapping of the water, How they built their nests In Summer, 

' Mlnne-wawa,* said the pine-trees. Where they hid themselves in Winter, 

' Mudway-aushka,* said the water.'* Talked with them whene'er he met them. 

Called them ' Hiawatha's Chickens.' " 
Second Board. 

'» [He] saw the rainbow In the heaven. Fourth Board. 

In the eastern sky the rainbow, " Of all beasts he learned the language. 

Whispered, ' What is that, Nokomis? ' Learned their names and all their secrets. 

And the good Nokomis answered. How the beavers built their lodges, 

* ' T is the heaven of flowers you see there, Where the squirrels hid their acorns, 

All the wild flowers of the forest. How the reindeer ran so swiftly. 

All the lilies of the prairie, Why the rabbit was so timid. 

When on earth they fade and perish. Talked with them iR^hene'er he met theni» 

Blossom in that heaven above us.' " Called them ' Hiawatha's Brothers.' " 



330 



EDUCATION. 



[Janumry, 



After speaking of the way Hiawatha proved his manhood by 
shooting and carrying home his first red deer, and of his skill with 
the Indian bow and arrows, we passed on to " Hiawatha's Fast- 



ing 



>> 



The first two boards were as follows : — 



First Board. 
" Yon shall hear how Hiawatha 
Prayed and fasted In the forest, 
Not for greater skill in hantlng, 
Not for greater craft in fishing, 
Not for triumphs in the battle. 
And renown among the warriors. 
But for profit of the people, 
For advantage of the nations.** 



Second Board. 
** First he built a lodge for fasting, 
Built a wigwam in the forest. 
By the shining BigSea. Water, 
In the blithe and pleasant Spring-time, 
In the Moon of Leaves [MayJ he boilt it; 
And with dreams and visions many. 
Seven whole days and nights he fasted.*' 



I found the first of these two selections the hardest of all that I 
taught through the year ; the thought seems too monotonous and 
sustained, and there are many difficult words. In the next we 
compared ** lodge" and ^^ wigwam," "dreams" and "visions,'* 
discovered the fitness of the name '* Moon of Leaves " for May, 
and spoke of how it felt to be very, verj- hungry for even one day. 

Then I told them that on the first three days, Hiawatha tried to 
find some suitable food for his people that could be kept through 
the long winter ; either among the animals and wild fruits and 
grain of the forest, or among the fish in the lake ; and then let 
them repeat Hiawatha's cry after each day's failure : — 

" * Master of Life,* he cried, despoDdin^, 
* Must our lives depend on these thing^s?* " 

Incidentally, I brought in the hardships endured by the Pilgrims 
in their first winter, before they were able to sow, and reap the 
harvest. The next selections were as follows : — 



'* On the fourth day of his fasting 
In his lodge he lay exhausted ; 
From his couch of leaves and branches 
Gazing, with half-open eyelids. 
Full of shadowy dreams and visions, 
On the dizzy, swimming landscape. 
On the gleaming of the water, 
On the splendor of the sunset. 

*' And he saw a youth approaching. 
Dressed in garments green and yellow, 
Coming thro' the purple twilight. 
Through the splendor of the sunset; 
Plumes of green bent o'er hiu forehead. 
And his hair was soft and golden. 



•• Said he, • O my Hiawatha! 
All your prayers are heard In heaven ; 
For you pray not like the others. 
Not for greater skill in hunting. 
Not for greater craft in fishing, 
Not for triumph in the battle 
Nor renown among the warriors, 
But for profit of the people. 
For advantage of the nations. 

** I From the Master of Life descending, 
I, the friend of man, Mondamin, 
Come to warn you and instruct you. 
How by struggle and by labor. 
You ahall gain what you have prayed for. 
Rise up from your bed of branches, 
Rise, O youth, and wrestle with me! ' " 



Then I told how Mondamin came the next day to wrestle with 



1889.] 



THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE . 



331 



Hiawatha again, and the next day also ; and that Mondamin told 
Hiawatha that on the fourth wrestling he would be victorious. 

*'[Mondamin] smiled and said, ' To-morrow " Not forgotten nor neglected 



Is the last day of your conflict, 
Is tbe last day of your fasting. 
You will conquer and o'ercome me; 
Make a bed for me to lie in. 
Where the rain may fall upon me, 
Where the sun may come and warm me ; 
strip these garments, green and yellow, 
Strip this nodding plumage f^om me, 
Lay me in the earth and make it 
Soft, and loose, and light above me. 

'* ' Let no band disturb my slumber. 
Let no weed nor worm molest me, 
Let no Kahgahgee, the raven. 
Come to haunt me and molest me ; 
Only come yourself to watch me. 
Till I wake, and start, and quicken. 
Till I leap into the sunshine.' 



Was the grave where lay Mondamin 
Sleeping in the rain and sunshine, 

• • • • • • 

Day by day d^d Hiawatha 

Go to wait and watch beside it ; 

Kept tbe dark mould soft above it 

• • • • • • 

Till at lengfth a small green feather 
From the mould shot slowly upward ; 
Then another, and another; 
And, before the Summer ended. 
Stood the maize in all its beauty, 
With its shining robes about it. 
And its long, soft, yellow tresses; 
And, in rapture, Hiawatha 
Cried aloud ' It is Mondamin, 
Yes, the friend of man, Mondamin! ' ** 



After finishing the Legend of the Indian Corn, I thought we 
might profitably turn to something else ; and then return to Hia- 
watha with renewed zest. So, as I wanted to bring in something 
of the life of Agassiz, I chose several stanzas of the poem " On 
the Fiftieth Birthday of Agassiz," which they copied in their 
books as follows : — 

Louis JOHX RUDOLl»H AGASSIZ, 

Born May 28, 1807. 

Died Doc. 14, 1873. 

Longfellow to Agassiz. 

(May 28, 1857.) 

** It was fifty years ago 

In the pleasant month of May, 
III the beautiful Pays de Vaud 
A child in his cradle lay.'* 

I only omitted the last but one of the stanzas, on account of 
" Ranz des Yaches " and " glaciers," but I should not do so if I 
gave it again. In illustration of Agassiz's work^ I told stories 
from his life, especially the Swiss part of it, and showed pictures 
of the glaciers in different physical geographies, etc. Then I was 
reading the " Seven Little Sisters " to them occasionally, on last 
half-hours in the afternoons, and just about this time, we came to 
the story of Jeanette, the little Swiss maiden. A little model of 
a Swiss chalet also added interest to the work. Referring to 
Agassiz's work in Natural History, 1 made specially prominent his 
painstaking, patient observation, in order to find out the truth, and 



EDUCATION. 



[JaDoarjTt 



his habit of watching live animals instead of killing them for 

specimens. Then, as a concluding motto from another poet, I 

added this: — 

^^ He prayeth best, who loveth best 
All things, both great and small ; 
For the dear God who loveth us 
He made and loveth all/' 

— Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 

To celebrate Agassiz's Birthday, we went to the Museum of 
Natural History at Central Park, on the nearest convenient Satur- 
day ; and even though some of the younger children did get the 
idea that Agassiz built tliat very museum, the visit was a perfect 
success. 

Now we returned to Hiawatha, and as I had lost some of my 
oldest scholars in spring, I took shorter selections, this time taking 
the Building of Hiawatha's Canoe. I had a)|small birch-bark 
canoe of Indian manufacture, which gave an added interest to the 
descriptions. 



«« « Give me of your bark, O Birch-Tree ! 
Of your yellow bark, O Birch-Tree! 
Growing by the rushing river, 
Tall and stately in the v&lley. 
I a light canoe will build me. 
Build a swia Cbeemaun for sailing, 
That shall float upon the river 
Like a yellow leaf in Autumn 
Like a yellow water-lily ! ' 

** * Lay aside your cloak, O Birch-Tree ! 
Lay aside your white-skin wrapper. 
For the Summer-time is coming. 
And the sun ip warm in heaven. 
And you need no white-skin wrapper! ' 

And the tree, with all its branches, 
Rustled in the breeze of morning. 
Saying, with a sigh of patience, 
* Take my cloak, O Hiawatha! ' 

•* • Give me of your boughs, O Cedar ! 
Of your strong and pliant branches, 
My canoe to make more steady, 
Make more strong and firm beneath me 1 ' 
Through the summit of the Cellar 
Went a sound, a cry of horror. 
Went a murmur of resistance; 
But it whispered, bending downward, 
• < Take my boughs, O Hiawatha! ' 

•* • Give me of your roots, O Tamarack! 
Of your fibrous roots, O LarcliTree! 



My canoe to bind together, 
So to bind the ends together, 
That the water may not enter, 
That the river may not wet me! * 
And the Larch, with all its llbrea. 
Shivered in the air of morning. 
Touched his forehead with its tassela. 
Said, with one long sigh of sorrow, 

* Take them all, O Hiawatha! ' 

« • Give me of your balm, O Fir-Tree! 
Of your balsam and your resin. 
So to close the seams together 
That the water may not enter. 
That the river may not wet me ! * 
And the Fir-Tree, tall and sombre. 
Sobbed through all its robes of darkness. 
Rattled like a shore with pebbles. 
Answered wailing, answered weeping, 

* Take my balm, O Hiawatha! ' 

•< Thus the Birch Canoe was builded 
In the valley, by the river. 
In the bosom of the forest; 
And the forest's life was in it. 
All its mystery and its magic. 
All the lightness of the biroh-tree, 
All the toughness of the cedar, 
All the ltirch'8 supple sinews. 
And it floated on the river 
Like a yellow leaf in Autumn, 
Like a yellow water-lily! " 



1889.] THE TEACHING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 333 

This last selection was the favorite one in this second Hiawatha 
series, together with the " Farewell " yet to be quoted. I spoke 
of the many voyages of the birch-bark canoe, and then said we 
would learn of Hiawatha's last voyage, thus leading up to my last 
series of selections. 

** On the shore stood Hiawatha, *' And the people, flrom the margin. 

Tamed, and waved his hand at parting; Watched him floating, — rising,— sinking, 

On the clear and luminous water Till the Birch Canoe seemed lifted 

Launched his birch canoe for sailing; High into that sea of splendor, 

From the pebbles of the margin Till it sank into the vapors 

Shoved it forth into the water; Like the new moon, $lowly, $lowly 

Whispered to it * Westward ! westward ! ' Sinking in the purple dittanee. 
And with speed it darted forward. 

" And they said, * Farewell forever 1 ' 

*' And the evening sun, descending, Sai4 * Farewell, O Hiawatha! ' 
Set the clouds on flre with redness. And the forests, dark and lonely, 
Burned the broad sky, like a prairie, Moved through all their depths of dark- 
Left upon the level water ness. 

One long track and trail of splendor. Sighed, * Farewell, O Hiawatha! ' 

Down whose stream, as down a river. And the waves upon the margin, 

Westward, westward, Hiawatha Rising, rippling on the pebbles. 

Sailed into thejtery iuneet, Sobbed, • Farewell, O Hiawatha ! * ** 
Sailed into the purple vapore. 
Sailed into the du$k of wtning. 

In these last selections the little word " prairie " took us " out 
West," and vivid word-pictures, and other pictures were given to 
strengthen the impression made. I spoke of other Indians who 
lived on the prairies until they were driven away ; and told of the 
terrible prairie-fires which are sometimes started by a stray spark. 
In tlie three lines, — 

^* Sailed into the fiery sunset, 
Sailed into the purple vapors, 
Sailed into the dusk of evening,"' 

I told them that they must make me «ee, by their voices, how 
gradually the " fiery sunset " " died into the dark " ; and without 
any further hint, the voices, which were strong and full for " the 
fiery sunset," died gradually away until the "dusk of evening" 
came in hardly more than just audible tones. So also with the 
moon "slowly, slowly sinking in the purple distance." I told 
them to think they saw the moon, and then try to make me see it 
too. I was astonished to see the appreciation showed by even the 
little ones, and for my older children I can truly say, that the 
most lasting part of their year's work has centred round our poetry 
lesson. 



834 EDUCATION. [Jaoiury, 



THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS.^ 

V. 

THE HISTORICAL BASIS FOU CERTAIN METHODS IN ALGEBRA 

TEACHING. 

BY GEORGE WILLIAM EVANS, ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL, BOSTON. 

THE subject of algebra embraces two rather widely differing 
lines of tlioiight. First, we have the notation and rules of 
operation, — the formal part of the system ; and secondlj^ we have 
the application of algebra to the analysis of certain problems ; these 
two divisions may l^e called resi>ectively abstract or foiiual alge- 
bra, and applied algebra. A strictly logical interpretation of the 
preceding division would seem to require the study of formal 
algebra as prei)amtory to drill in its application, as a workman 
learns the handling of his tools l)efore putting them to use, and as 
the student of language learns vocabulary and grammatical sche- 
matics before translation and compasition. Such was the view 
formerly held to in the construction of textbooks and in the prac- 
tice of teachera — with a few notable exceptions. 

With the extension of the methods of modern physical science 
^to the older and more elementary subjects of scliool work came the 
realizing sense that what is fundamental is not necessarily obvious, 
and that fresh knowledge is Ix^ttcr introduced by its simpler appli- 
cations than by the unifying alwtractions on which it pliilosophi- 
cally rests. The doctrine of Comte^ — that the order of learning 
in the individual should corres[)ond to the order of learning in the 
history of mankind — is the c()mi)rehensive statement of a scien- 
tific method in teaching which has (mly very recently found re- 
cognition in the older ])ranchcs of study ; its influence is only 
beginning to l)e felt in mathematics. 

Taking this prin(;ii)le as Spencer left it, without exfimining the 
assumptions on w^hich it is based, we must i)reinise that the stu- 
dent is exi)ected neither to follow the historical errors of science 

' Copyright, 18«8, by EnMtcrn Kducationul Bureau. 
> Spencer's Education, pugo 122. 



1889.] THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS, 336 

nor to limp with its halting steps where modern devices furnish 
wings. The theory of logarithms, dependent as it is upon a con- 
venient notation for powers, was delayed beyond its place in the 
progress of algebra; and even then its discovery, under the exist- 
ing disadvantages, was an achievement at wliich we wonder.^ The 
spirit of transcendentalism, which overruled even the most material 
science in a large part of its history, is of course not to be dupli- 
cated in teaching anything. But we must by all means, every- 
where and always, follow any tradition of fruitful stimulus that 
reaches our ears ; and such we shall find valuable to the theory of 
teaching algebra. 

In the first place it may be said that algebra is not to the begin- 
ner a generalization of arithmetic ; for he has not in his mental 
Btore a class of facts and principles coordinate with arithmetic, 
and a generalization from the knowledge of a single category is 
as airy a structure as a bridge upon a single buttress. Further, 
the principle of substitution, which centralizes and logically sup- 
ports the whole structure of algebra, is the keystone of the arch, 
the end and climax of our labors : it must not be presented first. 
That the history of algebra is an indication of its natural order of 
development is a theory which bears out these two postulates, and 
which, moreover, offers a scientific basis for the expedient now 
advocated by good teachers, of introducing the study by a number 
of concrete problems.^ 

As in the primitive forms of life the boundary between the 
animal and vegetable kingdonLs is often vague and unsettled, so 
in the ea^rlier pages of mathematics, some difficulty miglit be found 
in separating arithmetic and algebra. Our guiding principle shall 
be to call ah/ebra whatever in mathematical reasoning devotes 
attention to the form of that reasoning and has or seeks to have 
a set method of manipulating the successive steps. Thus the 
claim of Ahmes,^ the most ancient of algebraists, rests on the facts 
that he had a uniform symbol, translated *' heap," for the unknown 
quantity, that he expressed his given relations in the form of an 
equation, and that he had certain favorite methods of reducing 
his equations.'* The aim of the early algebraist seems always to 
have been to furnish rational explanations, tracing step by step 

^ Chr>'stal, Aljfebra, Pt. I., page 514, Historical Note. 

«See J. F. Casey, in EnrcATroN for November and December, 1888. 

* Ei9enlohr, Ein mathematisches handbuch der alten Egj'pter. 

* Id., pp. 22-20, 4S)-60, and 150. 



336 EDUCATIOy. [JaniuiiT, 

the coarse of thought in the solution of a numerical problem sug- 
gested by experience. Nesselmann^ divides the progress of the 
method into three stages. The first stage, called the rhetorical^ is 
the verbal explanation in the complete form of continuous prose ; 
the second, called the syncopated^ adopts abbreviations for fre- 
quently recurring operations and quantities ; the third stage, called 
symbolic algebra, uses a complete system of notation by signs 
having no apparent connection with the things they represent. 

Of the first stage are the Arabian, the Persian, and the early 
Italian algebraists; of the second is Diophantus, the father of 
European algebra, whose achievements are now open to the appre- 
ciation of non-antiquarian students.^ To this stage also belong 
nearly all European writings on algebra up to the date 1660. As 
an example of this we shall quote the following problem from 
Diophantus : ^ ^^ To find a number, such that if it is added to 20 
and subtracted from 100, the first result shall be to the second, as 
4 is to 1." 

F6r the unknown quantity he uses a sign, resembling sigma, 
which may be a contraction of a/o, the first two letters of the 
Greek word for number.* In our translation we shall represent 
this by N. Known numbers are called units (/ioi/aSe?, abbreviated 
/i°). Addition is indicated by juxtaposition ; subtractives are 
collected at the end of an exjjression and preceded by the 
sign ^, a contraction of the root of XetS/ri?, deficiency;* the 
sign for equality is the initial of fo-o9. The solution is as fol- 
lows : — 

" Take what is to be added and subtracted from each number as 
one N. If it is added to 20 we get 1 N 20 units. If, on the other 
hand, it is taken from 100, we get 100 units with the lack of 
(Xetyjtei^ one number ; and it is necessary that the greater be four 
times the smaller. Now four times the smaller gives 400 units 
with the lack of four numbers ; this is equal to one number 20 units. 
Let the deficiency be added to botli quantities (^KOivi) 7rpoa/c€ia0oi> 
ff Xci-^/rt?) and let equals be taken from equals, and the remaining 
five numbers will be equal to 380 units ; and we get the number of 
76 units." 

1 Q. H. F. Nesselmann : Versuch einer kritischen Gescbichte der Algebra. ler Thell : 
Die Algebra der Griechen. 

XT. L. Heath: Diophantus of Alexandria; a study in the history of Greek algebra. 
Cambridge [Eng.l. 18M. 

' Arithmetics, Book 1., Prob. 10. The translation is free. 

* Heath's Diopuantos, pp. 02 tt. 

•Id., p. 72. 



1889. J THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS. 337 

Appended to this solution is a sort of table or schedule of the 
steps of the process, which corresponds very closely to the system 
of equations by which we would solve the problem today. The 
schedule, with the equivalent system of equations, is as follows : ^ 



S a 




X 


C a ft* M 


u^Q m i'^ a 


x + 20 100— a? 


fa fP » I 


fA\ m g^^ 3 


aj + 20 = 400— 4» 


f « fl^ K I 


f/*V 


6a; + 20 = 400 


S-B I 


fi°T7t 


5ic — 380 


sTcr I 


fi%g 


X— 76 



Rodet quotes two other such schedules, I., 32,* and II., 8 of 
Diophantus's Arithmetics, each of which is accompanied by run- 
ning comments that indicate the nature of the transformation 
from one equation to the next. 

So single was the purpose of algebra in its earlier development 
in Europe that it immediately obtained and long bore the name of 
the '^ Cossick " art, from the Italian word for thing, which was 
used to represent the unknown quantity. It was considered as an 
adjunct of arithmetic : in fact, one of the landmarks in English 
algebra is Robert Recorde's Arithmetick ; or the Qrounde of Artes. 
The very name of the science is derived from the stereotyped 
manner of handling equations containing negative terms: the 
rule of Diophantus^ is to add enough to each side of the equation 
to cancel the negative terms (irpoaOelvai tA T^Cirovra etBrj iv 
afi(f>oT€poi^ Tok fidpeaLv)^ and then take equals from equals until 
one term is left on each side. To these two processes the Arabi- 
ans gave the names aljabr and almukabala^ the first of which stares 
the beginner in the face from the title-page of his textbook. 

The foregoing considerations lead us to postpone the study of 
algebraic form till the genesis of that form has been plainly and 
fully shown ; to define algebra in accordance with its origin and 
early history, to propose to the student a reasonable need and use 
for it, to develop it fully and consistently from that point of view 
from which we first approach it. We shall accordingly exhibit it 
as a supplement of arithmetic ; not a shorter nor an easier method 
of " doing examples," but a convenient method of arranging and 
abbreviating the reasoning that must accompany the arithmetical 

1 Leon Rodet: L' Alg^bre d' Al' Kharizmi, et les methodes indlenne et grecqne. Jaum* 
AHatique, Janvier, 1878. 
* Quoted also in Heath's Diophantos, p. 76. 
> Arithmetics, Bk. I., Def. Jl. 



a38 ED